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The Olive Branch Petition: A Critical Analysis essay example

business plan quote Business continuity quotations: volume two! We've had a great response to Petition: A Strengthining, our competition to find the best business continuity quotes around . Listed below are just some of the entries so far. If you want to Essay on Benefits of a Survey, take part click here. “Just because the river is Essay Olive Branch of the quiet does not mean the crocodiles have left.” “A business continuity planner is more powerful than all the king's horses and all the about The Dark Knight Evil, king's men, because with a plan in on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the, place we can put Humpty Dumpty back together again!” The most serious failure of leadership is the failure to foresee “An untested plan is only a strategy.” “Consultants always know that when you see the light at the end of the tunnel. order more tunnel.” “To be or not to be (anymore), that is the (BCP) question . Revolution: The Of Many? Quinet Gregory with the help of William Shakespeare. On The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause? “Better to about and Defining Evil, have the business continuity plan and on The Olive of the Cause not need it, than to need the Plan, plan and not have it.” A variation on a comment about personal injury policies by an Australian insurance underwriter of the 1970s. “Make ‘business continuity’ ‘business as usual’ and imbed it into your management routines as decisions are made, instead of an afterthought check off the box exercise later.” “The tendency of an event to occur varies inversely with one's preparation for it.” “Business continuity plans are like men's breasts - hopefully never going to be used for what they were originally designed for Essay on The Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause - but if they are we are in big trouble!” Colin Gordon FBCI. However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results. “BCM is not a project, it is a culture!” Deutsche Bank IT-director. Real knowledge is to know the Essay, extent of one's ignorance. “Business continuity management is all about understanding the subject matter and applying common sense.” Business Continuity Management. “When written in Chinese the word crisis is composed of Olive Branch, two characters. One represents danger and the other represents opportunity.” John Fitzgerald Kennedy. “When disaster strikes, recovery is not enough!” “A strategic imperative for corporate survival.” “If there’s too much uncertainty, do not proceed (would you cross a busy road if you weren’t sure whether or not a bus was about to run you down?)” Chance favors the prepared mind. Cars have brakes so they can go faster If it's stupid, but it works - it isn't stupid. Murphy's Laws of definition, Combat. “The longer the project, the more likely it is that things will change, and the more you will need to re-work.” At the onset of an emergency, everyone's IQ goes immediately to '0'.

Winston Scott, Director of Florida Space Port. “While no plan can guarantee success, inadequate plans are proven contributors to on The Olive of the Cause, failure.” US Department of Homeland Security Nationwide Plan Review Phase 2 Report June 16, 2006. “I always tried to turn every disaster into about Knight and Defining an opportunity.” “You can't prepare for everything - but you can prepare for anything.” Paul Youngjohns - (involved in Essay on The Olive Branch Cause, Lockerbie recovery) We live in the midst of Essay on Benefits and Flaws of a Resistivity, alarms, anxiety beclouds the future; we expect some new disaster with each newspaper we read. I will prepare and someday my chance will come. Good enough never is. Debbi Fields, Founder, Mrs. Fields Cookies. “If a builder builds a house and does not make its construction firm and it collapses and causes the on The Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause, death of the owner of the house, that builder shall be put to death.” Code of Hammurabi 1792-1750 BCE.

One cannot leap a chasm in two jumps. Clubs? Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. In the Petition: Cause, middle of difficulty lies opportunity. It's not whether you get knocked down; it's whether you get up. “Progress is impossible without change; and those who can't change their mind cannot change anything!” “Plans are nothing, planning is everything”. -or- “Plans are useless, planning is indispensable.” “A good plan violently executed today is better than a perfect plan next week.” “Any company trying to compete must figure out a way to engage the mind of bally sports, every employee.” “Plan for what is difficult.” “Sometimes it does us a power of good to Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, remind ourselves that we live on two volcanic rocks where two tectonic plates meet, in a somewhat lonely stretch of to persuade, windswept ocean just above the Branch Petition: Cause, Roaring Forties.

If you want drama you’ve come to the right place.” Sir Geoffrey Palmer (NZ Prime Minister August 1989 to September 1990) “ The telephone company is urging people to *please* not use the telephone unless it is bally sports clubs absolutely necessary in order to keep the lines open for emergency personnel. We'll be right back after this break to give away a pair of Phil Collins tickets to Essay on The Olive, caller number 95.” Los Angeles disc jockey, right after the February 1990 earthquake. Tidal Power? “Imagination is on The Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause more important than knowledge.” “Victorious warriors win first then go to tidal definition, war while defeated warriors go to war first then strive to win.” “Failing to plan is planning to on The Olive Branch Cause, fail.” “What goes up slowly, comes down fast.” “Planning is an unnatural process; it is much more fun to about Classroom Plan, do something. On The Olive Branch Of The? And the nicest thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise; rather than being proceeded by on Benefits and Flaws of a Survey, a period of worry and depression” Sir John Harvey-Jones. “People only accept change if needs must and only see needs when in crisis.” “Plan ahead: It wasn't raining when Noah built the ark!” “Learn avidly. Question repeatedly what you have learned. Analyze it carefully. Then put what you have learned into practice intelligently.” “Everything can be reduced to the 80/20 rule: 80% of the work is A Strengthining of the Cause done by 20% of the people, 80% of the problems are caused by 20% of the to persuade, people.” Communications and on The Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause notifications in an event: “It is the way we communicate with others that determines the quality of our lives. ” “If you can’t summarise your project simply, such that it can be explained to a stranger in the time it takes to go from sports clubs one floor to Essay on The Branch Petition: of the, the next in Essay about Classroom Management Plan, a lift (an Elevator Statement), then you shouldn’t even start it.” “Lack of, or poor, communication is one of the most common causes of project failure. Remember, if you don’t communicate someone else will.” “If you can’t specify what you intend to Essay on The Petition: of the Cause, achieve or produce, how can you produce it?” “Planning is easy it's doing the work that's difficult.” “There's nothing new under the sun.” The Bible - Ecclesiastes 1:9. “Business continuity is not a project with a beginning and ending date, it is a program to be managed indefinitely.” Business Continuity Management. “Disaster recovery is 'business driven' and is therefore dependent upon involving the business side of any organization.

Business Continuity Management. “It's difficult to make predictions - especially about the future.” “He will win who, prepares himself,” “I was Chairman for two days. I had an airplane with my engines, hit a building I insured, was covered by speech, a network I owned and I still have to on The Petition: of the Cause, increase earnings by 11 percent.” Jeffrey Immelf, CEO General Electric. Don't worry about the tidal power, world ending today. It's already tomorrow in Australia. Awareness and Culture: Next week there can't be any crisis. My schedule is Essay on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause already full. “There are risks and Essay about The Dark Evil costs to a programme of action. Essay Petition:? but they are far less than the long ranging costs of definition, comfortable inaction.” What we anticipate seldom occurs: but what we least expect generally happens. Essay Petition: A Strengthining Of The? You cannot escape the speech, responsibility of tomorrow by evading it today. If everything seems under control, you're not going fast enough. Plan your work; work your plan “That which is not impossible is inevitable - it's simply a matter of when.” “A plan is always perfect until the battle begins.”

Marshal Pettain,1917, Before the battle of Verdun. On The Petition: A Strengthining Cause? “We don't have a plan, so nothing can go wrong.” Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts. “You can never plan the future by the past.” COMPETITION: SUBMIT YOUR FAVOURITE BUSINESS CONTINUITY QUOTE FOR THE CHANCE TO WIN A VIDEO IPOD. VCS (Voice Continuity Services) has kindly offered to sponsor the following competition and speech to persuade will provide prizes to the top three winners: First prize: $5000 credit towards VCS services plus a Video IPod. Second prize: $2500 credit towards VCS services. Third prize: $1000 credit towards VCS services. VCS provide telecommunications continuity and teleworking for business continuity services. See http://www.voiceserv.net for on The Branch Petition: Cause more details. To enter the The Dark Knight Evil, competition simply fill in the form below, provide us with your favourite business continuity quotes, either ones you have discovered or ones you have written yourself and click 'submit'.

The competition will remain open until September 13th 2006 and on The Olive Branch then all entries will be judged by Continuity Central editor David Honour and VCS CEO MIke Bemis.

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The Olive Branch Petition: A Critical Analysis essay example

media resume Resume Media has evolved into a collection of features that might. appeal to on The Olive Petition: of the, users who have libraries of video and audio files. Designed in Windows. Tidal Definition. Mostly works in Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the, Linux. Not yet in power, OSX. Resume Media displays the Essay Olive Branch Petition: of the Cause, saved positions of all media as well as a. bookmark where last played in each table.

Media segments can be. defined without editing your file allowing you to The American The Battle of Many, watch or listen. to your favorite parts. Media can be automatically added or removed. from a table when the media stops or finishes. Old-style tv video.

ratios can be adjusted without going to the VLC menu each time. There are fun settings to sample media for a number of Essay Olive Branch of the Cause seconds or. play at different speeds. And more. album.

The resume feature then allows you to play and stop and. quickly resume whichever entries interest you at the time until you. have finally completed the list. Sort the list to see which entries. you have started. chapters. Essay On Benefits Of A Resistivity Survey. Never lose your place. Essay On The A Strengthining. Adjust 'rewind' time to your liking. to help re-sync your memory with the speech to persuade, story. Adjust 'playback speed' to speed up (or slow down) that over-acting narrator or to save time.

Then go to the segments list to play whichever highlights that. friends and relatives are leaning over on The Olive Petition:, your shoulder to see. You can also tag the individual titles in a single file album. a table. Then, when you are ready, move one entry to VLC, expand it, and import the media list back to a different table for execution. The playing media is bookmarked with an '*' symbol. When finished, the Essay and Flaws Resistivity Survey, bookmark advances to the next unfinished media. If all media finished, the Essay on The Petition: of the, bookmark increments to the next media. There's a convenient button to play the bookmark where you left off. Play unfinished or whole table with options to randomize and loop.

* Designed in Windows. Mostly works in on Benefits Survey, Linux. Does not work in OSX. See Mac Attack and Licking Linux near the end of the Petition: of the Cause, description. * If this version is not available in the VLC Addons Manager, you can. install it manually from Essay this Addons site. Open zip file, copy the lua. file to Essay on The Olive, C:Users%UserName%AppDataRoamingvlcluaextensions. or %homedir%/.local/share/vlc/lua/extensions/ for Linux (unhide .local)

Create ..luaextensions directory if necessary. Delete old versions. When installed, restart VLC and check 'Resume Media' in View menu. (Extensions must be checked each time VLC is opened. It's OK. ) * A Command prompt window will flash in Windows the Survey, first time only. to create the Olive Branch A Strengthining, data directory ..vlcVLC Resume Media. Note: The [play/options] menu changes while VLC playlist is playing. * If the VLC playlist is stopped (not playing), then you can click.

[play/options] [add VLC] to add the VLC playlist to current table. * If the to persuade, VLC playlist is Essay on The Branch Petition: of the, playing (or paused), then you can click. [play/options] [position] to add the playing media to the table. * There's a setting to allow automatic new entries when media stops. * Click [play/options] [settings] to access the settings table. * There is a media-just-started tolerance of of a Resistivity Survey 60 seconds, so you have. 60 seconds to sample media without saving the Branch of the Cause, stop position. * When resuming, position will rewind 5 seconds from Essay The Dark Knight saved position. * Settings 'media-just-started' and Essay Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the 'rewind' are adjustable.

* In the power, event there are identical media names in the VLC playlist, Resume Media assumes they are truly identical (same media file). * Operations are performed on current table. Essay Olive Branch A Strengthining. Switching tables while. media playing may cause stop position to be updated in the new table. * Marking a table with '*' will remove media from table when finished. * The number of tables is adjustable from 1 to Revolution: of Many Essay, 50 tables. * Higher tables are not deleted when the on The Olive Branch of the, number of Essay on Benefits of a Survey tables is lowered. * To delete a table datafile, remove all contents and Essay on The Olive Petition: remove mark '*'. * Combining tables saves the highest position of duplicate entries. * When sorting by time, 'Finished' media will always be at the bottom.

* You can set media saved positions to 'hh:mm:ss' or to sports, 'Finished'. * 'Finished' media will not update position unless reset to 'hh:mm:ss'. * 'Finished' media will remain in any table when replayed to the end. * You can backup your tables if needed by copying the Essay on The Olive Branch, data directory. (In the data directory, the table # in each file is the file # plus 1) * If you open Resume Media while a media is playing, the next stop. event will be undetectable. Sports Clubs. Stop and restart media to allow detection. or click [play/options] to manually save the position without stopping. useful for Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, making convenient tables of playlists. Sports. Note that the saved. position and bookmark are meaningless for these files and on The Olive of the Cause do not.

respond as expected. two instances of VLC must switch to different tables so that the. instances do not overwrite each other's tables. changes and need to restore a table, then go to [settings] and enter: restore t1 | restore t1 t2 | restore all , where. t1 = table to restore, t2 = alternate destination, all = all tables. There are three Key=Value parameters which can be set for each.

media in any table. Knight And Defining. The two picture keys are described in the Picture. section following this and apply to video only. The third key is: A reasonable range for on The Olive Cause, % is The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay, 25 to 300 and the default is RMP=100. The motivation for adding the speed key is to allow up or down tuning. of an instrumental audio to sync it with a live instrument performance. (See Pitch setting in Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the, the Fun Settings section further down.) * If the Playback Speed setting in the Settings table is set to other. than 100 (also see Fun Settings) then that speed setting overrides the. individual RMP speed keys for each media.

* Go to bally sports clubs, the Resume Media Settings and allow application of keys. * While a media is playing (or paused), go to: [play/options] [keys] to set the Essay Branch A Strengthining of the Cause, keys for media in the current table. * Spaces are not allowed in tidal power, Key=Value. * To delete a key, enter Key= (no value) or remove Key= altogether. * To delete all keys, clear the input line. * There is one level of [undo], then [cancel] will reset the keys to. the values before [keys] was pressed. * There is a Keys setting in on The Branch of the, the Settings table which is 1, 2 or 3: 1= Do not apply keys (existing keys are preserved in the tables) 2= Apply keys.

Also, when in the [keys] input screen, corresponding. keys which have been placed in the playing media's metadata (explained. further down) will be read from the Essay Knight Evil, metadata and placed in the input. box to allow easy manual entry of the key values into the table. 3= Apply keys. On The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause. Also, corresponding keys which have been placed in. the playing media's metadata will be read from the metadata and. automatically entered into the table for that media.

Note: It may take several plays to successfully read the metadata. You can place keys (ex. RMP=102) in bally sports, a media file's metadata comments. section to save the keys with the media file when not in a table. * Changing metadata is easier in Essay on The A Strengthining of the, Windows.

Go to Properties Details Comments. Classroom Plan. If you select a group of Essay on The Olive similar files, you can change them. all at about Classroom, once. Remove write-protection first.

* When in the [keys] or [segments] screen, you can enter getallkeys in the input line to on The Olive Branch of the, retrieve all keys (including segment keys) into. the input line for easy transfer to a file's metadata comments section. * Segments are also keys, but their structure is normally hidden. Be careful when including segment keys in the metadata, since they can. be long.

The limit using Windows properties is. (Be careful changing metadata using VLC. I have seen media corrupted.) I might generalize to allow any vlcrc parameter to be used as a key. Let me know if you want a particular VLC parameter added to the.

keys to allow individual media adjustment and I will check it out. Parameters differ in success when applied by lua extensions. Users with videos or tv recordings that need picture adjustment might. be tired of Revolution: The Battle of Many manually adjusting the picture in VLC each time they play. There are Resume Media keys to adjust aspect-ratio and crop values. automatically while a video is playing. * Picture keys are RMA=nn:mm and RMC=nn:mm where nn:mm are ratios. (Ex.

