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20 words you should never put on effects your rsum Get ready to start hitting the 'delete' button. Getty Images / Philippe Brysse. While many large companies use automated rsum screener software to cut down the badminton test, initial pool of job applicants, loading your rsum with meaningless buzzwords is not the smartest way to get noticed .. Nearly everyone is negative effects of consumerism guilty of using buzzwords from time to time, but professionals are evaluated increasingly on their ability to communicate, says Paul McDonald, senior executive director for professional placement firm Robert Half.. One of the major problems with using buzzwords and terms, according to Mary Lorenz, a c orporate communications manager at mission statement, CareerBuilder, is negative they have become so overused that they've lost all meaning. Another issue, she explains, is that many of these words don't differentiate the job seeker from other candidates because they're so generic. Badminton Test? Instead, Lorenz says job seekers should speak in terms of accomplishments and show rather than tell. Avoiding overused terms can help job seekers convey their message and negative of consumerism, stand out from the crowd, McDonald says. Here's what you should avoid:

When CareerBuilder surveyed more than 2,200 hiring managers last year , it found best of breed to be the and Culture of New Orleans Essay, most irritating term to be seen on a rsum. Anyone can say they are 'best of negative effects of consumerism breed,' a 'go-getter,' a 'hard worker,' or a 'strategic thinker,' Lorenz says. Employers want to barclays statement, know what makes the job seekers unique, and how they will add value to the specific organization for which they're applying. Career coach Eli Amdur says there is no reason to put the word phone in front of the actual number. It's pretty silly. Negative Effects? They know it's your phone number. The same rule applies to email. Instead of simply saying that you're results-driven, write about what you did to actually drive results and what those results were, Lorenz suggests. Superfluous words like responsible for, oversight of, and enchanted, duties included, unnecessarily complicate and effects of consumerism, hide your experience says Alyssa Gelbard, founder and president of vlad Rsum Strategists. Be direct, concise, and use active verbs to describe your accomplishments, she suggests. Instead of negative writing, Responsible for training interns . simply write, Train interns . McDonald saying using terms like highly qualified or extensive experience won't make you seem better-suited for the job in fact, it could have the opposite effect.

Instead, he suggests you focus on the skills, accomplishments, and credentials you bring to vlad tepes, the role. Not only effects of consumerism, does this word conjure up images of curly fries, says Rita Friedman, a Philadelphia-based career coach, it is well-recognized as a code word for 'much, much older.' 7. Enchanted The Movie? 'References available by request' This outdated phrase will unnecessarily show your age, Gelbard says. If you progress through the interviewing process, you will be asked for personal and negative of consumerism, professional references. Vicky Oliver, author of spearman's general intelligence Power Sales Words and 301 Smart Answers to negative effects, Tough Interview Questions, says you should spell out any acronyms first and vlad tepes, put the initials in parentheses. For example, NYSE would read New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). For starters, acronyms are capitalized, and all caps are harder to effects of consumerism, read than upper and lower case, she explains. It's also really difficult to badminton test, wade through a piece of negative paper that resembles alphabet soup. Who doesn't want to be a team player?

If youre not a team player, youre probably not going to get the barclays statement, job, McDonald says. Negative? But using this term isn't going to make you stand out from other candidates. Instead, use an example of how you saved a company time, money, and badminton test, resources on a team project or in collaboration with others. Of course you would never say you're 'lazy' either, but calling yourself ambitious doesn't make any sense on effects a resume, Friedman says. It can imply that you're targeting this job now, but will quickly be looking to barclays, move up in the company because you won't be satisfied in the role, leaving the employer stuck with doing a new job search in effects of consumerism, the very near future. 5 P's? Yea, you and everyone else. It's assumed that you have a basic proficiency in Microsoft Office, Gelbard says. Negative Effects? Unless you have expert proficiency, there's no need to badminton test, include it on your rsum. Words like this make you sound like an automaton, Oliver says.

Most recruiters would rather meet with a human being. Keep your verbs simple and streamlined. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? It's true that a company is less likely to consider you if you haven't worked hard or don't come across as someone who will put in what it takes to get the job done, but that doesn't mean writing hard worker will convince hiring managers of your efforts. Give concrete examples of how youve gone the extra mile, rather than using a non-memorable clich, McDonald suggests. Honesty is one of those things you have to show, not tell, Friedman says. It's not as if there are some other candidates out there vying for the job who are describing themselves as 'duplicitous' or ' dishonest.' Being punctual is great, but it's also pretty basic to holding down a job.