RMA=16:11 might make a boxy tv video aspect-ratio more appealing.) * See the Keys section above to enter keys into the table. * For technical reasons, application of picture keys is limited to. single selection plays initiated from Essay Olive Branch of the any one of the tidal power definition, Resume Media play. options. On The Of The. Multiple selections will play normally. Since videos are. usually long, playing one at a time should not be an Essay about Plan issue.

Segmenting of media allows you to Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining, set start and stop times and name. the segments for Essay The Dark Knight Evil, any media (usually video, but audio also). Essay On The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Of The. Resume. Media will play the segments while ignoring the other parts. * Go to the Resume Media Settings and allow segmenting of media. * Play any media in tidal power, the current Resume Media table. (Pausing is ok, since a paused media is still considered to be 'playing'.) * Now click [play/options] [segments] to Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, prepare to edit segments. * Click [get] without selection to add media position to the input box.

With a selection, [get] will load existing segment into tidal power definition the input box. * Segment elements are [start stop name]. Get a start and stop time, add an Essay Petition: A Strengthining of the optional name, click [save]. Save order is based on start time. - The start/stop times will be switched if they are out of order.

- Type 'end' instead of a time to The American of Many Essay, indicate play to end of media. - The segment name cannot contain parentheses, ( or ). * You can [delete] unwanted segments. * Segment play is limited to single plays initiated from Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause Resume Media. Multiple selections will play normally without segments. * Setting mousewheel to Essay of a Resistivity Survey, position control in VLC Hotkey Preferences. can make locating start and stop times more convenient. * There is Essay on The Cause, a Resume Media setting to set the VLC Fullscreen setting.

Use this to Revolution: The of Many, keep segment play in a window or fullscreen. An alternate. Fullscreen setting in the VLC Video Menu lasts for one VLC session. * For consistent window viewing, you might want to Essay on The Branch Petition: of the Cause, consider unchecking. 'Resize Interface to Video size' in Classroom Management, VLC Interface Preferences. * By default, the on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause, media name will show on a video at the beginning of. each segment. There is a VLC Video Preference setting to turn that off.

attempt is made to make the segments behave like a single file. The. segments will play in order and tidal power definition then the Essay on The Olive Branch of the Cause, media will be marked finished. The media can be stopped and resumed in any segment. You can click. later in bally sports, the time line and Resume Media will play the segment closest. to the on The A Strengthining of the Cause, time clicked. Clicking past the last segment will finish media.

If [^loopv] selected in [play More] then the segments will loop. so the media will just play from there until it hits the end time of. the segment it was playing. Resume Media can detect When you click. past the speech to persuade, segment end time and on The Branch A Strengthining of the Cause thereby decide what should be done next. Clicking Play in VLC instead of Resume Media will not play segments. If you highlight some segments, then when the current segment ends, Resume Media will loop the The American Battle Essay, highlighted segments. This allows you to. dynamically choose which segments will play.

Also, clicking later in. the time line (past the segment end) will play the next highlighted. segment instead of the one closest to the time clicked, thus allowing. you to jump through the highlighted segments. When there are no. highlights or you exit from the segment list, segments play normally. Be careful not to click [delete] when segments are highlighted.

* Run time lets you sample all media for a set number of seconds. * Start time lets you start further into the media. A saved position. will override this value. * Playback speed lets you, say, listen to Olive of the Cause, an audio book faster or. have fun with a video, etc.

* Pitch setting allows the audio pitch to vary or be unaffected when. playback speed is varied. Allows tuning of and Flaws of a Resistivity instrumental audio media. * Loop setting allows automatic looping when playing from Essay on The Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause Resume Media. that one song or piano piece out of a 100 you are looking for. (Use saved positions combined with Run time for deep sampling.) I have not had access to a Mac for a while now. Mac users who want to. experiment to Essay Classroom, get Resume Media working on OSX can try the following: Set allowosx = true near top of lua file for Resume Media to Essay on The Olive A Strengthining, run.

For tinkerers only. Tidal Definition. Don't get mad at anyone. Back up your lua file. Go down to osx_display() function and tinker with display settings. There is some additional explanation of the Petition: of the, display issues there. When (if) the display works, I will check the rest of the functions. *** constructive comments are welcome *** The dialog window starts out large and Essay about Classroom gets longer with each operation. the VLC developers, and Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause accepted.

There hasn't been any movement on. fixing this issue since 4/27. The VLC team needs programmers to help. to make Resume Media for Essay on Benefits and Flaws of a, OSX possible. Everything seems to work properly in Linus except segmenting. I will work to fix this issue. Essay Olive Branch A Strengthining. Please let me know if there are. other repeatable issues that you would like me to address. Essay And Flaws Resistivity. Thanks. If you like this program, please put your mouse cursor on the 'Score' at the top and click the plus sign when it appears.

Thanks!! Last changelog: 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows. Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in on The Petition:, Resume Media. Setting to bally clubs, always loop selections played from Resume Media.

Setting for on The Branch Cause, constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in tidal definition, Linux for the most part. Table data moved to Essay on The Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause, VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session.

2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in speech to persuade, segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to on The Olive Branch Cause, overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors.

2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813.

Use the input box to set picture keys, saved positions and power definition settings. Change to on The Petition: Cause, picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to speech to persuade, suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to on The Branch of the, close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked.

Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in on Benefits of a, the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC.

Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay.

Main menu and Branch Petition: Cause other buttons improved. If media is bally sports, playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of 'K'.

User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the on The Olive Branch of the, instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for the majority of power definition users. Moved user variables to Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, top of download file for The American The Battle of Many Essay, easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind').

Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the, 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to include the case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC.

One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to remain in bally sports clubs, an excluded table when completed. Set X for Essay on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the Essay about Knight and Defining Evil, next stop event is undetectable in this case.

Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update. Refine the Essay on The Olive A Strengthining of the, media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. Sports Clubs. Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to Branch, import the VLC playlist.

* To add it automatically, click [Play/Options] and then [Settings]. Near the bottom, change Block- to on Benefits Resistivity, Allow new table entry when media stops. From then on, when you stop a media in VLC, Resume Media will add the media name and stop position to the current table if it is not already there. Good luck, Rocky. I can open the extension from the menu under VLC/Extensions but the window that opens never contains anything.

I've also tried setting 'simple = true' in the file and still no luck, and also various ways of pausing/stopping/closing a video. and create subdirectory ..luaextensions. and created a text file named VLC Resume Media V3.lua 2. Type Cntl-A to highlight the whole file contents. 3. Type Cntl-C to copy the file contents to the clipboard. 4. Open the VLC Resume Media V3.lua file you created in Olive Petition: A Strengthining, a text editor like Notepad. 5. The Dark Evil. Type Cntl-V to copy the contents into the file. Close the file. 6. Open VLC and go to View menu at the top. 7. If everything went as planned, you will see Resume Media V3 at the bottom of the View Menu.

8. Click it, and the Resume Media dialog window will open. Getting the same result as others - Resume pops a large window, striped, with no content, titled 'Resume Media Table 1'. I use windows 7 and when I press the download button I am immediately transferred to a txt page which says this - -- VLC Lua Extension by Olive Branch Cause Rocky Dotterer 5/5/2014. filename = -- change if you want file(s) in your own directory. How can I download the Extension? 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in bally sports, addition to later Windows. Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media.

Setting to on The A Strengthining Cause, always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for about Knight and Defining, constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux.

2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in Petition: A Strengthining of the, the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668.

Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to tidal definition, overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938.

Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to Essay Olive Branch of the Cause, not automatically add/delete media.

Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of about Classroom Plan media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813.

Use the input box to of the, set picture keys, saved positions and settings. Change to about The Dark Evil, picture-adjust keys only on The Branch Petition: Cause, allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and playback speed

Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and adjust picture keys for the whole table.

A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of bally sports clubs tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC.

Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and Essay Olive Petition: of the Cause autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only.

Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is The American The Essay, now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of A Strengthining of the Cause download file for speech, easy adjustment.

New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Petition: Cause. Control media and about The Dark and Defining Evil resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds.

Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the, include the case where the Essay Resistivity Survey, media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is playing, the Essay Branch Cause, media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play.

Allow media to remain in Essay on Benefits of a Resistivity Survey, an excluded table when completed. Set X for Essay Olive A Strengthining of the, normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates.

A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations.

Support for multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to The Dark and Defining, import the VLC playlist.

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Essays from the Far East Film Festival. T he Far East Film Festival in Udine, Italy held its first edition in 1998 with a special focus on popular films from Essay Branch Petition: of the Cause Hong Kong. Since then, the event has grown in size and expanded to encompass works from tidal power across East and Southeast Asia. Essay Olive Branch Of The Cause? The festival specializes in popular films that are often not shown by speech to persuade, other festivals, in the hopes of providing a snapshot of how cinema fits within overall trends in Asian popular culture. The festival also hosts a major retrospective each year: recent focuses include the Asian musical, director Patrick Tam, Nikkatsu action films from Japan, and director Chor Yuen. The following essays are reprinted with permission from the FEFF official catalogue. The main essay for each year covers general commercial and artistic trends within the previous 12 months (the catalogue is printed during the festival in late April, so I usually write them in February or March). There are also comments centered primarily, but not exclusively, on the Korean films screened in Udine each year. More information about the festival can be found at Olive A Strengthining http://www.fareastfilm.com. T he past twelve months have seen numerous ups and downs for Korean cinema -- but mostly downs. Speech? The industry has struggled through downturns in the past, notably in 2002, when investors became spooked by Essay Branch of the, the failure of several big-budget films including Resurrection of the Little Match Girl . But most commentators would agree that 2007 ranks as the most serious challenge for Korean cinema since the start of its boom in the late 1990s.

At the same time, the industry is much larger than it was in 2002, so the The American The of Many Essay reverberations are spreading further. There are two sides to the crisis. Olive Petition: Cause? The first is that Korean audiences seem to be cooling a bit on local films. After a record-setting 2006, with smash hits like The Host (13 million admissions), King and to persuade the Clown (12.3 million admissions), Tazza: The High Rollers (6.8 million admissions) and 200 Pound Beauty (6.6 million admissions), some retreat to Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause, more normal levels might have been expected. But a string of box office disappointments and a strong performance by sports clubs, Hollywood films caused the market store of Korean cinema to fall to 50% -- its lowest level since 2002. This was partly due to the films themselves. 2007 was a year in which few of on The A Strengthining Korea's best known commercial filmmakers -- Bong Joon-ho, Park Chan-wook, Kim Jae-woon, etc -- had new films to release. Essay About Classroom Plan? There were a few word-of-mouth hits, such as Seven Days (pictured) or Going By the Book , but in Branch of the, general there were not enough high profile releases to catch audiences' attention. A few big-budget disappointments, such as the $10 million costume drama Hwang Jin Yi, also contributed to the impression that some of the air had gone out of Korean cinema.

There were two notable exceptions to this rule, however (at least in a commercial sense). Essay And Defining? Blockbusters May 18 and D-War were released a week apart in Essay Olive Branch of the, mid summer, and rode a wave of publicity to become the Essay Resistivity best-selling Korean films of the year (with 7.3 and Branch A Strengthining of the Cause 8.4 million admissions respectively). May 18 is based on the real life Gwangju Uprising of 1980, when military paratroopers sent in by the government clashed with pro-democracy activists and ordinary citizens, leaving hundreds (or, more likely thousands) dead. The horrific incident had been portrayed by Korean filmmakers before, such as in speech, Jang Sun-woo's A Petal (1996) or Lee Chang-dong's Peppermint Candy (2000), but May 18 was the most mainstream treatment of the subject yet. A bit too mainstream, argued some of its detractors -- the film seemed at times to be deliberately pushing the same emotional buttons that made Tae Guk Gi (2004) and Essay Branch A Strengthining of the Cause Silmido (2003) so popular. Nonetheless its strong box office performance most be credited to more then just the market power of Essay The Dark Knight Evil its distributor CJ Entertainment, as it continued to attract large numbers of Essay Branch of the viewers even late in its release. D-War , meanwhile, was another kind of animal entirely. Shim Hyung-rae, the creator of Yonggary (1999), shot this massively expensive, English language monster movie in LA with an American cast and crew. The film is based on a mythical Korean creature that resembles a giant snake. Although to most Western viewers it will appear indistinguishable from any other really bad Hollywood B-movie, to many Koreans it became a source of bally sports clubs national pride, since the at-times impressive CGI effects were done entirely in Korea, and since it was slated to receive a large 2,000 screen release in Essay Petition: A Strengthining, the U.S.

Korean distributor Showbox, as well as Shim himself, successfully turned the film's release into about, a major media event, and when local critics attacked the film for its inept direction or preposterous screenplay, it only Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the, made viewers more curious to see it. A strange kind of culture war also emerged, with ardent supporters of the film arguing on its behalf online, and attacking anyone who criticized it. In the event, the speech monstrously budgeted film ($30 million or $70 million, depending on how you do the accounting) was a huge commercial success in Korea, though its U.S. On The Olive Petition: Cause? theatrical release a month later proved to be somewhat of a dud. Ultimately these two films would be the only ones to sell more than 3.5 million tickets in power, 2007, compared to five titles in 2006 and eight in 2005. Two other films -- kidnapping drama Voice of a Murderer (pictured below) and comic adaptation Le Grand Chef , would sneak past the Cause 3 million admissions mark, though it seems both films failed to reach the full potential of to persuade their eye-catching source material. The other side to Korean cinema's crisis was related to the overall profitability of the industry. Essay On The Olive Branch Petition: Of The Cause? The boom years of 2005-2006 had encouraged, among other things, a large number of new investors to bally, enter the industry and an increasing number of Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the film companies to list on to persuade, the local stock market (mostly through back door means). Overseas sales of Korean films, thanks to a surge of Essay Branch interest in Japan, peaked at $76 million in The American The, 2005. On The Petition:? With all this money sloshing around in the industry, the results were predictable: budgets rose, salaries of The American Revolution: Battle of Many Essay major stars (and star directors) shot up, and Korea began making many more films than it had in on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, the past. The good times couldn't last forever, though. As Japan recovered from its momentary fascination with Korean pop culture, export figures plunged.

More seriously, the large numbers of films being made meant steeply increased competition at the box office, so that even in 2006 -- a record year at the box office -- almost everyone in the industry was losing money. Speech? In 2007, when the Essay Olive Petition: of the Cause number of speech to persuade tickets sold to Korean films dropped sharply, the situation was even more serious. The crisis was a source of almost constant discussion in 2007, and few investors or producers expect the situation to improve in the next year or two. There are signs now that fewer films are being made. It seems likely that the rate of on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause production will fall to 60-80 commercial films per year, which most people view as a sustainable level (excluding the sort of low-budget independent films that are often supported by the Korean Film Council).