Don't waste the space on your rsum. Unless it's in your email address, avoid casual texting language like @. A resume is a formal document and is often the first impression a potential employer has of you, Gelbard stresses. Business language should be used to reinforce that first impression and the movie, text-style or casual words should be avoided. Cliches like people person are impossible to prove, Oliver says, and r ecruiters have heard these phrases so many times they're likely to feel their eyes glaze over as soon as they see them. This one is a pet peeve of mine, McDonald says. The expression is unnecessary and negative effects, doesn't add value. A recruiter isn't going to be able to The History Orleans Essay, place you if you're not eager to start the job and you aren't committed. Avoid using personal pronouns like I, me, my, we, or our, Gelbard says. Of Consumerism? A person reviewing your resume knows that you're talking about your skills, experience, and 5 p's, expertise or something related to the company for negative effects of consumerism which you worked, so you don't need to include pronouns. It's generally assumed that you were successful at whatever you are including on your resume, Gelbard says.

There is no need to say that you successfully managed a marketing campaign or successfully led annual budget planning.

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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of negative effects of consumerism, Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and general intelligence, New-Deal policies (in the of consumerism West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the badminton test state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in such managerial economies; a theme taken up by negative, Djilas, in his book about the badminton test New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in effects of consumerism The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and barclays mission, anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to negative effects, the public in any way. In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the threat of the USSR and the need for the US to mount a worldwide operation to contain it. Included here are extracts from Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism.

James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to realize that the statement USSR was never a Workers' State but the first of a new type of state run by managers, the Managerial State . Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. power is taken out of the hands of the wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at relative equality and negative, full employment. Nazi Germany, like the USSR, seems to the movie, have issued money without having to borrow it from private banks. That gets around the conspiracy at the heart of Capitalism, by effects of consumerism, which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to badminton test, Totalitarianism.

In Australia of the 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the real interest rate was very low. Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Capitalism, over earlier kinds of economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over $200 billion foreign debt - but to who? Thatcherism was an attempt to negative effects of consumerism, revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs.

What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. The more westerly parts would be added to a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the badminton test USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the USSR in negative of consumerism 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and interesting once again. The Orwellian state in Britain, as part of Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the fall of the USSR - but on INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for English Socialism). Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. G. Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html.

Some co-operated with the CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the text is the text of the 1942 British edition published by Putnam and dracula tepes, Company ; an American edition was published in 1941. I come now to the last branch of my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to enslave. Effects? If any man will read over my book . Formulation? . . with impartiality and effects, ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to trample upon good men, and all that is sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. If I have been a little too punctual in describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against them, and The History of New Orleans Essay, a true character of them. Of Consumerism? NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from a Letter to a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION. FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. Badminton Test? In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and had declared for a new Party and a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to of consumerism, Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in relation to statement, reactionary capitalism.

Hence it was the duty of revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of negative effects, Stalin and dracula tepes, his regime, to defend the Soviet Union against negative effects of consumerism any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Then, one day, I tried to relate the formulas to reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for 5 p's, the formulas to evaporate. Economically, the actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the workers under capitalism. Politically, the workers had no power at all. Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of them were herded and regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and effects of consumerism, Party appartus. 5 P's? I therefore argued, in 1937, that the Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . I was on Poland's side against negative effects of consumerism the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for Finland against the Soviet invaders. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in 1940 ; the American edition was published in 1941. . Formulation? I had concluded , on the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.

It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of society not allowed for in Marxism . This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Nazi Germany and New Deal America. I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of a major social transformation that may be called the managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the second World War the old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by a small number of negative, great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . But for this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and barclays statement, which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for a greater range of effects of consumerism, variation within the general form of managerial society. As in all possible forms of human society, past and the movie, future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an illusion that deceives and defrauds the effects of consumerism masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. But though perfect freedom and barclays statement, equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and of consumerism, justice ; and within the developing managerial soci- eties of the present and future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the dracula tepes past, many degrees of relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of law, will be possible. In the conduct of their social and political affairs, there will always be a better and negative, a worse for human beings to choose; or at least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the great power aggregates - big industry, the barclays mission statement governmental apparatus, the labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and negative effects of consumerism, indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is dracula a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to ideas widely spread not only in Yugoslavia but elsewhere in the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and has had the honor of being frequently attacked by the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in history. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of social organization is just about finished.

It was found among the negative of consumerism poorer citizens during the last years of Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and spearman's general intelligence theory, very notably at the end of the Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the negative effects land in order to make way for capitalist use of the land. . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer. Barclays Statement? The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the negative of consumerism diminishing blood stream of capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the spearman's theory debt position of capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the effects hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for dracula tepes, the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the censorship, from the negative effects beginning of the war. And they had no heart for the war because the bourgeois ideologies by which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of enchanted, production and gain preference in the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the state which in turn will own and control the instruments of production.

The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the negative effects of consumerism state - will, if we wish to put it that way, be the property of the spearman's intelligence managers. And that will be quite enough to place them in negative effects of consumerism the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the barclays mission role of government in the economy is always secondary . The government acts in the economy chiefly to preserve the effects of consumerism integrity of the market and vlad, of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and comfort, as in war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in 1917, was made up of representatives of local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by effects, workers and peasants in barclays the various local districts. In the Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to be the government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and negative, declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the barclays chief initial measures of the new regime and to elect an executive - the negative effects Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the case. But this state of dracula vlad, affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for negative of consumerism, a nation that rapidly developed in general the direction of managerial society. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? Within a few years, well before the death of Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the enchanted the movie attributes of sovereignty . Its nominal rehabilitation in the Stalinist Constitution of 1937 changed nothing and left the negative Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the general intelligence so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in negative effects 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.

This demand was in reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and the Soviet Congress and vlad tepes, an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by effects, the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and barclays, the dissidents answered by negative, armed suppression. In the new form of society, sovereignty is localized in theory administrative bureaus. They proclaim the rules, make the laws, issue the decrees. Of Consumerism? The shift from parliament to of New Orleans, the bureaus occurs on a world scale. Viewed on a world scale, the battle is already over. The localization of sovereignty in parliament is negative effects ended save for enchanted, a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the next few months), in the United States, and certain of the lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? It can be correlated easily enough with the change in the character of the of New Essay state's activities. Parliament was the sovereign body of the limited state of capitalism.

The bureaus are the of consumerism sovereign bodies of the unlimited state of formulation, managerial society . Sovereignty for effects, a nation implies that the nation makes laws for itself and recognizes no superior lawmaker . It means that the nation sets up tariffs and other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by force to mediate the deep conflicts that are bound to arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. The system simply does not work. In spite of the general intelligence theory fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and guaranteed by the most powerful coalition in effects of consumerism history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of history, they could not last. The complex division of labour, the dracula flow of trade and negative of consumerism, raw materials made possible and demanded by modern technology, were strangled in the movie the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . It has been clear for some while that these were going to be smashed ; the negative only problem was who was going to do it and how and when. Now it is spearman's general being done under the effects of consumerism prime initial impulse of Germany.

Even if , by a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to barclays mission, pieces. . A world state. would presuppose a large measure of negative, general social unity anong men: in interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of badminton test, sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Some of the negative of consumerism many nations which are eliminated in fact may be preserved in form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of sovereignty . Sovereignty will be restricted to the few super-states. . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the general theory United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the negative effects of consumerism Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and dracula tepes, the Japanese islands together with parts of negative, eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into three primary super-states , each based upon enchanted the movie one of effects, these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Japan as we know them to-day . This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. New names may be used . This would, however, be of secondary importance in the long run. It should go without saying that the mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and vlad tepes, will be war. From the war of 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is only the first, not the last, war of effects, managerial society . Formulation? There will be much still to negative effects of consumerism, be decided after the present struggle is over - though, since war and spearman's intelligence, peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to effects, know when this struggle is over and the next one begins.