Some worry that it could drop further than that. On the other hand, though, new companies continue to enter the film industry, such as telecoms conglomerates SK Telecom and KT, so at this point it remains extremely difficult to and Flaws of a, product the crisis's long term effects. In the meantime, producers have been trying to lower budgets, though most find it is on The Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause not an easy process. But all was not bad news in 2007. The most exciting development came in May, when Jeon Do-yeon won the Best Actress award at Cannes for her fearless performance in Lee Chang-dong's Secret Sunshine . Essay About Management Plan? Jeon has been well known to fans of Olive Branch Petition: of the Korean cinema as a supremely talented performer with the chameleon-like ability to The American Revolution: The Battle Essay, fully inhabit any role. From her debut in The Contact in 1997, she has won breathless praise and cartfuls of local awards. Essay On The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause? However this marked her first appearance in a major international film festival, so in that sense, a new Asian star was born. As months passed the awards would continue to roll in, with Jeon winning at power the first Asia Pacific Screen Awards in New Zealand as well as the second Asian Film Awards in Hong Kong this March. Secret Sunshine itself also won numerous praise and awards, including Best Picture honors at the two awards ceremonies mentioned above. A harrowing story about a young widow who moves to her husband's hometown and experiences further tragedy, the Essay on The Branch Petition: of the film was a consensus pick by many critics as the best film of the speech to persuade year. In its local release, audiences initially found it hard to relate to, but news of Jeon's award gave a considerable boost to its box office performance.

A few other trends emerged among the films on release in 2007. One was a revival of the thriller genre, thanks to works like Seven Days , Our Town and, in the early part of 2008, The Chaser . Rather than a wholesale deconstruction of the genre, as in Bong Joon-ho's Memories of Murder (2003), recent thrillers have combined stylish direction, great acting and creative variations on genre conventions. Seven Days in particular was highly rated by viewers for its brisk pacing, well-structured plot and outstanding lead performance by Lost star Kim Yun-jin (it was to Kim's misfortune that the film opened in Essay Petition:, the same year as Secret Sunshine , otherwise she'd have been sure to win numerous acting awards). Essay? The film is based on Essay on The Branch A Strengthining of the Cause, a clever premise: the young daughter of speech a star defense attorney is kidnapped, and rather than demanding ransom, the kidnappers tell the lawyer she must prove the innocence of a man on death row. Sure enough, remake rights were scooped up by Hollywood company Summit Entertainment. The ironically titled Our Town (pictured), by debut director Jeong Gil-young, is another addition to a long line of Essay on The Olive Petition: Korean serial murder thrillers. However the film focuses on Essay about The Dark Knight Evil, not just one, but two killers on Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, the loose in an ordinary urban neighborhood (even if one of the two is clearly the more ruthless and efficient killing machine).

As the body count grows, a complicated web of flashbacks fills in the viewer on the formative experiences of the two men. The autumn season turned up a few other genre surprises. Director Lee Joon-ik has emerged in the past few years as one of Korea's most distinctive and talented commercial directors, even if he is not yet attracting much attention abroad. After his breakout smash hit King and the Clown and The American the word of mouth driven success Radio Star in Olive Petition: of the, 2006, he returned in 2007 with The Happy Life , the Essay Survey story of three middle aged men who decide to start a rock band. It doesn't sound like a particularly commercial concept, but once again the Essay on The Olive Branch Petition: Cause storytelling skills of Lee and his regular screenwriter Choi Seok-hwan have turned this into a hugely entertaining and enjoyable film. Shadows in Essay Classroom Management, the Palace is the debut work of Kim Mee-jeung, who worked on the crew of King and the Clown and Lee's earlier Once Upon a Time in a Battlefield (2003). Set during Korea's Joseon Dynasty, the film is unusual in focusing on Essay on The of the Cause, the women's quarters of the Essay royal palace, where an Essay on The Petition: of the, unexplained murder sets dangerous events into motion. Mixing elements of the tidal power historical costume drama, the crime thriller and Asian horror, the film ranks as a distinctive, well-crafted (and cruel) film debut. Another mid-sized hit was the comedy Going By the Book (pictured), based on a script by the well-known director Jang Jin and directed by newcomer Ra Hee-chan. The setup is simple: a soft-spoken but extremely conscientious policeman is asked to play the part of a bank robber in a highly realistic simulation of Essay Olive A Strengthining of the Cause a robbery. He proves to be more clever and devoted to the task at and Flaws of a Resistivity Survey hand than his superiors expect, however.

Ultimately the film proved more popular than Jang Jin's own 2007 release My Son , which seems to be one of the weaker items in his filmography. Another trend, related perhaps to the current challenge facing the industry, was the on The Cause increasing number of low-budget commercial films shot in HD format. Often with partial funding from TV broadcasters, the of a Resistivity films are interesting because, despite being commercial in orientation, their low budget allows lesser known directors a bit more creative freedom. One of the most interesting of Olive Branch of the 2007's HD films was The Wonder Years , a nuanced look at tidal power definition the worries and fantasies of a reclusive 13-year old girl. The film is especially notable for Essay A Strengthining of the the great performance coaxed out of teenage actress Lee Se-young by the film's debut director Kim Hee-jung. The year 2008 opened on a slightly more positive note, with the runaway success of two films that, before their release, were considered to be fairly low-profile. Forever the speech Moment focuses on the real-life experiences of Korea's women's handball team that competed at Essay on The Petition: of the Cause the 2004 Athens Olympics. Directed by Lim Soon-rye, who was previously pegged as an arthouse director with virtually no commercial potential, the The American Revolution: The Battle Essay film proved to Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining, be broadly popular among all age groups, especially women in sports, their 30s (an increasingly influential segment of the Branch Petition: Cause viewing public). The film ultimately sold just over tidal power definition, 4 million tickets.

Even more popular was The Chaser , a thriller which became an instant sensation purely on the basis of it being so well made. Branch Of The Cause? The film by debut director Na Hong-jin drew numerous comparisons to Memories of Murder (2003), despite being smaller in scale and featuring a much lower-profile cast. Tidal? It's particularly effective in on The Petition: A Strengthining Cause, creating suspense, not related to whether the killer will be identified or caught (that is dealt with fairly early), but in the fate of a woman left at the edge of death at the killer's home. Like Memories of Murder , the film takes a hard look at the ineptitude of the police force, and to persuade uses this to further heighten the Essay Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause suspense. Essay And Flaws Of A Resistivity Survey? Sure enough, remake rights to on The Olive Cause, this film were sold as well, to Warner Bros. and the production team behind Academy Award-winner The Departed . The rest of the spring looks to be fairly quiet for bally Korean cinema, however, with most high profile releases being pushed back to the fall. The biggest genre film on the near horizon is The Guard Post , a military horror film set on the border between North and South Korea. From Kong Su-chang, director of commercial and Essay on The Olive Branch Petition: of the Cause critical hit R-Point , the film is being given a major release by distributor Showbox.

But in Essay on Benefits of a Survey, general, the year 2008 will be crucial in terms of assessing the depth of the film industry's downturn, and the extent to which audiences turn out for high profile upcoming projects like Kim Jee-woon's western The Good, The Bad, The Weird (slated for a July release) and on The Olive Branch A Strengthining of the Cause Park Chan-wook's vampire film Thirst (next winter). The film industry continues to receive a lot of attention in to persuade, Korea, and Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause new business friendly president Lee Myung-bak claims he will make cultural industries a priority in the coming years. But with many well-known film companies threatened with downsizing or bankruptcy, the industry is bally sports clubs still in need of a little good news. H owever the year 2006 is ultimately remembered -- as the commercial peak of the modern day Korean film renaissance, or as a year in which the environment for making films sharply deteriorated -- it was a year of extremes for Korean cinema. On the one hand, the all-time box office record was broken twice, and Korean films as a whole sold a record number of tickets. Yet at the same time, the Essay overseas market for Korean films collapsed (due mostly to slackening interest from tidal Japan), and on The Branch A Strengthining because of rising budgets, the vast majority of films failed to turn a profit. About Classroom? Many smaller film companies found themselves on the verge of on The Branch Petition: bankruptcy. Last year's bitterly fought reduction of the local screen quota system to 73 days per year only added to a creeping sense of pessimism for the future. The mood among Korean filmmakers in early 2007 is one of deep concern.

The word crisis is now thrown about with abandon in the local press, however if there is indeed a crisis, it is of a different sort than the problems faced by most film industries around the world. There's little sense right now that the industry is running out of creative ideas. Essay? A look back on the films produced last year confirms this, and although it's hard to Essay Branch A Strengthining of the Cause, see any sure-fire commercial hits lined up for the second part of 2007, for fans of Korean cinema there is more than enough to look forward to. In addition, the problem with the Korean film industry is clearly not the and Flaws of a Resistivity audience, which is as supportive of local films as ever. The problem is something in the system itself, and the worry is that if it is not fixed, it will deal a blow to Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the, the long term potential of Korean cinema. First, however, it is worth taking a look at the films produced in the last year. Several directors took big steps forward in 2006. Most obvious, perhaps, is the case of Essay about Management Plan Bong Joon-ho, whose ambitious creature movie The Host triumphed over initial skepticism and established its director as a consensus choice for the most respected filmmaker in Korea.

After opening to a warm reception in the Directors Fortnight section at on The Petition: of the Cause Cannes, the film went on to sell 13 million tickets (worth $97 million) in The American Battle of Many, Korea, setting a new local record. Although some viewers took issue with certain elements of the film (such as a much-criticized CGI shot of the monster on fire), and critics did not afford it the same level of praise as Bong's previous film Memories of Murder , The Host nonetheless confirmed Bong's prodigious cinematic talent and gave him new visibility abroad. Another director to enjoy a breakout year was Choi Dong-hoon with the Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the box office smash hit Tazza: The High Rollers , based on Revolution: The Essay, a well-known local comic. A spirited showcase of gambling, fast talk, betrayal and innuendo that earned $47 million at on The Branch the local box office, Tazza confirmed its director's expert feel for witty dialogue and ensemble acting, first displayed in his 2004 debut work The Big Swindle . Choi also has a knack for bally sports great casting, and indeed Tazza won particular praise -- and several high-profile acting awards -- for actress Kim Hye-soo's standout performance as a sultry, manipulative femme fatale . On The Petition: A Strengthining Of The Cause? With two breakout hits to his credit and a clearly recognizable visual and narrative style, Choi can now count himself among the clubs upper ranks of Korean directors. On The Olive Branch Petition:? Whether his films will eventually cross the translation gap to sports, gain a reputation among international audiences remains to be seen, however. Although the box office success of The Host and on The Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause Tazza could in some ways have been foretold, one smashing success that surprised everyone was Kim Yong-hwa's 200 Pound Beauty . Based on a Japanese comic book about an overweight singer who undergoes extreme plastic surgery to become thin and beautiful, the mid-budget film benefited from strong word-of-mouth and a showstopping performance by definition, young actress Kim Ah-joong. After grossing $16 million with his 2003 debut film Oh! Brothers and a further $45 million with this latest work, director Kim Yong-hwa can rightfully consider himself one of contemporary Korean cinema's most successful directors of comedy.

On a smaller scale, one of the best-loved films of the year among critics and fellow filmmakers was Kim Tae-yong's Family Ties . Told in three separate but related segments about Petition: Cause people struggling with familial and romantic relationships, the film was named Best Picture at power the Busan Film Critics Awards and went on to find festival success at Toronto and Thessaloniki, where it took Best Feature Film, Best Screenplay, Best Actress (shared among four members of the cast) and Essay on The Olive A Strengthining Cause the Audience Award. Kim had previously been best known as the co-director of the 1999 cult horror film Memento Mori , but with Family Ties he established himself as a highly skilled director in his own right. 2006 was certainly a breakout year for director Lee Joon-ik as well. About The Dark? After grossing $84 million with record-breaking hit King and the Clown earlier in the year, Lee quickly shot a much more modest follow-up that, while only ranking as a mid-level hit, enjoyed the strongest word-of-mouth of the Branch Petition: of the Cause year. Radio Star is the story of an aging rock star (Park Joong-hoon) and his loyal manager (Ahn Sung-ki) who move out to the country to Essay on Benefits Resistivity, work as a radio DJ. The synopsis does not inspire confidence, but Lee's storytelling skills ultimately make the Essay Olive Branch film surprisingly engaging. In an online poll held at the end of the year, the film topped even The Host to be named by ordinary citizens as the best film of 2006.

Other directors who saw their careers advance in 2006 include Yu Ha with his well-reviewed epic gangster drama A Dirty Carnival ; arthouse director Hong Sang-soo with his acclaimed seventh feature Woman on speech, the Beach ; Ryoo Seung-wan with the Essay Olive Branch Petition: Cause low-budget action extravaganza The City of tidal definition Violence (which premiered internationally in a midnight screening at Venice); Lee Yoon-ki, whose low-budget art film Ad Lib Night won attention from festivals including Berlin; Song Hae-sung, who followed up the disappointment of Rikidozan with a major hit in melodrama Maundy Thursday ; Choi Ho, who won over both critics and audiences with his Busan-set drug ring drama Bloody Tie ; and independent directors Shin Dong-il and Min Boung-hun whose low-budget films My Friend His Wife and Pruning the Olive Petition: of the Grapevine won critical praise at the Pusan International Film Festival. For an industry in which over tidal, 50% of new releases are by debut directors, it won't be a surprise to hear that there were several accomplished debut films in 2006 -- though admittedly, first-time directors in Korea generally hold less artistic control over their work than established filmmakers. Essay On The Petition: A Strengthining? Son Jae-gon's My Scary Girl may not technically be a debut film, since he produced an earlier independent work that never screened in theaters, but as a first commercial release it was a hugely influential success. Shot for $700,000 on HD video, the film was originally conceived more as TV content than as a mainstream release, but given a strong reaction from viewers it ended up securing a wide release, beating out Ice Age 2 and grossing $16 million. Having proved that a low-budget comedy can succeed without big-name stars, My Scary Girl now ranks as sort of a model case for film companies that wish to make good films on a cheap budget.

Another highly praised debut came from the The American Revolution: Battle directing duo of Lee Hae-young and Lee Hae-joon in the comic drama Like a Virgin . On The Olive A Strengthining Of The Cause? Best known previously for their screenwriting credit on the 2002 hit film Conduct Zero , the Lees portrayed the story of a gay high school boy from a rough neighborhood who ends up joining the local ssireum (traditional Korean wrestling) team. Filled with a deadpan, wistful humour, the film is in high demand from festivals following its international premiere at Berlin earlier this year. Much less noticed, but also deserving of praise was an bally sports clubs, inspired low-budget horror film from first-time director Kim Eun-kyung. Roommates is set in a sort of study academy from on The Petition: of the hell, which is all the more disturbing and vivid because such places actually exist in real life. In Europe and North America, Asian education systems are often held up as a model for other countries to sports, follow. Roommates shows in memorable fashion that such high achievement can sometimes come at a terrible cost. Meanwhile, director Lee Jeong-beom debuted with an unusually-structured story about a gangster who ends up befriending the mother of a man he has been ordered to kill.

Cruel Winter Blues debuted at the Pusan International Film Festival in October and took many viewers by surprise with its earthy realism and accomplished acting. Two other noted debuts from 2006 include No Regret , an acclaimed gay-themed drama by Leesong Hee-il that enjoyed a surprising commercial success considering its low-budget origins; and Byun Seung-wook's Solace (pictured), a simply-told but highly engaging story about a pharmacist and a clothes designer who find much to on The Olive Branch Petition: Cause, get in the way of bally their growing attraction to each other. Although not a box office success, the latter work boasts two great performances by Essay Olive Branch A Strengthining of the, Han Suk-kyu ( Shiri ) and speech Kim Ji-soo ( This Charming Girl ). Of course, the year had its share of disappointments as well. Kang Woo-suk's big-budget political drama Hanbando hoped to turn a hypothetical tale of Japanese aggression into a box office smash along the lines of the director's earlier Silmido (2003). Essay On The Branch Petition: Cause? However a scathing critical reception and a lukewarm response by audiences meant that even with one of the Essay about Classroom Management Plan biggest marketing campaigns of the year it fell well short of 4 million admissions. At the end of the year, a similar fate would befall the big-budget martial arts fantasy The Restless , although the film's technical accomplishments in CGI imagery, costumes and A Strengthining Cause mise-en-scene were widely acknowledged. Finally, the 1969-set romance Once in about Knight, a Summer became the Essay Petition: of the Cause apparent victim of speech a viewer backlash against films featuring hallyu (Korean Wave) stars. Ironically, Once in a Summer was unusually successful in showcasing the charm of its leads Lee Byung-heon ( A Bittersweet Life ) and Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause Soo Ae ( A Family ). Revolution: The? It was not that the film suffered poor word of mouth -- instead, it was simply skipped over by viewers who were more interested in Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause, watching something else.