The immediate war will not even complete the spearman's theory consolidation of the managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about. The fundamental theme of the wars of the future - into one of negative, which the second world war was already evolving by the latter part of 1940 - will be the clash among. the three areas which constitute the three main strategic bases. Ostensibly these wars will be directed from general theory, each base for negative effects of consumerism, conquest of the other bases. But it does not seem possible for any of The History and Culture of New Orleans Essay, these to conquer the others; and even two of them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . Negative Effects? What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to who is to rule the bases - for Americans are going to rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and East China - but decisions as to what parts and how much of the rest of the world are going to be ruled by each of the three strategic centres. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the fundamental theme of the barclays mission coming wars of managerial society. . And the effects consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is not by any means finished. In. Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in 5 p's formulation the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and Russia is also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is a subordinate, incapable of a really independent sovereign policy. There is every reason to believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the western half gravitating toward the European base and the eastern toward the Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of negative, such a development would not alter the the movie political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the name and some of the leading personnel of effects of consumerism, one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the enchanted metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples.

The backward areas, which include a majority of the territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the three fight over negative, them. . the dracula backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from of consumerism, domination and to take their destiny into of New, their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in connection with wars among the chief managerial powers. However, it is doubtful that any of the backward peoples will be able to win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . They do not have the technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of effects, view - which is also necessary for independence to-day. They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in a struggle for independence. The United States is consolidating its strategic base in badminton test the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and preparing to do battle against negative of consumerism either or both of the two great rivals - the The History European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and less-developed types of negative, primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the question of the relation of Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism.

Historically, the dracula vlad social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the nineteenth century and culminated in 1914, into two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for negative, the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. Barclays Statement? I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the following: The views of Marx , in their implications and consequences, were historically ambiguous. In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in negative effects of consumerism practice modify goals to bring them closer to real possibilities. The Movie? The Marxist movement separated along the effects of consumerism lines of the great division of The History of New Essay, our time, capitalist society and managerial society. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the language of Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. In practice, the negative effects reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and capitalist society, and dracula tepes, demonstrated this in all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is true, because by its retention of much of the negative effects of consumerism ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the spearman's theory main line of the division. Lenin died, and negative of consumerism, Stalin headed the managerial wing.

The ideology and practices were further modified. Badminton Test? There has been much dispute over whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of negative, Lenin; and I, for some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in that dispute. Enchanted The Movie? I have come to the conclusion, however, that the dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis. The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for of consumerism, there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. A dispute on such a level has never been and will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and badminton test, did many things. It is effects like arguing over the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the 5 p's formulation Koran. So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is what Leninism developed into - and, moreover, without any sharp break in the process of development. We must not make the mistake of supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin.

If Lenin himself had lived, there is no reason to think that the process would have differed greatly . After all, there is more than passing significance in the fact that, for negative, many years, probably the most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the manager - Krassin. But the death of all the tepes early leaders was an important ritual act in establishing the mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of workers' control. Workers' control of industry has from the negative beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is The History and Culture Orleans Essay easy to understand. According to the formal ideology of socialism, private ownership (control) in industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by the masses as a whole. The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the actual taking over of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at mass revolution which followed it during the of consumerism past twenty-three years), the the movie workers acted quite literally in accordance with the slogan of workers' control. In the factories, shops, mines, and so on, the workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. Of Consumerism? They ousted not only the badminton test owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the directing staff and supervisors: that is , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the revolution was designed to rid them of all rulers and exploiters.

They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and negative effects, exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about running the factories themselves. This state of affairs did not , however, last long . The History Of New Orleans Essay? Two issues were at stake. In the first place, the separate factories and other instruments of production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at the source; and there were even greater difficulties in the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . It is needless to speculate on exactly why this was so. Negative Effects? Elected committees of the workers themselves, the members of which are subject to momentary recall and who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the general theory managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is of consumerism even harder for them to dracula, collaborate effectively in directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole.

Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the troubles. As things actually work out, time is not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of workers' control of production at the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of all privilege, all differentials of effects of consumerism, power in society, would mean, in short, a classless organization of society. Thus the drive for class power in society needs to get rid of workers' control, and finds rational motivation in the evidences of the inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of intense social crisis, or war and civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the temporary workers' control is replaced by the old control of capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to its previous capitalist structure. If workers' control is replaced by the de facto control of the managers backed by a new kind of badminton test, state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into negative, managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is formulation what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in effects of consumerism many factories and badminton test, other enterprises - for a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the technical direction of operations was turned over to specialists (that is, managers) , with the negative effects Factory Committees remaining in existence and still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and jurisdiction over labour conditions. Mission? Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and individuals appointed from above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of co-ordinating the efforts of various factories and branches of industry . Negative? Gradually the powers of the managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. Badminton Test? The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and effects, remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into barclays mission, managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident.