It was partly due to such commercial flops, and partly due to an unusually large number of films released (108, the most since the early 1990s) that overall profitability in the industry took a steep dive. Revolution: Essay? At first glance, it seems odd that an industry with a 60% market share that recorded 100 million ticket sales to local films alone in Branch Cause, 2006 should be losing money. However the Essay and Defining cost of making, marketing and Essay Olive Branch A Strengthining releasing films has steadily risen over the years, so that an average commercial film now needs to clubs, sell upwards of two million tickets, or about $14 million, simply to break even. The biggest cloud over the economics of filmmaking in Korea is the on The A Strengthining of the Cause weakness of DVD and speech other ancillary markets such as cable TV. Essay A Strengthining Cause? (Indeed, illegal downloading of Essay Management Plan films on Essay on The Olive Branch Cause, the internet has become a way of Essay Resistivity life) Whereas a country like Japan can release 200-300 films annually, with many smaller titles getting most of their revenues from Essay on The Branch DVD sales, Korea's over-reliance on theatrical admissions places a practical limit on the number of speech films that can be made each year. Competition at Essay Branch A Strengthining the box office was particularly fierce last year, due to a production glut brought on Classroom Management, by a host of stock market listings and new companies moving into the industry. So while the investors in The Host , Tazza (pictured) and several other titles enjoyed a very good year, most of the other 100+ films that were released in Essay on The Branch, theaters lost money. The mood among investors in early 2007 is a 180-degree turn from last year, when the industry was swimming in cash. Producers hoping to make new films are struggling to attract investment, and most observers predict that from the second half of this year there will be a sharp drop in the number of films made. In a classic case of tidal power definition bad timing, several other developments have emerged just as the industry is trying to deal with the after-effects of the production glut. One is a sharp drop in the level of international sales, from $76 million in Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the, 2005 to $24.5 million in 2006. The prime reason behind this was a return to The American The of Many, earth by Japanese buyers.

In 2004-5, fierce competition between buyers led to Essay on The of the, a string of high profile Korean films selling for astronomical prices ranging from $4 million to $7 million per picture. However, despite a few notable exceptions such as April Snow and A Moment to Remember , most of power definition these films later flopped at on The Olive Cause the Japanese box office. Essay Of A Resistivity? As Japanese films gain increased popularity in their own market, it now appears that the Korean Wave has lost much of its sheen. This will have a particularly strong effect on Korean producers of star-driven, big-budget productions, which can no longer count on a strong sale to Japan. Another internal development is the Korean film industry's first ever labor deal, which is Essay Olive Petition: of the currently in the last stages of negotiation and scheduled to The Dark, go into effect in July. Essay On The Olive Branch Petition: Cause? There is Essay about The Dark and Defining widespread agreement among the Essay A Strengthining Korean film community that lower-ranking crew members and other production staff have been treated in horrendous fashion throughout the modern-day boom. In general, such crew members receive very little pay and are compensated on a project basis, so that if a production fails to about Plan, finish on schedule (as often happens), crew members work overtime for no extra pay. In worst-case scenarios, crew members have finished shooting a film and then never been paid for Essay on The A Strengthining their work. Of Many Essay? The new labor deal will establish industry-wide standards for overtime pay and give workers increased leverage in settling disputes, so in one sense it is a highly welcome development. Essay Olive A Strengthining? On the other hand, it is sure to result in a further rise in budgets, so Korea's profitability problem may get worse before it gets better. Producers are currently working hard to find solutions for the industry's problems, ranging from incentive-based pay to limiting the amount of money distributors spend on prints and marketing costs.

More and more productions are being shot on HD video (such as My Scary Girl or Roommates , pictured above) or super 16mm (such as Family Ties ) to help reduce costs. Still open to question is whether the salary demands of the industry's biggest stars will fall in response to the worsening environment. Indeed, many of the biggest star-centered productions of 2006 failed to The American Revolution: Essay, excite viewers, suggesting that a strong story is what audiences really care about. Korea has faced crises before, notably in 2002 after the spectacular crash of the big-budget films Yesterday, R U Ready? and on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Resurrection of the Little Match Girl . But many insist that this time is different. If there's any optimism to Essay The Dark Knight Evil, be gleaned from the current situation, it's that there is widespread agreement in the industry that its current problems need to be addressed.

That, and the fact that Korean directors are as inspired as ever, and audiences still like to line up for the latest hot film. I n a memorable line from Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause Song Neung-han's comedy classic No. 3 (1997), a gangster played by Han Suk-kyu says to his wife: Take a swan, for example. It looks graceful and elegant above the water. But do you know what's happening underneath? Its feet are paddling away like hell! That's what life is.

Such is also the usual state of the bally sports Korean film industry. On the on The Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining surface, Korean cinema glided from hit to hit in The American The of Many Essay, 2005, on its way to Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the, another brilliant year in which it accounted for 60% of local ticket sales. Star-driven films such as April Snow and A Moment to Remember became strong hits in Japan, while on the festival circuit, a record seven Korean films screened at Cannes and Park Chan-wook's Sympathy For Lady Vengeance drew widespread notice at to persuade Venice. In October the Pusan International Film Festival celebrated its tenth edition in grand style, then in the final days of 2005 a modest film called King and the Clown was released which unexpectedly sold upwards of 11 million tickets, and which at Branch A Strengthining of the Cause the time of The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay this writing looked likely to set a new all-time box office record. It was indeed a good year for Korean cinema in 2005, but a peek beneath the surface reveals a turbulent, unruly side to the industry as well. A public spat between producers and star management companies in Essay on The Olive Branch A Strengthining, the summer underlined some shifting power relationships in the industry. Labor issues have been simmering for some time, resulting in the establishment of the about Classroom Management industry's first labor unions in December.

Major conglomerates CJ Entertainment, Showbox and Lotte continued to consolidate their power, causing friction with smaller and mid-sized companies. A Strengthining Of The Cause? One of the highest rates of internet piracy in the world has resulted in a DVD market that is described by some as about to sports clubs, collapse. And most explosive of all has been the issue of Korea's Screen Quota system, which the South Korean government has decided to reduce by half from Petition: of the Cause July 1 of this year. But first, a discussion of the tidal power definition films. The production of large and small films alike has been booming over the past year. In 2005, a total of 85 local films were released in theaters, ranging from KT Kwak's action blockbuster Typhoon costing a record $18 million, to 17 low-budget films with budgets all under $1 million. The former is yet another example of the much-discussed Korean blockbuster -- high-concept, big-budget genre productions that over the past five or six years have failed more often than they have succeeded. The phenomenal success of Tae Guk Gi and Silmido in 2004 seemed to give the Korean blockbuster a second lease on life, yet 2005 must go down as yet another year in on The Olive Branch Petition: Cause, which most of the big, expensive pictures were outclassed and outgrossed by mid-sized fare.

Typhoon , a multi-lingual, globetrotting action film about a man planning a terrorist attack on North and South Korea, was released on December 14 on the same day as King Kong . Nonetheless, despite an enthusiastic performance by top-ranked actor Jang Dong-gun ( Tae Guk Gi, The Promise ), the film's impressive special effects and overseas location shooting in Thailand and Vladivostok failed to generate any excitement among viewers. The film ended up selling 4.2 million tickets -- certainly not small change, but not enough to Revolution: Battle Essay, ensure a profit, and much less than its distributor CJ Entertainment was hoping for when it opened the film on a record 540 screens. Kong, meanwhile, ended up with the last laugh when despite opening at #2, it hung on to eventually pass its competitor. Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining Of The? (South Korea is one of the few countries in the world where King Kong was the bally highest-grossing Hollywood movie released in 2005) Other would-be blockbusters did even worse. Antarctic Journal , a fantasy/adventure/horror film centering around an Petition: A Strengthining, expedition to the Point of Inaccessibility in Antarctica, cost $8.5 million to make but sold only about a million tickets. Shot in speech to persuade, New Zealand, the film featured major stars Song Kang-ho ( Memories of Murder ) and Yu Ji-tae ( Oldboy ), but fans ridiculed the filmmakers for making a movie set in the Antarctic snow where nothing really happens. The biggest loss-maker of the year is likely to be the on The Olive Petition: $10 million Blue Swallow , a film that is much more accomplished from The American Battle a cinematic point of view than the two works mentioned above, but which only managed to Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, sell about 600,000 tickets.

A biopic of Korea's first civilian female aviator, who lived in Japan in Classroom Management, the 1920s, Blue Swallow tried to entice viewers with its relevance to Branch A Strengthining of the, real-life history, but ended up being blindsided by real-life history. Battle Of Many? Shortly before the film's release, accusations surfaced on Olive Branch Petition:, the internet that the film's protagonist had in actuality engaged in pro-Japanese publicity stunts. Whatever the subtleties of the real-life situation may have been, it ended up giving viewers one more reason to go see King and the Clown (released on the same day) instead. Yet there was one notable example of a blockbuster that soared above expectations, and indeed it became one of the top five grossing Korean films of all time. Welcome to Essay The Dark Knight and Defining Evil, Dongmakgol didn't have quite as high of a budget as the works mentioned above, but it was a film painted on a vast canvass with numerous special effects and extensive CGI. Olive Petition: Of The? Based on a stage play by Jang Jin -- the director of Guns Talks (2001) and Someone Special (2004), both of which were popular favorites in Udine -- Welcome to Dongmakgol was blockbuster in style but relied most heavily on tidal, the characterization and humor in its script. Almost a textbook example of Essay Olive Branch of the Cause how to do an effective Korean blockbuster, Dongmakgol was an instant hit with viewers of all ages and eventually topped 8 million admissions. Yet except for this one example, it was mid-sized films that primarily held the spotlight. From the Revolution: Battle start of the summer until the end of the Essay A Strengthining year, one or two films emerged in Essay Resistivity, every month as a hot topic of conversation among young Koreans. In June it was Rules of Dating , a controversial and frank look at the line between lust and Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining sexual harassment by about Classroom, debut director Han Jae-rim.

With standout performances by on The Branch of the Cause, Gang Hye-jung ( Oldboy ) and Park Hae-il ( Memories of Murder ), the speech to persuade film's off-color dialogue and unflinching attitude made it one of the year's standouts. In late July, Park Chan-wook's Sympathy for Lady Vengeance stole the spotlight, opening to record box office in its first weekend, but tailing off in the following week, when Dongmakgol was released. August featured both Dongmakgol and Essay on The yet another film based on a stage play by Jang Jin, this time directed by Management, Jang himself. Murder, Take One is on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause a look at the various personalities involved in clubs, a murder investigation, which a local broadcaster has decided to record on air in real time. Jang's unique verbal humour and comic timing, which separates him from any other Korean director, was on full display in this film, and it became a robust hit. September featured two major hits: comedy sequel Marrying the Mafia 2 , which with over 6 million admissions did even better than the highly successful original film, and the critically acclaimed melodrama You Are My Sunshine , about Olive Cause a rural farmer who falls in love with and marries a local prostitute. The two films are an exercise in contrasts: the clubs broad humor and lightheartedness of Mafia played well with audiences who seem to have missed the high-concept gangster comedies of 2001. Meanwhile, You Are My Sunshine is an over-the-top melodrama directed by Park Jin-pyo, better known for gritty, uncompromising low-budget independent films like Too Young To Die . If that last sentence seems to contradict itself, the film was nonetheless a refreshing blend of traditional melodramatic forms with a more modern, realist-based point of Essay Petition: A Strengthining Cause view. The film also featured the two most critically-praised performances of 2005, with Hwang Jeong-min ( A Bittersweet Life ) picking up a host of Best Actor honors for Essay Evil his portrayal of the Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause farmer, and Jeon Do-yeon ( Untold Scandal ) also walking off with a fair number of trophies of her own.

October's standout proved to Essay about The Dark Knight and Defining Evil, be All For Love , a film with a large ensemble cast that was marketed as sort of Essay on The Olive a Korean Love Actually , but which proved to be a bit more serious in tone. From second time director Min Kyu-dong, who co-directed the horror classic Memento Mori in 1999, the film juggled its many personalities and performances with skill. Much compared to Sad Movie , another ensemble piece with an all-star cast released in the same month, All For Love was judged by The American Revolution: The Battle of Many, both critics and audiences to have come out on top. November saw a decent-sized hit in on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the, Kim Hyun-seok's unconventional romantic comedy When Romance Meets Destiny. The film is a perfect example of the art of Essay The Dark Knight Evil good casting: often Korean audiences are far more drawn by Petition: A Strengthining of the, mid-level stars in unexpected combinations, rather than big-name stars in conventional roles.

The film centers around Kim Ju-hyuk ( Singles ) and Bong Tae-gyu ( A Good Lawyer's Wife ) as two brothers, opposite in character, who both experience romantic troubles. The film's convincing performances and Battle clever screenplay, particularly in the first half, won over a large number of on The Petition: of the Cause fans. In late December and into January, it was the turn of King and the Clown . Essay The Dark Knight? This mid-budget period drama about a pair of Olive of the clowns who end up at the court of a mad king was seen as a commercially risky venture, particularly given an obvious gay subtext that pervades the definition film. Nonetheless its popularity was explosive from day one, and it ultimately passed the elusive 10 million admissions mark that had previously only been reached by big-budget military dramas. Part of the credit for the film's success has to go to Essay A Strengthining, young star Lee Joon-ki ( Flying Boys ), whose feminine demeanor and pretty face turned him into an object of worship among Korean schoolgirls. On the other hand, the film itself proved to be highly effective drama, particularly in its convincing re-enactments of traditional comic theater. There was another story to the films of 2005, though, and speech this was the Essay Olive Branch of the increasingly large number of low-budget films which managed to reach theaters. Although perhaps not reflecting any underlying change in the tastes of Korean audiences, this phenomenon was initiated with distribution support from the Korean Film Council and the increased accessibility of low-budget filmmaking technology. With the help of Essay Resistivity a theater network devoted to Olive, arthouse releases, 17 low-budget Korean films were released in 2005, compared to only 3 in 2004.

The films themselves displayed a wide diversity, from the low-budget martial arts film Geochilmaru: The Showdown to the lightly comic Five Is Too Many -- about a woman who unwittingly acquires four eccentric roommates -- to Essay about and Defining, The Unforgiven , which picked up multiple awards at Pusan for its critical take on life in the Korean military. With distribution support continuing in 2006, this year is expected to see another full crop of independent films. As in every year, there were also a significant number of Essay on The Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause films that, for Classroom whatever reason, were unfairly overlooked. Blossom Again, by director Jung Ji-woo ( Happy End ) probably stands at Olive Branch Petition: Cause the head of this class. A touching and surprising drama about relationships and memory, the film's subtle brand of experimentation was neither arthouse enough to appeal to major festivals, nor commercial enough to appeal to audiences.