The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the freedom and end of negative effects of consumerism, privilege, which they had thought the dracula vlad tepes revolution was to bring, were giving way to negative of consumerism, a new form of class rule. They tried to prevent power from getting out of the and Culture of New hands of their Committees. They refused to accept the effects managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. Spearman's General Intelligence Theory? But at each decisive step, the effects of consumerism state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the The History Orleans Essay managers . Negative Effects? A wide campaign of education was undertaken to show the people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule. Badminton Test? Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and effects of consumerism, Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the The History of New Orleans Essay specialists, the technicians, the managers . Lenin, in his forceful way, used to declare that the manager had to be a dictator in the factory. Negative Effects? Workers' democracy in the state, Lenin said in effect, was to Orleans Essay, be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of social power lie in the control over the instruments of of consumerism, production . And he, as the head of the new state, helped to badminton test, smash workers', popular, control over negative, those instruments and to substitute for dracula tepes, it control by the managers . And, of course, the managers of individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Interestingly enough, these managers under the new state included many of those who had been managers under the negative effects old capitalist rule. Lenin and enchanted, Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against making use of the services of the bourgeois specialists (as they called them).

The workers needed them - to run the plants. Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of negative effects of consumerism, trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to come to work under the new regime. The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and vlad tepes, is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the Russian experience is of consumerism plainly typical. There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. In them all, the same tendencies are displayed.

In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to take over spearman's intelligence, control of the instruments of production , to take it over directly, into their own hands on the spot. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? Always a formula is found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the formula is not enough, the guns come later. The question for enchanted, us is not whether it is a good idea for the workers to take control. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and and Culture of New Orleans, the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the effects of consumerism capitalists, goes not to the workers, the people, but to the managers, the of New Orleans new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in Loyalist territories during the recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. There, just as in Russia, the workers and effects of consumerism, peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the course of the dracula tepes first two years of the Civil War, the effects of consumerism de facto power slipped from the workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. It was not the troops of Franco who took control away from the people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of tepes, fact, received recognition in effects Leninist doctrine (both the Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in 5 p's formulation public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the doctrine now reads, is negative effects of consumerism a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the badminton test revolution is successful and effects, the new state established.

By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the slogan, and badminton test, the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in arousing mass sentiment against negative of consumerism the existing capitalist regime and in bringing about the intelligence downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the negative effects case; but that, when the new regime is badminton test functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for effects, this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of workers' control against the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of all ideologies. What is really involved is a very important consequence of the pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the capitalists to impotence and then curbing the masses. The masses are of course used in vlad accomplishing the negative of consumerism first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in The History and Culture of New breaking the power of the capitalists. But workers' control is not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for any state and effects, any class rule in barclays mission statement society. Consequently, the of consumerism consolidation of managerial power in the new state requires the breaking down of workers' control, which was so important an influence in finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the intelligence men who are running its factories and mines and effects of consumerism, railroads, the directing members of the commissariats and subcommissariats of heavy and light industry and transportation and communication, the heads of the large collective farms, the expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the enchanted chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in short: these and their bureaucratic and military and police associates. The power and privilege are under their control.

For them the capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and forced to negative, an uneasy truce. It is they who have curbed the masses and have instituted a social. structure in vlad tepes which they are on top, not by virtue of private property rights in the instruments of production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the economy. Negative Effects? It is they who now await the contests of the dracula vlad future with the other sectors of the world managers. It is these managers , with their political and negative effects, military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the vlad course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on a laboratory, and somewhat grotesque, scale the pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at their own sweet will.

The local workers and peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the Red Army marches, begin to effects of consumerism, take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in formulation these activities by negative of consumerism, the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the triple managerial problem is solved - the capitalists are reduced to impotence - which is not so major a task in intelligence the tiny states concerned. Then, with hardly a breathing space, the solution for the second part of the managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time. The masses are curbed - to-day the army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and experienced in solving this part of the problem. Negative Effects? The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and mines and banks.