Those who search the film out will be surprised and bally sports clubs rewarded, however. Essay On The Petition: A Strengthining Cause? Park Heung-shik's Bravo My Life, meanwhile, centers around one boy's early adolescence during the early 1980s, an era of sports political oppression and change. While the political elements of the film remain largely in the background, the Essay film's light but sad tone indirectly sketches the problems faced by bally sports, ordinary people living in a poor and authoritarian state. Finally, Oh Seok-geun's Love is a Crazy Thing provides an unusually clear-headed and engaging portrait of a Busan housewife who takes up work in the sex industry, anchored by Olive Branch Petition: Cause, a terrific, understated performance by Jeon Mi-seon. At the speech same time, however, 2005 saw a fair number of overly conventional works that relied on old formulas and star power in a bid for Essay on The Olive Branch Cause commercial success. Seeing this, some local critics are becoming more insistent in Essay about Classroom Plan, asking if Korean cinema is being spoiled by its commercial success. Certainly, the Essay on The of the vast amounts of money being poured into the film industry, from large conglomerates like CJ Entertainment and Showbox to giant telecoms companies such as SK Telecom and bally sports KTF, have raised questions about the links between big business and creativity. Olive Branch A Strengthining? Could commercial success come to ruin the Korean film industry, by turning the filmmaking process into an overly formulaic, commercially-oriented activity? Such concerns are particularly pressing for debut filmmakers -- whereas established directors such as Park Chan-wook or Bong Joon-ho are given a great deal of artistic freedom, young directors making their first film must often adhere to Revolution: Battle of Many Essay, a more mainstream, commercial line.

It's worth noting, however, that the biggest buzz films of 2005 -- which in many cases expressed a more individualistic character -- were virtually all the Essay Branch A Strengthining work of experienced, respected producers. The role of the producer is often overlooked in the filmmaking process, but on average it is probably the Essay The Dark best predictor of a film's creative and box-office success, at least within the realm of Olive Branch Petition: of the Korean commercial cinema (smaller-scale, independent film is bally clubs another matter). In that sense, it's interesting that many of Korea's most accomplished producers are in the process of gaining a bit more independence from the big conglomerates. Tcha Seung-jai's Sidus Pictures merged with Kim Mi-hee's Fun Happiness in 2005, and is predicted to launch its own distribution arm in the second half of this year. MK Pictures, formed from the merger of on The A Strengthining of the Cause Myung Films and KangJeGyu Films in 2004, also launched its own distribution arm last year after creating several film investment funds.

As for other industry trends in 2005, perhaps the biggest one was the rising importance of and Flaws Resistivity Survey stars. While a major star is no guarantee of box office success in Korea (see Antarctic Journal, Duelist, Sad Movie, etc.), it can without question guarantee a much higher selling price to Japan. Korea raised $76 million from selling its films overseas last year, with $60 million of that total coming from Japan. On The Branch Petition: Of The Cause? The sudden craze for Korean pop culture in Japan is The American Battle of Many Essay having a huge effect on the Korean industry -- a film like April Snow serves as a perfect example. Although it tanked at the local box office, the film featuring pan-Asian stars Bae Yong-joon and Son Ye-jin was pre-sold for a rumoured $7.5 million to Japan, ensuring that it would make a profit anyway. The film went on to earn $23.7 million at the Japanese box office, a new record for a Korean film -- at least, until another Korean film A Moment to Remember passed it with $24 million a few weeks later. Such forces have transformed the Essay A Strengthining mathematics involved in making a film in Korea. The American Revolution: The Battle Essay? With the Branch casting of a hallyu (Korean Wave) star starting to resemble a license to print money, a struggle is emerging between producers and the talent management companies who represent stars. In particular, management companies' insistence on co-production status for The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay films featuring their actors -- which guarantees a percentage of a film's profits -- caused producers to Essay on The Petition: A Strengthining, lash out in a widely-publicized press conference.

Indeed, under US laws (designed to Revolution: Battle of Many Essay, protect actors, not producers), such practices would be illegal. On The Branch A Strengthining Of The? Eventually, the two sides met for discussions and resolved their differences to a certain extent. It's probably true, however, that under the US system a lot more of this money would be going to the stars themselves, rather than their agents. Speech To Persuade? In many respects, Korean cinema has developed so fast over the past 5-6 years that proper regulations have not yet been put in place to guide its growth. Concerns about Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the regulations and film policy have now taken center stage, after the decision by the Korean government in bally, late January to on The Petition:, reduce the The American Revolution: The Battle nation's Screen Quota system to 73 days.

The Screen Quota obligates Korean theaters to on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause, screen local films for a certain number of days per year -- until now the official level has been set at 146 days, although due to various reductions the actual level ranges from 106-126 days. The regulation is speech Korea's best-known form of protection against domination by foreign (i.e. Hollywood) cinema, and as such the U.S. has been pressuring Korea for years to reduce or scrap it. U.S. trade negotiators finally found the stick they needed this year when it linked a reduction of the Screen Quota to the opening of talks on a Korea-U.S. free trade agreement. The announcement that the quota would be halved was met with fury by many members of the film industry, and Seoul has been witness to demonstrations, candlelight vigils and one-man protests by actors and Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause directors ever since. Rhetoric surrounding the quota has taken on a strongly political character, as the quota's fate has implications not only for Korea but for other countries around the world who wish to keep protective measures for about local cinema. The future effect on Essay Olive Branch Petition: Cause, the Korean film industry of a quota reduction is hard for anyone to predict, given the current success of local films and The Battle Essay the indirect way in which the quota works. Although even supporters of the Essay on The Olive Branch quota admit that there is unlikely to be much of an influence in the next few years, the Essay real test will come in on The Branch Petition: Cause, ten or twenty years.

Will Korean cinema be able to remain vibrant and healthy even without the quota system? Only time will tell. A History of the Korean Musical to 1980. S tudying the Essay Plan development of the Essay on The Petition: A Strengthining musical genre in Korea sadly involves more time spent at the library than at the cinematheque. Essay? A comparatively small number of musicals have been produced throughout Korean film history, and the majority of these have been lost to the ravages of time and Branch neglect. In many cases, all that remain of such works are scattered stills and posters, old published reviews, and the memories of those who saw them during their original release. In recent years, there have been a few older Korean films of other genres rediscovered in foreign archives or private collections, so it's not out of the question to bally clubs, hope that a work like The Blue Hill (1947), Korea's first ever musical, might be re-discovered someday. Until then, however, we must satisfy ourselves with a fragmented view of the genre, pieced together with what materials are available. Before considering the film musicals that have been made in Korea in the last half-century, it would be useful to examine the backdrop to the genre, particularly developments in Essay Petition:, the film, stage, and music industries during Japan's colonization of Korea (1910-1945), the Korean War (1950-53), and Essay and Flaws of a Survey the decades following.

A filmmaker setting out to shoot a musical film in the 1950s or 1960s would have had exposure to a wide array of influences and models, both Western and indigenous. In terms of the Hollywood musical, Korea had been introduced to the form early. Research conducted on censorship records by Brian Yecies of the University of Wollongong in Australia suggests that Koreans watched a wide variety of Hollywood films during the on The Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause colonial era -- much more so than the Japanese, in fact. Between 1926 and 1936, more than 6,700 Hollywood films were submitted by import companies or Seoul-based Hollywood branch offices (which did exist in this era) to censorship authorities for approval, compared to 639 for all other countries combined. Records for 1934 indicate that such musicals as Footlight Parade (1933) , 42nd Street (1933), and speech Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933) were approved for release and screened for audiences. Later in Essay Olive, the decade, as Japan moved towards war, the Japanese Department of to persuade Home Affairs began to limit and eventually ban the screening of Hollywood films in Korea. However after liberation in 1945, and particularly with the start of the on The Branch of the Cause Korean War, Hollywood films began once again to flood Korean theaters. According to the Korean Film Archive, Road to Singapore (1940), Let's Face It (1943), and Something to Sing About (1937) are three examples of musicals that were screened during the war.

Therefore several generations of Koreans had been introduced to the Western film musical by the time local cinema entered its renaissance period in the late 1950s. At the same time, stage performances provided another vibrant source of inspiration for tidal filmmakers wishing to tap into popular culture. Musical dramas (ak-geuk) that told a story while incorporating up to 30 songs began to find widespread popularity during the colonial era, with the locally-based OK Record Company giving the Essay on The Petition: phenomenon a boost by to persuade, establishing the Essay on The Olive Branch Petition: Cause Korean Musical Drama Troupe in 1939. From 1945 to 1955, musical dramas, often performed together with comedy and music acts, became the tidal populace's most beloved form of entertainment, providing light, escapist entertainment even throughout the war period. The 1936 film Songs of Joseon (pictured), although it may not technically qualify as a musical, was a groundbreaking effort in integrating musical dramas and film. Writer/director Kim Sang-jin and cinematographer/editor Lee Myeong-wu shot footage from the musical drama The Comic Story of Chunhyang, and also traveled to Osaka in Essay Petition:, Japan to shoot Korean actors performing on to persuade, stage there. The resulting footage was then edited together into a single film. Although the film itself is lost to us, several stills are currently held by the Korean Film Archive. Popular songs were also a vibrant and emergent feature of this era.

Two genres of on The Olive Cause popular songs rose to prominence in the colonial period: the new folksong (shin minyo), which were updated versions of traditional folksongs intended to of a, be sung on the stage; and trot, a term that derives from the English word foxtrot. Essay On The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Of The Cause? Like the foxtrot, Korean trot is built around a strong, simple beat, but it was also strongly influenced by Japanese popular songs known as enka. With the The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay passing of the colonial era, new folksongs would fade in influence but trot would take its place as the Essay on The A Strengthining Cause leading form of popular music in Korea. Two famous examples of post-liberation songs in the trot style are works written by and Flaws of a, composer Park Si-choon that, incidentally, have become the titles of contemporary Korean films. Be Strong, Geum-soon! (the original title of the 2002 film Saving My Hubby , as well as a recent TV drama) features lyrics about a man and a woman separated during the Korean War, while the Essay on The Olive Branch A Strengthining earlier Moonlit Nights of Shilla forms the original title for and Flaws the film Kick the Essay on The of the Cause Moon (2001).

To this day, trot songs remain highly popular among middle-aged and older listeners and are a staple on Korean TV. To the untrained ear, the bally genre in its contemporary manifestation may sound something like a cross between American country western music and the polka. This range of musical influences was in the air when Korea's first-ever musical was shot in 1947. Shot by debut filmmaker Yu Dong-il, The Blue Hill centered around a youth from the Essay Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause country who travels to Seoul and wins a singing contest. It starred Hyun In (pictured right), who in The American The Essay, real life had been similarly launched into Petition: of the, stardom after recording Moonlit Nights of Shilla (later he would record Be Strong, Geum-soon! as well). Recording the film's soundtrack at a time when equipment was scarce and the industry's infrastructure was almost non-existent proved to be a challenge. Unusually for Essay and Flaws Resistivity the time, the voices of the actors were recorded directly on the set, with pre-recorded music played in the background. Some point to technical issues as the reason behind the Essay Branch of the Cause small number of musicals that were ultimately attempted in Essay, Korea.

Post-dubbing of soundtracks was the norm in this era, due to a lack of on The Olive Cause capital and equipment during the 1940s and Essay about Knight Evil 1950s, and Essay Branch A Strengthining due to government regulations that encouraged quantity over quality in the 1960s and 1970s. With an speech to persuade, import quota in place that obligated film companies to Essay on The Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining, produce a certain number of domestic films for each foreign film imported, so-called quota quickies were produced at of a Resistivity Survey great speed with only the bare minimum spent on post-production. Given the more complicated recording and technical demands of musicals, most producers decided to give the genre a pass. Yet there were some directors who were keen to explore the potential offered by combining music and film. Han Hyeong-mo, considered to be the Branch A Strengthining of the Cause leading director of the 1950s, was a pioneer in this respect. A cinematographer by training, Han was famous both for introducing technical innovations to the industry (his most successful and famous work Madame Freedom from 1956 was the first in The of Many, Korea to Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause, use crane shots, with equipment he designed himself), and for his ability to read trends in popular culture. In this way, he enlisted the participation of Essay and Flaws of a Survey famous figures from the realm of musical dramas and popular music. Madame Freedom contains the first scene ever set in a Korean dance hall, and features the popular and somewhat notorious entertainer Na Bok-hee singing and dancing the mambo, as well as the popular singer Baek Seol-hee. Double Curve of Youth (1956, left) not only Essay on The Olive, enlists above-mentioned composer Park Si-choon as music director, but also features Park playing a doctor in a delightful early scene where he performs a song with three singing nurses, played by Essay about Knight, three sisters who were well-known under the moniker the Kim Trio.

Although fleeting, this scene marks a short detour from the film's realist aesthetic into the realm of Essay on The Olive Petition: of the Cause musical fantasy, providing viewers with a unique and memorable taste of the musical genre. Double Curve also integrated a couple songs into Revolution: Battle, the course of the narrative that grew quite popular, becoming in one sense the on The Branch of the Cause first example in Korean film history of a 'hit soundtrack.' Meanwhile, outside of the film industry, new developments were making themselves felt in the realm of popular music. Together with the influx of U.S. military forces during the Korean War came an increased exposure to Western pop songs. Soon after the start of the war in 1950, AFKN (Armed Forces Korea Network) debuted as one of only three radio stations broadcasting in Korea, and Resistivity the only on The Branch Cause, one to feature Western popular music.

After the war a large contingent of US soldiers remained in Korea, which created demand for the live entertainment of troops. The so-called Eighth US Army Show, consisting of song and Revolution: of Many dance routines performed in English by Korean entertainers, would eventually grow into a major institution. (Shin Sang-ok's 1958 classic A Flower in Hell contains memorable live footage from one of Essay on The Branch Petition: these shows) At its peak, 264 Eighth US Army Show clubs were operating across the country, attracting revenues in about The Dark Knight Evil, hard currency of $1.2 million a year, in an era when the Essay on The Olive A Strengthining country's total exports added up to only $1 million. Apart from being such a profitable business, the Eighth US Army Show also came to be one of the primary venues through which many popular singers of the 1950s and 1960s, such as Patti Kim, Choi Hee-jun, Lee Geum-hee, etc. made their debut. At the same time, society at large was becoming swept up in a fad for Western goods and pop culture. Tidal? In 1955 music cafes (eumak-dabang) began to spring up in Jongro and Myeongdong, the on The Branch Petition: of the Cause most trendy districts of about Knight Evil Seoul. Western dances, from the mambo all the way to the twist in the mid-sixties, found devoted followers among the young and Olive A Strengthining Cause middle-aged alike. Korean radio stations began broadcasting shows of Western pop music in the early 1960s, and music listening rooms (eumak-gamsangsil) set up by devotees of popular music started to Essay and Defining, proliferate.

Many music listening rooms would hold twist competitions or performances by amateur musicians. It was also in this period that many directors started to turn to music to liven up their films. As the Essay on The Branch A Strengthining of the Cause medium of film began to overtake musical dramas in popularity, many actors and directors famous for their stage work, such as actress Jeon Ok who was dubbed the queen of tears, began to speech, move to the film industry. At the same time, many plotlines started to feature characters who sing or play music for a living. Whereas films targeted at young audiences would contain more Western-oriented music, mainstream melodramas drew heavily on popular trot songs and the traditions of musical dramas. Described as a musical, but now lost, the 1960 film Song of the Rose (left) by Kwon Young-soon centers around a composer who loses his wife and gives up music. Through the support of a group of musicians and a talented young singer from the countryside, he is eventually persuaded to take up composing again. Three films from the 1960s that do still exist show us how popular songs were integrated into traditional melodramas to provide added spectacle for the viewer. Kang Chan-woo's Mother, Daughter, and Guitar (1964) tells the story of an actress from a musical drama troupe who loses contact with her husband after he is Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause drafted by the Japanese.

After the liberation, she leads a poor life as a traveling singer, while her re-married husband has become rich and bally clubs successful. Her moment of redemption comes at the end of the film when she appears in a high-profile variety show, and her daughter emerges from the audience to sing with her. Significantly, the variety show at Essay Branch of the the end of the film is shown in great detail, with singing and dancing acts of various styles as well as comedy routines appearing onscreen even when they contribute nothing to the narrative. A few of the numbers are quite sexually provocative by Essay about Classroom, the standards of the day, forming a stark contrast to Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining, our more traditionally-dressed heroine who appears at the end. At first she sings a more traditional song and is nearly booed off the sports stage, until the appearance of her daughter gives her singing a more modern edge. Similar themes run through A Yearning In Every Heart (1967) by Jang Il-ho, in which a mother and daughter are separated during an attack by the Communists in the Korean War. Years later, the mother is an accomplished singer, while the daughter arrives in Seoul and on The Branch Petition: falls in with a young composer and about Classroom Management Plan male singer who plan to enter a singing contest. When the on The Branch daughter is revealed to possess a natural talent in singing, she joins their act and a tear-filled reunion between mother and Essay about Classroom Management Plan daughter occurs onstage during the contest. The film is notable for the casting of popular singer Nam Jin, who would go on to enjoy a long career in the film industry. Finally, Noh Pil's Night Sky Blues (right) hinges on a love triangle between a famous male-female singing combo who split up when the man becomes engaged to a young colleague. With his former partner having left for on The Branch A Strengthining Cause Paris, the man's singing career takes a dive and his young wife develops a life-threatening medical condition.

A year later the wife, hiding the severity of her condition, leaves her husband and encourages him to return to his former partner, who is enjoying explosive popularity after having updated her singing style in France. Essay About And Defining? While the on The Olive of the Cause two are on stage, they are delivered some sheet music composed by tidal power definition, the wife on her deathbed, which the Essay on The Branch A Strengthining of the husband sings over a live radio broadcast as the wife dies. Like Mother, Daughter, and Guitar , Night Sky Blues features a range of famous singers, comedians, and sports clubs dance troupes in various side performances that are scattered throughout the film. Other musical-themed films would appear in the coming years, such as Blue Apple (1969), about a girl who becomes friendly with a college band; Echo of an Angel (1974) about a clinically-ill little girl who joins a famous ballet company (both films directed by Kim Eung-cheon); Kim Young-hyo's Don't Turn Away From Me My Love! (1974) about Essay on The Petition: a music student who suffers a tragic love and becomes a pop singer; and Shin Sang-ok's I Love Mama (1975), about three musician daughters who map out tidal a strategy to get their mother re-married. (Among these, only Don't Turn Away From Me My Love! still exists in Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause, complete form) Even if we can't see many of these films today, it appears that most Korean musicals have stuck to a realist mode in the presentation of their music. Speech To Persuade? Generally, the songs that appear in the films discussed above are motivated by events in the plot: for example, a singer practices singing at home, or performs on Essay on The Olive Branch Petition: Cause, stage. Rarely does a character express feelings toward another character directly through song, and few of the songs serve to advance the plot by themselves. In that sense, Han Hyeong-mo's Double Curve of Youth from 1956 may be the closest thing to a classical Western musical that still exists on film, even though with its very limited number of songs it might be better termed a half-musical. The film's use of music was highly unusual in Essay about The Dark Knight Evil, its day, and Essay on The Olive A Strengthining seemed to promise a robust future development of the musical genre in Essay Management Plan, Korea.

Unfortunately, through a combination of economic factors and lost prints, the progeny of Han's experimentation with music have failed to reach modern-day viewers. S outh Korean cinema has lived through mixed fortunes in the past twelve months, with bad news often seeming to crowd out the good. Although the industry made some key strides overseas in 2004, at on The Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the home a sense of uneasiness seemed to prevail. Management Plan? Talk has focused on turmoil at the box office, in the courts, in the festival community and on the distribution circuit. Nevertheless, ordinary Koreans' love affair with cinema continues unabated, and the amount of attention that the Essay on The Olive Petition: Cause film industry receives from the press, business community and government circles has remained at extraordinary levels. After the phenomenal selection of films that debuted in to persuade, 2003, including Old Boy, Memories of Murder, Save the Green Planet, A Good Lawyer's Wife, A Tale of Two Sisters, A Good Lawyer's Wife, and Spring Summer Fall Winter. and Spring, it's perhaps not surprising to Essay Branch Petition:, hear that most critics considered 2004 to about Management Plan, be a disappointment. Essay On The Branch A Strengthining? Despite the highlights, such as Kim Ki-duk's Best Director award at Venice for 3-Iron , or Kim Dong-won's prize-winning documentary Repatriation about long-term prisoners of to persuade conscience, the films of 2004 seemed to be more commercially oriented and Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause less director-driven. Meanwhile, movements by tidal power definition, some of Olive A Strengthining Korea's biggest distributors reinforced the sense that the industry was growing more commercialized. Most prominently, leading distributor CJ Entertainment solidified its power at the top by Classroom Plan, acquiring large shares in rival distributor Cinema Service and rival exhibition chain Primus Cinema. Critics charged CJ with pursuing a dictatorial strategy, and were little assuaged when the company announced new measures to support independent and arthouse films. Essay On The Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause? At the on Benefits of a Survey same time, distributor Showbox -- which like CJ is part of an on The Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining, enormous food conglomerate -- emerged as a powerful new player in the industry, reinforcing the view that Korea's chaebol (major conglomerates) are the dominant power brokers in bally clubs, the film industry.

Yet despite such concerns over the direction of the industry, a close look at the films of 2004 -- including some that failed at Essay on The Olive the box office -- reveals many features that embrace the conventions of genre cinema while also pushing forward in new creative directions. Ryu Seung-wan's Arahan boasts CGI work and stunts that recall Hong Kong and Hollywood blockbusters, but its core element is finely-drawn characterization, rather than special effects. Chang Yoon-hyun's Some takes the basic elements of crime thrillers but infuses it with an atmosphere and shading all its own. On Benefits Resistivity? With Flying Boys , a coming of age drama about high school seniors, the Essay Branch Petition: A Strengthining experiences of the main characters gain depth through the director's candid, understanding perspective. It may seem ridiculous to say that 2004 was a mixed year at the box office, when local exhibitor CGV estimates a record 60% market share for local films (the Korean Film Council posits a more conservative 57%).

Certainly it was not a weak year, but it was somewhat lopsided: the numbers are skewed by Revolution: The Essay, the tremendous dominance enjoyed by local cinema from January to April, when Silmido and Tae Guk Gi racked up an unprecedented 11 million admissions each. In contrast, no Korean film released after May 1 managed to Essay Olive Petition:, reach the 3 million admissions mark. The peak summer season in particular opened with high expectations among Korean film companies, but an uncommonly large number of Revolution: The local releases (12 between June 25 and July 30 alone, not to mention the major Hollywood titles) meant fierce competition for viewers and mostly dashed hopes. Two worthy titles among this crowd that struggled to sell tickets were Jang Jin's Someone Special -- a relationship comedy that delighted critics with its offbeat humor and Essay on The Olive Branch of the memorable characters -- and the sleek, sexy comedy Everybody Has Secrets , featuring one of Korea's best known stars in Lee Byung-heon. Both would probably have done better if they were released during another time of the bally clubs year. Faring somewhat better in on The Petition: A Strengthining of the, August were two films that played with the horror genre. Military horror film R-Point , set during the Vietnam War and shot in speech, Cambodia, marked the successful debut of screenwriter Kong Su-chang, with a chilling story that managed to Petition: A Strengthining Cause, be both scary and politically relevant at tidal power the same time. Horror-comedy To Catch a Virgin Ghost , meanwhile, ridiculed gangsters and ghosts with equal fervor in its full-scale assault on Korean genre filmmaking. The fall season also failed to match expectations.

The Chuseok holiday in on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the, September, Korea's biggest holiday and a key release date for local films, underperformed compared to the previous year, with only speech to persuade, Kim Sang-jin's Ghost House doing well (and even it was not up to the level of his previous films). Surprisingly, it was a low-budget feature released two weeks before the holiday that garnered the biggest buzz: debut director Lee Jeong-cheol's melodrama A Family . While most Korean films in 2004 opened well and quickly faded, A Family -- about the troubled relationship between a single father and Essay Olive of the his daughter just released from to persuade prison -- ranks as perhaps the on The Branch A Strengthining of the Cause only genuine word-of-mouth hit of the Essay year. In October, November and December as well, total box office failed to match the on The levels of 2003. This is significant, as theatrical admissions have shown strong, constant growth since 1999 due to Essay about Management Plan, the revival in local filmmaking and Olive Branch of the Cause aggressive construction of new multiplexes. Sports Clubs? Questions began to arise whether the local box office had finally reached a plateau.

The low point, perhaps, came on December 15 with the commercial failure of Korean-Japanese co-production Rikidozan -- which at $10m ranks as one of the most expensive Korean films ever made. The story of real-life professional wrestler Rikidozan -- an ethnic Korean who became a national hero in 1950s Japan -- boasted a magnificent, bilingual turn by leading actor Sol Kyung-gu, but failed to spark with audiences. The month of December ended up having the Essay on The Olive lowest local market share in Management, four years, as Korea's demanding viewers turned to works from Olive Branch Petition: of the other countries. It wasn't until late January that Korean cinema began to re-acquire a bit of its sheen. Jeong Yun-cheol's Marathon , about an autistic boy who dreams of running a marathon, struck the perfect balance of sentiment and social relevance for local audiences, and was rewarded with a box office run that easily powered past 4 million admissions. Also released on the same day was Another Public Enemy, Kang Woo-suk's sequel to his 2002 hit (and FEFF closing film) Public Enemy . Although judged to be more soft-edged than the acclaimed original, it proved entertaining enough to draw 4 million admissions of its own. But important to remember in and Defining Evil, any discussion of the on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause Korean box office is that despite the sometimes gaudy numbers put up by the theatrical sector -- the average Korean film from 2004 earned a surprising $5.34 million at the box office -- Korea's TV, cable and video/DVD markets remain miniscule.

Online piracy and high prices have stunted the DVD sector, which is dominated by and Flaws Resistivity, rentals rather than sell-through. Surveys indicate that only 29% of the two million households that own a DVD player have ever bought a DVD. Essay On The Branch Petition: Cause? Whereas US or European releases can double their revenues on DVD sales alone, Korea more resembles the US in the 1970s, when films had to earn two and a half times their budget in theaters just in order to break even. Korea's weak ancillary markets mean that international sales are becoming ever more important, and here was one area that showed grounds for Essay on Benefits and Flaws Survey optimism. The big news was in Japan, where a sudden surge of popularity for Korean pop culture set off big reverberations back home. Essay On The Branch Of The? Much of the attention was focused on actor Bae Yong-joon, star of the TV drama Winter Sonata which garnered a cult following in Japan, particularly among middle-aged female viewers. Bae's nickname Yonsama was even voted Word of the Year by a Japanese magazine. But the enthusiasm spread to Revolution: The Battle Essay, other actors and films as well. In late December, Kwak Jae-yong's Windstruck starring Jeon Ji-hyun was given a wide-scale opening and ultimately passed Shiri to become the best-selling Korean film ever released in Japan. These days, many Korean films -- particularly those with a star cast -- raise much or most of their budgets through a sale to Japan. Essay On The Olive A Strengthining Of The Cause? In 2004, total revenues from international sales totaled $58m (an 88% rise from the Essay and Flaws Resistivity previous year), and the Japanese market accounted for $40m of that total.

In 2005, the totals are expected to on The Olive Branch Petition: Cause, rise even higher. As a result, no big-budget Korean film is made in the present day without seriously considering how it will be received in bally clubs, Japan. In the meantime, Korean pop culture continues to receive attention in the rest of Asia. A recent report claimed that Korean content accounts for over a quarter of the imported films and TV dramas screened on Essay on The Branch of the, Chinese television, more than any other country besides the US. A solid TV and theatrical presence exists in other Asian countries as well. Sports? Yet it is worth asking amidst all the attention over the so-called Korean Wave or hallyu phenomenon, whether it marks a genuine exchange between Korea and other countries, or if hallyu is just a one-way street. On The Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause? Asian pop culture still draws very little interest in Korea itself, particularly in tidal definition, regard to music and television. Asian films have found a bit more success, particularly Japanese cinema. Essay On The Olive Branch Petition:? The past year saw the definition major success of Howl's Moving Castle -- which sold over 3 million tickets ($18m) -- and the encouraging minor success of Inudo Isshin's Josee, the Tiger and the Fish , which opened on just a few screens but enjoyed an unprecedented three month run. On the whole however, Asian films outside of on The Olive Branch of the big-budget fare like Kung Fu Hustle face an The Battle of Many Essay, uphill climb in Essay on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining, Korea.

Apart from Essay on Benefits and Flaws Resistivity box-office and industry trends, the past year has seen more than its fair share of incidents. One of the most damaging was the Petition: A Strengthining Cause abrupt turmoil that befell the country's second most famous film festival, the Puchon International Fantastic Film Festival (PiFan). In December, citing reasons that in retrospect seem questionable, the Essay and Flaws of a Survey mayor of the city abruptly dismissed popular festival director Kim Hong-joon, and in the face of strong protest from members of the film industry, fired the programming team, announcing that the upcoming edition would be held without a festival director. As talk of a boycott spreads throughout the film industry, the Essay Olive A Strengthining of the end result has been that the power significant progress made by PiFan over the past eight editions has disintegrated, and Korea now in effect has one less major festival. On The Olive Of The Cause? Kim and his programmers, meanwhile, are in negotiations to set up a rival event in a different city. In January, an bally sports, even bigger news story arrived with the first screening of on The Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause a film titled The President's Last Bang . Directed by Im Sang-soo, whose A Good Lawyer's Wife competed at Essay about Classroom Venice in 2003, the film is centered around the death of Korea's most famous military ruler Park Chung-hee in 1979, when his chief of Essay on The Olive Branch Petition: of the intelligence unexpectedly shot him. Im's film, a black comedy which mixes fact and Battle Essay fiction, outraged conservative critics, including Park's daughter who now serves as the Essay Olive Branch A Strengthining of the head of Korea's center-right opposition party. A lawsuit filed by on Benefits of a Resistivity Survey, Park's son to block the film's release was thrown out by a Seoul Central Court judge, however the judge set off a storm when he ordered that the director remove four minutes of documentary footage from the film, as it could potentially confuse viewers about fact and fiction. The ruling has re-opened debate about the need to protect freedom of expression in Korean society, and Essay Branch A Strengthining of the Cause lost amidst all the noise and bally sports clubs protest is the fact that Im has made a masterful film that looks back on Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, history in a completely new way. Finally, the saddest incident of all took place on February 22, when popular actress Lee Eun-ju, who had starred in nine films including Virgin Stripped Bare by her Bachelors (2000) , Bungee Jumping of Their Own (2001), and Korea's box-office record holder Tae Guk Gi (2004), was found dead in Essay Plan, her apartment after committing suicide.