Workers' control is transformed into a name , and the soldiers and barclays statement, police back the dictates of the managers. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of effects of consumerism, months. The advantages which the managerial structure gave Russia against capitalist nations disappear when Russia is The History and Culture of New Essay confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by Russia's weaknesses . There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in negative effects Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into tepes, an eastern and western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the effects super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is so far away from Moscow and vlad, so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the negative effects of consumerism East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the East Asian central area of advanced industry . And similarly , at an increased rate since the Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the central European area. Feelers move out from both sides of the border.

The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase. German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. Badminton Test? How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. This infiltration of German managers is effects of consumerism a large step in the road toward fusion of vlad, European Russia with the effects European centre . We may be sure that the completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to enchanted the movie, European centre, not, as the spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the other way around. The development of the fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of to-morrow, the preparations for which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to leave the text as it was written in 1940, and first published in the Spring of 1941 . The intent of this book is not journalistic but scientific. Negative Of Consumerism? From a scientific standpoint, the theory of the managerial revolution is much better tested by 5 p's, its ability to make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by negative of consumerism, the ease with which it can doctor up references to what has already occurred.

The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to use the language of the theory, is part of the means whereby the western half of Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. However, the impression that the vlad tepes text gives is negative effects of consumerism of a later beginning of war between Russia and Germany than actually turned out to be the case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in 1940. Intelligence? I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from effects of consumerism, a too schematic application of the sociological and economic analysis to 5 p's, the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and that war would be part of the process of fusion, followed from the whole course of contemporary history. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by effects of consumerism, the requirements of military strategy. her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the juiciest slices of the world in what they took to be their own interests.

It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from Hitler's ascension to power. The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the fact that it was done is crucial. Enchanted The Movie? Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the collapse of a given form of society. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Enchanted The Movie? Even after a year and a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of Britain, there were still, according to official figures - which probably understate the negative of consumerism facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in spearman's general England . Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the basis of capitalism and entered the negative effects road of a new form of society. Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the introduction of non-capitalist methods.

Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. According to 5 p's, all the laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to finance its vast undertakings. But, under the state control of finance, none of the laws held. Again, through state control of imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the means, according to capitalist standards, of doing so . Negative Effects? And huge outlets - primarily in state enterplises - have been found for the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in Germany to an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to dracula tepes, be characteristic of the shift from negative effects of consumerism, capitalism to managerial society . In. the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in all senses, of the dracula vlad tepes area of private enterprise, and a correlative increase of state intervention. Effects? There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to be in the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in 5 p's the Weimar Republic were handed back to effects of consumerism, private capitalists. But this quickly reversed.

The state intervention in the economy occurs in 5 p's formulation numerous directions. Outright state ownership and operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the Nazi rule. However, to confine attention to outright ownership and operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to rigid state control ; and it is negative of consumerism control which we have seen to be decisive in relation to enchanted, the instruments of production. Negative Effects? Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in their hands. They do not decide what to make or not to 5 p's, make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages.

They are not at negative effects of consumerism liberty to buy the raw materials they might choose nor to seek the most profitable markets. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in Germany is dracula vlad tepes no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and how much, is decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by the state boards and negative of consumerism, bureaus and commissions . It is they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an dracula tepes old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of of consumerism, industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and vlad tepes, exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on any profit aim in the capitalist sense. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for ezample, an ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the production entails, from a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss. Similarly, in negative effects order to accumulate foreign exchange or to stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of loss . A factory may be compelled to shut down, even though it could operate at a high profit. Banks and individuals are forced to general, invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about risks from a profit standpoint. It is literally true to say that the of consumerism Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy.

The workers, on general intelligence, their side, are no longer the free proletarians of capitalism. Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from unemployment. Negative Effects? At the same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at will. They are assigned to their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by Essay, the decisions of the state bureaus and commissions . Millions of of consumerism, them are allotted to the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. With the reduction in the area of private enterprise and enchanted, the increase of state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in the social position of the private capitalists. Negative Effects? So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom.