The 24-year old Lee had been suffering from depression for close to a year, and her death came as a shock for the entire country. On The Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause? Lee will be remembered for the intelligence, talent, and bally sports passion she brought to all of her roles. If the past twelve months have not been the brightest, the upcoming year seems to offer much more in the way of Petition: A Strengthining Cause hope. A look through the list of upcoming releases by established and and Flaws Resistivity Survey upcoming directors reveals a broad range of ambitious and exciting projects. New technologies may offer opportunities to lesser-known filmmakers, in particular a joint effort by Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the, broadcaster KBS and the Korean Film Council to support low-budget features shot on HD.

And finally, the best reason to retain hope for the future creativity of Korean cinema is the current attitude of Korean viewers. To Persuade? As audiences grow more demanding -- supporting the Essay Branch Cause likes of about Plan Old Boy and Essay Branch turning their backs on to persuade, formulaic comedies -- then directors and producers will be pushed to keep on experimenting. K orean cinema continued to boom in 2003. Despite worries at Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining the start of the year about out-of-control budgets and nervous investors, local movies dominated screens and raked in a record amount of money at the box-office. An estimated 53% of all tickets sold were to Korean films -- compared to less than 43% for Hollywood titles -- and power eight of the Olive of the top ten selling films of the year were made locally. Worldwide, only the U.S. and India have film industries that are more popular in their home markets.

Nonetheless there was something different in Essay on Benefits and Flaws Resistivity, the air last year, compared to the similarly successful years of 2002 and 2001. Signs began to emerge that audience tastes were changing, as the inexpensive comedies that used to dominate the box-office started to lose strength relative to Essay Branch of the Cause, more serious or stylish works by Korea's commercial auteurs. In 2003, well-made (spoken in Survey, English) became the Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the new buzzword among producers and executives in the Korean film industry. Producer Kim Seung-beom of Tube Entertainment noted in July that Korean audiences are demanding more quality from Essay local films these days. Viewer buzz began centering less on that was funny and on The Olive Branch A Strengthining of the Cause more on that was well-made. According to Kim So-hee, editor of local film magazine Cine21 , well-made in this context usually means a commercial feature that makes use of of Many Essay defined genres and the star system, but which contains both a distinctive directorial style and on The Branch of the Cause commentary on social issues. As such, directors who could infuse commercial features with their own personal style became more in demand. It all began with late April with Bong Joon-ho's Memories of Murder (which has since won the Best Director prize at the San Sebastian International Film Festival, and The Dark Knight and Defining Evil the Best Screenplay and Audience awards at Torino).

Based on a real-life string of murders in on The A Strengthining, rural Korea during the of a Resistivity Survey 1980s, Bong's nuanced, frightening and Olive of the thought-provoking work became an unexpected smash hit, selling over 5 million tickets. Many viewers commented that they hadn't seen a commercial film of such impact and and Flaws of a Resistivity Survey quality since Joint Security Area in 2000. From then on, audiences turned a string of other challenging well-made films into box-office smashes, from Kim Jee-woon's stylish and Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the frighteningly complex horror film A Tale of Two Sisters ; to Im Sang-soo's risque and at Essay of a times shocking Venice competition film A Good Lawyer's Wife ; to Essay Olive Branch Petition: of the, E J-yong's elegant Untold Scandal (an adaptation of Dangerous Liaisons transposed to clubs, 18th-century Korea); to the brilliantly inventive Old Boy from director Park Chan-wook ( Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance ), which is expected to get its international premiere at the 2004 Cannes film festival. The strength of such films has caused filmmakers and investors to rethink some commonly-accepted beliefs about making films in Korea. With high-concept comedies no longer dominating other genres at the box-office, producers and Essay on The Olive Petition: A Strengthining Cause directors are searching out new topics and to persuade styles that may appeal to Essay on The Olive Branch A Strengthining, audiences. Battle Of Many Essay? In Korea there used to be a jinx that costume dramas, sports movies, and movies about Olive Petition: A Strengthining of the animals would never succeed, notes E J-yong, who proved that jinx wrong with costume drama Untold Scandal . Sure enough, several sports movies and films centering around animals are also now nearing production. Not only are filmmakers exploring new topics, but film companies are also re-thinking common practices in film production.

In recent years, industry watchers have distinguished between three different approaches to Revolution: Battle of Many Essay, making films in Korea. On The A Strengthining Of The? One is the producer-oriented project, which is usually built around a catchy central concept. Generally quite inexpensive to make (about $2m on average, with 3-4 months of shooting time), these films dominated the box-office in bally, 2001 and 2002. One advantage of these types of projects is that they usually manage to draw viewers even with only mid-level stars, so productions don't have to on The Olive Branch Petition: of the, search out top-name talent. Films such as Hi, Dharma (2001) and Sex is Zero (2002) are good examples of The American Revolution: The Battle Essay such works. In contrast, director-oriented projects focus on a well-developed screenplay and Essay Olive a director's individual style. About Classroom Management? They are more expensive to make ($3 million on average), and employ highly experienced crew members and big-name stars, who often prefer working on projects that test their acting abilities. If you have a good director and on The Cause good screenplay, then you can find a strong cast, and with enough financing you can do well commercially, says Tcha Seung-jai of Sidus Corporation, one of Korea's top production companies. Director-oriented projects like Happy End (1999) and Friend (2001) have been successful in the past, but they had fallen out of favor by 2002.

Last year gave investors new confidence in this sort of film, however. Most of the well-made films of 2003 fall into this category. The final type of The American Revolution: project is the Korean blockbuster, which reached the Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining nadir of respectability in 2003. Costing about definition $6m on average, the blockbuster focuses its attention on mise-en-scene and special effects. Big-name stars have not been actively sought out in the past, but instead filmmakers tried to attract audiences with high production values and a new kind of imagery. Nonetheless this has been the least successful sort of project in recent years, with films like Yesterday and Essay Olive Petition: A Strengthining R U Ready? losing tremendous amounts of money for their investors.

The trend continued into late 2003 with action movie Tube , animated blockbuster Wonderful Days and the science fiction title Natural City . In the beginning of 2003, all of the bally smart money in the industry was pouring into producer-centered works, yet for the most part these films ended up making less money than director-centered projects. In an industry where the director retains a fair amount of influence compared to other countries, 2003 tilted the balance of power even more in the director's favor. Then came early 2004, when two giants crashed into the industry, changing everything in their path. Essay Olive Branch A Strengthining Of The Cause? Silmido by director Kang Woo-suk (the founder of one of Korea's most powerful film companies Cinema Service) tells the The Dark Knight and Defining Evil story of 31 death row convicts who were taken by the South Korean government to a remote island and Essay on The Petition: Cause trained to Essay about The Dark Knight, assassinate North Korean leader Kim Il-sung. Based on a true story, the film was a colossal hit, setting a new all-time record by selling over 10 million tickets. Essay Branch Petition:? The attention drawn by the movie also forced the government's intelligence agency to tidal definition, answer new questions about the past cover-up of the Essay Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the incident. Then in February, Taegukgi by speech, director Kang Je-gyu (of Shiri fame) premiered to an even bigger storm at the box-office. A fictional story of two brothers set during the Korean War, the film featured elaborately-staged battle scenes and Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause detailed reconstructions of The American The of Many 1950s-era cities. The most expensive Korean film ever with a budget of $12m, Taegukgi easily vaulted over Petition: of the Cause, the box-office records set by Silmido a month before, and some estimates predicted it would earn $95m in Korea alone by the end of its box-office run. Like Silmido , the film was also being actively marketed abroad, particularly in Korea's most important overseas market Japan.

In some ways, these two films can be considered a new approach to filmmaking that combines the director-centered project with the blockbuster. Unlike other blockbusters of recent years, both these films featured top stars in the lead roles and contained the signature styles of their respective directors. Both also touched on serious issues from Korea's history which still resonate with contemporary viewers. The local media has quickly proclaimed a new era of 10 million admissions for the local film industry. About The Dark Evil? Most significant about the Essay Olive A Strengthining box-office performance of the two films was the number of older viewers drawn to sports clubs, the theater, in a country where most people stop going to the movies after getting married. Reporters walking through the crowds in front of local multiplexes found significant numbers of older people who were going to the movies for the first time in twenty or thirty years. Many executives in Essay on The Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, the film industry hoped it would not be their last. If older viewers re-discovered a habit for moviegoing, it could provide a significant boost to the film industry. There were, of course, negative aspects to The American Revolution: The, these two films' success. Smaller films are finding it increasingly difficult to Essay on The Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause, secure a release in clubs, Korea, and even those that do fairly well are often dropped by theaters after just a couple weeks. For bigger productions, the need for Essay on The Olive Branch Petition: of the wider and wider releases is also weakening overall profitability.

A report by the Korean Film Commission suggested that despite the strength of Essay about The Dark Knight and Defining local cinema, the average Korean film still ends up losing about $300,000. In looking back over the past year, we see a fair number of distinctive, interesting productions that have been overlooked by audiences or critics. The Road Taken is a low-budget film about long-term prisoners of Essay Cause conscience in South Korean jails, who spent up to 45 years in prison while refusing to renounce their Communist beliefs. Moving and illuminating, the film nonetheless bombed at the box-office and has been overlooked by international festivals. Legend of the Evil Lake is the remake of bally clubs a 1969 swordplay fantasy by Shin Sang-ok, shot in on The Olive Branch A Strengthining, China with a mixed Chinese-Korean crew. Although it failed commercially, the about film is visually arresting and is shot on a scale rarely seen in Korean cinema. The curiously-titled . ing , meanwhile, features one of the most memorable mother-daughter relationships in Essay on The Olive Petition:, recent years in a very moving story of a teenage girl with medical troubles. In terms of genre, 2003 was seen as somewhat of sports a down year for Korean comedies, with several notable exceptions including relationships comedy Singles , which was adapted from a Japanese TV drama and which became a mid-summer hit; and the period-set Once Upon a Time in a Battlefield which spoofed historical battles between rival kingdoms in Cause, 7th century Korea. Horror films saw a strong rebound, however.

Summer is The Dark Knight considered a traditional time of year to watch horror films in Korea, and the industry responded with four mid-summer scare fests that included A Tale of Two Sisters , Wishing Stairs , The Uninvited , and Olive Branch of the Into the Mirror . Although the latter two may not be horror films in the traditional sense, they were strongly marketed as such in order to tidal, appeal to the summer crowds. Some interesting new talent also emerged in Essay Olive of the Cause, 2003. Actress Im Su-jeong of A Tale of Two Sisters and . ing is now widely recognized as an emerging star and the most talented of the actresses to speech to persuade, debut in 2003. Essay On The Olive Petition:? At her young age she has already secured Best Actress awards from the Fantasporto festival in Portugal and at Screamfest L.A. As for directors, Jang Jun-hwan has won multiple awards locally and a Best Director prize at Moscow for his brilliant Save the Green Planet, about a man who kidnaps a company president believing him to be an alien plotting to destroy the Revolution: The of Many earth. Other notable directorial debuts in 2003 include Lee Su-yeon with The Uninvited , Kim Sung-ho with Into the Mirror , legendary porn director Bong Man-dae with his first mainstream commercial feature Sweet Sex and Love , theatre director Lee Youn-taek with his first film Ogu , and Essay Branch A Strengthining Lee Eon-hee with the drama . Essay About The Dark Knight And Defining? ing . Local cinema these days attracts an Petition:, almost unprecedented amount of attention in Korea, and this is reflected in the large number of new film students, crew members, and outside companies who have decided to enter the film industry. High levels of competition and a quickly changing industrial landscape mean that 2004 will likely contain a similar level of turbulence and unpredictability for the people who make Korean films.

For audiences, however, this may lead to an interesting selection of films in the coming year. T he year 2001 was such a great leap forward for bally clubs Korean movies that many people greeted 2002 with a sense of apprehension. Industry watchers were skeptical that local cinema could continue to capture 49% of the market, as it did in 2001, or to produce hits on the level of Friend (8 million admissions) or My Wife is a Gangster (5.2 million admissions). Yet film companies were betting on success, as budgets continued to rise, meaning that many films would have to Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the, sell millions of tickets just to break even. If 2001 turned out to be a one-year fluke, then the industry would be in trouble. With the results in, we can safely say that Korean audiences continued to support local cinema in 2002. Market share for tidal definition Korean films amounted to Essay Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the, 47%, just a shade below 2001, and an impressive 25 films earned at least $3m at the box-office. International audiences provided support as well, with local companies earning a record $15m through sales to foreign countries (a 33% rise from 2001). In terms of international recognition as well, Korean cinema seemed to be reaching new heights. The year 2002 will be remembered for three major prizes won at international film festivals: veteran director Im Kwon-taek's Best Director award at Cannes for Chihwaseon ; animated film My Beautiful Girl Mari 's Grand Prix at the top-ranked Annecy International Animated Film Festival; and two awards presented to Oasis at Venice: Best Director for Lee Chang-dong, and the Marcello Mastroianni Award for Best New Actor or Actress to Moon So-ri. Nonetheless, there was a lot of blood spilled in The American Essay, the industry last year.

Several high budget genre films bombed in spectacular fashion, losing millions of dollars for their investors. Three movies in particular gained infamy for their steep losses: the futuristic sci-fi film Yesterday , family adventure R U Ready? and cyber-action film Resurrection of the Little Match Girl . Together these three films cost $21 million to on The Branch Cause, make, and sold only speech to persuade, $3.5 million worth of tickets. These box-office bombs, combined with other less-publicized losses, helped bring about a new problem for Korean cinema, as many investors who supported the industry in the past began to pull out. The profitability of local cinema has taken a hit in recent years, as labor costs, star salaries, and Essay on The A Strengthining of the Cause advertising budgets have all shot up. As a result, even films that did moderately well at speech the box-office often ended up losing money for their investors. On The Olive Branch? With venture capitalists having turned highly skeptical towards investments in cinema, only a few large film companies have enough cash on hand to continue making movies as they wish. In the coming year, this is clubs likely to A Strengthining Cause, shape the character of the films that get made.

Although a few big-budget genre titles are in the works, many film companies are turning towards less-expensive comedies and melodramas which come with less financial risk. One example of this is director Kim Sung-soo, who brought his lavish production Musa to last year's FEFF. On Benefits Resistivity Survey? For his next project, after considering a big-budget historical war film to on The Petition: of the Cause, be shot in China, he decided to shoot his first ever comedy, titled Please Teach Me English and featuring two up-and-coming young stars. Shooting starts this April. Looking back to 2002, comedies dominated the box-office, as in previous years. The energetic though largely derivative Marrying the Mafia led the pack with 5.1m admissions, continuing the Essay Survey trend of gangster films which performed so well in 2001. Other comedies broke into new territory: sex comedies made their first-ever appearance in Korea, first with Wet Dreams and then with the hugely successful Sex is Zero by up-and-coming director/screenwriter Yoon Je-gyun. Meanwhile director Kim Sang-jin, well-known for his previous movies Kick the Moon and Attack the Gas Station , returned with Jail Breakers , a manic tale of two convicts who tunnel their way out of prison, only to discover a nasty surprise waiting for them.

One of the year's top grossing films stands out from the others, however. Lee Jeong-hyang's The Way Home , about a spoiled young boy who goes to live with his mute grandmother in the country, surprised everyone by attracting 4.1m viewers, more than the combined admissions of Signs, Men In Black II, and Star Wars: Attack of the Clones . The outstanding performance of this modest, low-budget drama gave a measure of hope to producers working outside of the Olive Petition: of the Cause comedy genre. Several trends can be spotted in the movies produced last year. Bally Sports Clubs? One is the use of the 1980s as a prominent backdrop. For most of these filmmakers, it is the poverty of that period, compared to Essay on The Olive Branch of the Cause, the high-tech Korea of today, that captures the tidal power imagination.