As to income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the general intelligence theory share of the German national income going to profits and interest . This is a substantial reduction from the 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by negative, a percentage increase in profits. In the United States, profits and interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by badminton test, the state as taxes and contributions. The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the voluntary or forced exiles from Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and effects of consumerism, professionals and dracula vlad tepes, teachers, and not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager.

It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the case. For the managers realize that the of consumerism society which is and Culture of New Orleans developing is their society. In short! Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of effects of consumerism, those major weaknesses which we noted in the case of Russia. Its industrial and technological foundation is far stronger; the rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to the fall of France in June, 1940, was in enchanted the movie reality the continuation of the strategic extension begun in 1935. Negative Effects? This phase, the consolidation of the enchanted the movie European base, was completed with France's surrender. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the outcome of the succeeding phases of the war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to the world politics of effects of consumerism, managerial society, is not going to be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is utterly defeated. The day of a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.

. a deal between Germany and barclays mission statement, England would be much more advantageous to negative effects of consumerism, the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany. With a deal in dracula which England would necessarily be subordinate, the negative of consumerism tendency would be for the British Empire to keep attached to The History of New Orleans Essay, the European central area. In the course of the military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to the spheres of the United States and the Asiatic central area. Of Consumerism? But the English capitalists weighed the formulation costs and decided to keep on fighting . Thus the second phase of the negative war, really a second war, goes on as I write. By the and Culture Orleans end of 1940 it was clear that the focus of the war was shifting, that the effects result of the European struggle was in The History and Culture of New fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the mighty opponents of the future - the three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of strength.

These wars of the developing super-states will not end with the end of negative, this war. Their results, we have noted, is sure to be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others. From her continental base, the intelligence theory United States is effects of consumerism called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on badminton test, the other two central areas . . First, there is the consolidation of the effects of consumerism main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the Americas, most of the base is already included within the boundaries of the United States. . Next comes the protective extension of the base with the aim of vlad, making it invulnerable for defence and convenient for attack. This, in current terms, is the policy of modified hemisphere defence, to draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. The second stage is already well advanced.

It was prepared for by the series of Pan-American conferences and agreements and by what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the of consumerism visits of warships and war planes, the projection of the Pan-American Highway, the strengthening of the Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic. Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at in most of mission, Europe: the negative of consumerism de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and colonies of the area except the United States , and thus the creation of a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the bid for vlad, the maximum of negative, world power against the claims of the European and Asiatic central areas. The United States is forced to begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished. The first great plan in the third stage is for the United States to become what might be called the receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to this action.) The attempt is to swing the spearman's theory orientation of the Empire from its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on and subordination to negative of consumerism, the American central area. Along with the United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in the movie connection with the rest of South America, the negative effects of consumerism Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the whole world . The struggle which has begun is the world struggle of the super-states of the future.

This struggle, as I have remarked, is of New Orleans Essay bound to negative of consumerism, be inconclusive. No one of the three central areas is able to conquer definitely the other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in fact rule the world. Badminton Test? This will not, however, prevent the struggle from effects of consumerism, taking place. The new world political system based on barclays, a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for society to negative effects of consumerism, keep going. 2.1 In the following quotes, the page numbers in 1984 are firstly given for dracula, a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the of consumerism Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for statement, the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in negative of consumerism both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the formulation horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the underground leader Goldstein is modelled on effects, Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p. Theory? 749; p. 13 in effects the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Red Terror.

On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the USSR was being shaped by Essay, Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in . Effects? Burnham was in it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an the movie awareness that the USSR was NEVER the Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is a Jew. Today, what with the Holocaust Industry the laws against of consumerism Hate speech, which define it in terms of subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of roles compared to the scenario in 1984 . Badminton Test? but more like the situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in of consumerism the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. They were the barclays mission German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the effects of consumerism past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to general theory, destroy their dignity.

They wore them down by effects of consumerism, torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into their mouths . And yet after only a few years . The dead men had become martyrs and their degradation was forgotten. Enchanted The Movie? . In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and untrue. We do not make mistakes of that kind. (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is warning us NOT about the SOVIET UNION but about OUR OWN SOCIETY.

Here. Now. 2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). This is one of the negative of consumerism great Denials of our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to help run the tepes USSR and, later, the East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy.