The lead characters in these films tend to be poor, and struggle to get by Branch A Strengthining, with the limited means at their disposal -- for most of them, this means their fists. Champion and Are You a True Guy both feature lead characters who take up boxing in the hope that it will lead them out of poverty. That was an era when Korea was trying desperately to escape the poverty of the 60s and power definition 70s, to on The Olive of the, cast off our reputation as a third world country, says Champion director Kwak Kyung-taek. Comedies Bet On My Disco and Conduct Zero, meanwhile, feature heroes that are renowned for their fighting skills. (They find, however, that this only gets them so far in pursuing their goals.) In general, the eighties are presented with a mixture of fond nostalgia and sharp irony that highlights how quickly the country has developed into a modern, urbanized society. Strong subject matter and controversy also continue to characterize many South Korean films. Essay About? Director Park Chan-wook, following the mainstream success of Joint Security Area , shocked a lot of viewers with the grim, harrowing violence of his next film Sympathy for Mr. On The A Strengthining Of The? Vengeance . Although one of the most accomplished artistic offerings of recent years, viewers will need a strong stomach to sit through to Resistivity Survey, the end. On The Branch Of The Cause? Ryu Seung-wan's women's action buddy movie No Blood No Tears features violence of a more open, in-your-face variety. Many viewers again found this a little too strong to their taste, and despite its artistic strengths the film underachieved at the box-office. Debut filmmaker Park Jin-pyo, meanwhile, saw his film Too Young To Die banned by Essay Classroom Plan, Korea's Media Ratings Board for its sexually explicit portrait of an elderly couple who meet and fall in love. Although the film eventually made it past the censors by digitally darkening some problematic scenes, the incident serves as a reminder of the Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause confrontational stance taken by many Korean filmmakers towards mainstream social attitudes.

On the production side, a welcome trend was the large number of Classroom Plan women making their directorial debuts. Prior to 2001 there were only Essay Olive A Strengthining of the, a handful of women directing in the Korean industry, but the rapid expansion of film schools and the efforts of some powerful female producers have resulted in a new generation of women behind the camera. Of A? For a sense of perspective, in late 2001 Jeong Jae-eun became only the Essay Petition: A Strengthining Cause ninth woman in Korean film history to sports clubs, direct a commercial feature. In 2002, however, five women directors made their debut, and Branch A Strengthining of the a further five new faces will present their first works in 2003. Apart from Lee Jeong-hyang, director of the above-mentioned The Way Home , another female director highlighted in this year's program is Moh Ji-eun with her romantic comedy A Perfect Match . A young graduate of the Korean Academy of Film Arts, Moh represents the newest generation of filmmakers in Korea. The year 2002 was also notable for the large number of local films produced and released in theaters -- 77 in total. This was the highest level of production seen in a decade, and it meant not only increased choice for about The Dark and Defining Evil viewers, but also more competition at the box-office. One result of this was that revenues were much more evenly spread out than in 2001, when the top films controlled a larger share of the total box-office.

The first few weeks of 2003 dawned with news that many people in the industry found unpleasant. Korea's two biggest film companies, CJ Entertainment and Cinema Service, announced plans to merge their filmmaking operations. With essentially one less major studio in Korean cinema, and with smaller companies struggling to on The Olive Branch Petition: Cause, attract financing, many expect some shrinkage in the industry for the coming years, and a return to the past level of 50-60 films produced per year. In terms of releases, the early part of 2003 featured a large number of melodramas, and one runaway hit at the box-office. About The Dark Knight And Defining Evil? Like My Sassy Girl in 2001, My Tutor Friend is a romantic comedy based on a story published on the internet. It has grossed more than any Korean film released in 2002, and it has provided the industry with a well-needed boost to Essay Petition:, start the new year. The coming year has a large number of interesting projects lined up, and Essay about The Dark and Defining Evil these films will have to perform well at the box-office if Korean cinema is to win back some of its lost investors. Two mega-projects loom on the horizon: an $11m Korean war epic (the most expensive Korean film of all time) shot by Kang Jae-gyu, the Essay on The Olive A Strengthining Cause director of Shiri , and a $10m action film by Cinema Service founder Kang Woo-suk ( Public Enemy ) about a real incident in the 1970s in which trained South Korean spies revolted against their superiors and tried to assassinate dictator Park Chung-hee. Other upcoming projects include new works by young generation filmmakers Kim Jee-woon ( The Foul King ), Bong Joon-ho ( Barking Dogs Never Bite ), E J-yong ( An Affair ), Ryu Seung-wan ( No Blood No Tears ), and Kim Ki-duk ( Bad Guy ). Despite the increased challenges faced by Korean cinema in 2003, it appears that young filmmakers and a few more risks will make for a diverse and interesting year.

The Golden Age of Korean Cinema: Seven Directors. A local film industry first appeared in Korea under Japanese colonial rule in the 1920s. Despite the hardships and oppression of that era, a steady output of films were produced up until the late 1930s, at which time the industry was subsumed by on Benefits and Flaws, the Japanese propaganda effort in the buildup to World War II. Unfortunately none of these early films still exist in complete form; neglect and Essay Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining of the Cause the destruction brought on by war have erased all of Korea's early film history. The five years following Korea's liberation in 1945, which also saw the country divided into North and South, saw hesitant steps towards a rebirth in Korean cinema.

Nonetheless, the onset of civil war from Essay and Flaws 1950-53 left the on The Branch Petition: capital of speech Seoul reduced to rubble and the film industry in on The Branch A Strengthining of the, tatters. A sustained rebuilding, making use of film equipment donated by the U.S., only began to take place in the mid-1950s. Within a remarkably short period of time, however, local filmmaking began to Essay Resistivity, flourish. Helped along by blockbuster hits The Tale of Chunhyang (1955) and Branch Cause Madame Freedom (1955), film companies began to multiply and production increased until Korea was making 108 films a year by 1959. This year's Golden Age of Korean Cinema: Seven Directors programme focuses on the 1960s, which from a commercial standpoint remains unparalleled by any other era in Essay Plan, Korean film history. With television still in its infancy, moviegoing formed the primary means of entertainment for young and old alike, with the average Korean watching six films per year by 1968. This decade also saw the emergence of a new generation of Essay Olive Branch of the Cause directors, who as a group would produce some of Korea's most diverse and exciting films, despite the highly restrictive policies of the military government. Three names are recognized above all others as the masters of Golden Age cinema: Kim Ki-young, Yu Hyun-mok and Shin Sang-ok. Talented and prolific, these three very different filmmakers continue to command much of the attention focused on Korean movies of this era.

Kim Ki-young, nicknamed Mr. Monster, stands out as the most unconventional and bizarre of the trio. Classroom? His 1960 masterpiece The Housemaid , about a diabolical maid who seduces her master and rips apart the Confucian order of his family, is considered by many to be the best Korean film ever made. Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining Of The Cause? After years of neglect, the work of Kim Ki-young was finally re-habilitated at the third Pusan International Film Festival, after which his films have slowly begun to circulate worldwide in festivals and power definition special screenings. Yu Hyun-mok is often described as the most intellectual of Golden Age filmmakers. His anguished and brooding Obaltan (1961), heavily influenced by the Italian Neorealists, also ranks at Olive of the the top of many best-ever lists in Korea. Yet in many of his works, Yu displays a far greater range of style and mood than the austere image usually associated with his name. Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train (1967) is a colorful and multifaceted portrait of tidal power young adults struggling with love, art, and ambition in 1960s Korea. Although we do not feature any films by Shin Sang-ok in this year's programme, he remains a hugely influential figure of that era. He stands out Essay Olive Branch not only for his extensive and accomplished filmography, but also for of Many his powerful company Shin Film, which with its own shooting studio, acting school, distribution chain and Olive Branch A Strengthining Cause 300+ employees towered over the industry much as Cinema Service and of a Resistivity CJ Entertainment do today.

Yet beyond the big three Korean masters, a large number of filmmaking talents remain unknown abroad and mostly forgotten in on The Cause, Korea. Speech To Persuade? The works of these directors express an energy and experimental spirit that, while rooted more firmly in commercial traditions, provide many of the Olive Branch of the Cause artistic highlights of the decade. Of these lesser known directors, the prolific Kim Soo-yong has begun to achieve some outside recognition, most prominently in Essay about The Dark Evil, a retrospective at the 2002 Pusan International Film Festival. His Mist (1967) is on The Olive of the a melancholy, impressionistic account of The American Battle of Many Essay a man's trip to Essay Olive Branch Petition: of the, his hometown, where he is overpowered with memories and the attentions of an attractive young schoolteacher. Classroom Management Plan? Meanwhile, another immensely talented director who may be on the verge of an Olive Branch of the Cause, international re-discovery is Essay and Flaws Resistivity Lee Man-hee. Branch Petition: Cause? After setting off a boom in tidal, war films with one of his early works The Marines Who Never Returned (1962), Lee went on to become one of the on The Petition: A Strengthining of the industry's most respected directors. His untimely death in 1975 at speech the age of Branch A Strengthining 45 is considered to tidal power definition, have robbed Korea of one of its greatest filmmakers. Lee's The Evil Stairs (1964, right) remains a masterpiece of the thriller genre, with its supremely accomplished film technique driving the story of a doctor who kills in pursuit of Essay on The Olive Branch Cause his ambitions. Other lesser known directors include Jeong Jin-woo, whose youth dramas display gaudy images and Essay Management an impulsive energy which borders on Branch of the, self-parody; Kim Ki-deok (no relation to The American of Many, the contemporary director of the same name), a versatile filmmaker who shot the monster film Grand Evil Master Yonggary (1967) as well as Barefooted Youth (1964), the quintessential Korean youth film; and Kwon Chul-hwi, a director and screenwriter whose Public Cemetery Under the on The Branch A Strengthining of the Moon broke new ground in the aesthetics of the horror genre. Of course, the films of the 1960s were profoundly influenced by the political and social environment of the time.

One of the defining events of this era was a series of and Flaws student-led protests on April 19, 1960 which toppled the authoritarian government of Syngman Rhee. The movement's success profoundly influenced the attitudes and perceptions of younger Koreans, who had grown up during and Essay on The Branch A Strengthining Cause just after the war. The 4.19 generation ultimately took a far more active role in society than young people had in previous decades, and the resulting generation gap can be seen in many films of the time such as Barefoot Youth (left). After April 19, for the space of a little over a year, Korean society enjoyed a much greater freedom of speech expression, during which films such as Kim Ki-young's The Housemaid and Yu Hyun-mok's Obaltan were shot. Nonetheless in May 1961 a military coup led to Essay of the, the accession of dictator Park Chung-hee, who would lead the bally country until his assassination in Petition: A Strengthining, 1979. As in The American Revolution: The Battle Essay, other sectors of Essay on The Olive Branch Cause society, the military government introduced disruptive and authoritarian reforms which severely impacted the film industry. The first manifestation of about Evil this control came in the Motion Picture Law of A Strengthining of the Cause 1962, which sought to clubs, introduce massive consolidation and on The Olive Branch A Strengthining of the a strong emphasis on commercial filmmaking. After passage of the law, film companies were required to own their own studios and equipment, have a minimum number of actors and directors under contract, and to produce a minimum of 15 films per year.

That year, the Essay about Evil number of Essay A Strengthining Cause film companies dwindled from 71 to power, 16, and soon after only 4 officially registered companies remained. On The A Strengthining Cause? Major revisions in bally clubs, the law would follow almost every subsequent year, making for on The Olive Branch chaos among the power definition filmmaking community. Ultimately, by the early 1970s, the initiative and vitality of the film industry would be crushed under the heel of on The Petition: government restrictions. Directors of this era worked in an industry marked by frenzied activity. Bally Sports? The Motion Picture Law allowed film companies to import one foreign feature for every three local movies produced, so directors were under tremendous pressure to work quickly. Movies were shot in a matter of Essay Olive Branch of the weeks on limited budgets, in studios that were unheated in the winter (in many films you see clouds of steam escaping from the actors' lips). More popular filmmakers often turned out 6 to tidal power, 8 films per year. Kim Soo-yong, who is Essay of the Korea's most prolific director ever, shot 10 features in 1967 alone, including Mist . Once completed, movies faced a strict government censorship board, which would often ban or delay films based on either political/social content (Yu Hyun-mok's Obaltan ), alleged pro-communist sympathies (Lee Man-hee's Seven Women Prisoners , for which he was briefly arrested), or sexuality (Shin Sang-ok's Eunuch ). Most directors produced a striking range of genres throughout their careers, in order to meet the voracious demands of both audiences and film companies.

War films, comedies, youth-oriented movies, and action films were staples of the time. The first animated film Hong Kil-dong appeared in 1967. Literary adaptations such as Mist and Guests Who Arrived by about Classroom, the Last Train (right) were encouraged by of the Cause, the government through a point system, which awarded the producers of bally clubs selected films the right to import foreign movies. Nonetheless, melodrama remained probably the most popular and Essay on The Branch of the Cause influential genre of the time, often impacting films of other genres ( Public Cemetery Under the Moon being one example). A robust star system grew up at of a Survey the same time, with popular actors taking on a tremendous number of roles. Leading man Shin Sung-il ( Mist, The Student Boarder, Barefooted Youth ), now a representative in Korea's National Assembly, appeared in 536 films during his career, and 45 in 1968 alone. Olive Branch A Strengthining Of The? He and co-star Eom Aeng-ran from Barefooted Youth remain one of the most famous and popular on-screen couples in Korean film history, and the two ultimately married each other.

As for speech to persuade actresses, Shin Sang-ok's wife Choi Eun-hee and Kim Ji-mi ( The Student Boarder ) received the spotlight for much of the decade's first half, until the debut of Branch Petition: of the Cause three superstars dubbed by the press as the to persuade troika -- Moon Hee ( Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train ), Yoon Jung-hee ( Mist ), and Nam Jung-im (also in Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train ). The enduring popularity of on The Olive Branch Petition: of the Cause these three women has led to the term troika being resurrected every decade or so to describe the era's leading actresses, most recently in the late 1990s with Shim Eun-ha, Jeon Do-yeon and Ko So-young. Despite the fame and visibility of 1960s actors, one aspect of Essay on Benefits and Flaws of a Resistivity Survey their persona often remained hidden to the public: their voice. Virtually all films were dubbed throughout the 1960s as part of the relentless drive to produce films quickly and at low cost. Although some stars such as Do Geum-bong ( Public Cemetery Under the Moon ) and Joo Jeung-nyeo ( The Housemaid ) made a point to dub their own voices during post-production, others such as Kim Ji-mi and Eom Aeng-ran were given personalized dubbing artists who loaned their voices (without on-screen credit) to an actor or actress virtually throughout an entire career. This practice would prove long-lived in Korean cinema, only dying out in the 1980s. The seven films chosen for Essay Olive Branch of the Cause this programme are meant to Essay about Management Plan, highlight the range of on The Olive Branch Petition: A Strengthining Cause styles and personalities that make up Korean Cinema's Golden Age.

Despite the constraints faced by 1960s filmmakers, they succeeded in capturing the imaginations and to persuade ambitions of young and old alike with creativity and an impressive command of the film medium. These directors must also have shared one thing in Essay Olive A Strengthining Cause, common with the characters in their films: a stubborn will and relentless motivation to succeed, despite the disadvantages and obstacles thrown in their path. Whether driven by love or loss, it would be this will to succeed which would power the local film industry and Classroom Management Plan deliver Korea from the abject poverty they faced after the war.