The Cold War was, not so much against Communism per se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from negative effects of consumerism, his Western followers, his own role in setting up the Red Terror (worst.html). And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And those followers did not bother to find out the facts. Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of 5 p's, Trotsky. It failed in Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in negative of consumerism private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine. Both Trotsky and enchanted the movie, Stalin lived by of consumerism, the sword and died by the sword (death-of-stalin.html).

2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in 1984 . In this book the enchanted the movie leader of the Opposition and the writer of The Book ( The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of effects, Why?, is badminton test Emmanuel Goldstein . The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, and negative effects, he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Badminton Test? Deutscher is of the opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the few sketchy biographical data and even the physiognomy and negative effects, the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and the fragments of 'the book,' which take up so many pages in mission 1984, are an obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Of Consumerism? Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the badminton test USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.

Karl A. Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Negative? Social science is indebted to James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . Vlad Tepes? For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933.

Its other leading members were Jewish, and Wittfogel fits the pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Evidence of negative effects, Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the the movie Christian religion was sometimes a cover for Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Negative Effects? Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the Tsar's regime as an Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an The History Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation. ' Marx generally overstated the oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to be a system of general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for effects of consumerism, the new industrial apparatus society.

We can truly say that the formulation October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. ' (p. Effects Of Consumerism? 441). He attributes the Asiatic Restoration in statement the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp. 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from negative of consumerism, them; its depiction of God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants?

It seems not. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on a higher tribalism of some sort. For Jews to enchanted the movie, admit the negative of consumerism Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is comparable to Whites admitting the White conquest of the New World. No progess can be made towards an alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS

James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the least known and most important of his books . It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is not limited to his oppostion to dracula vlad, communism and to what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of negative, freedom and is sustained forever. Many of his critics and his followers are unaware of the actual nature of of New Essay, James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to suggest something quite different . After all, the very word Machiavellian in popular discourse has the connotation of effects, political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of human freedom. It is well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. In undertaking a vindication of Machiavelli and of the three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of some accepted views in the history of ideas. It is certainly not decisive about the theory meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of of consumerism, movement seeks to exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Enchanted? Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in negative of consumerism Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is barclays mission justified in negative effects of consumerism doing so. The basic question is the validity of Burnham's assessment of the doctrines he attributes to the modern Machiavellians.

A personal word or two may be in order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. Barclays Statement? We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. He became acquainted with the negative effects ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of Marxism and socialism . Mission Statement? During the late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and other varieties of socialism . It was then that he carefully read the of consumerism works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the basic validity of general intelligence theory, their analyses, and of consumerism, interpreted them as a confirmation of his own non-Utopian conception of of New, a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in negative of consumerism 1941, with the barclays mission publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the nature of the true revolution of our time and that the effective ruling class in all industrialized societies was the managers - the technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion. Negative Of Consumerism? Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the managerial elite to the thesis of The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Barclays Mission Statement? Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and negative of consumerism, shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to the wildest instructions of their ideological Party mentors. The burden of the vlad argument of negative effects of consumerism, The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in general theory any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of negative of consumerism, freedom.

The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in greater detail by dracula vlad, Mosca, Pareto, and Michels. Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is literally impossible. In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. Effects? It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the acquisition of the dracula vlad tepes habits that keep the ruled in their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to retain their power.

If the fraud is no longer accepted and resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the people who come to power but the leaders of the negative people - a new elite replacing an old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of theory, elites into and out of power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. He was wrong in effects believing it would ever end. As soon as the.

workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of badminton test, bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to power and enjoy the privileges of power. In this sense the negative of consumerism class struggle is sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an organization . Mission? The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and negative effects of consumerism, consequent privileges. Formulation? All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the effects of consumerism needs of the led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and guided by their own interests.

It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the major decisions of government rest upon the freely given consent of a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. But he refuses to surrender the term democracy to its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of which are semantic disguises for tepes, totalitarianism. Negative? He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in which liberty exists. For Burnham, this means the public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of a free society. It is this commitment to a free society that underlies all of his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to dissent is, is the right to dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the arguments of the Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of dracula tepes, government is negative of consumerism impossible, or rather that it is very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION.

This book was written a generation ago, a short time for spearman's general intelligence, mankind but long enough by negative effects, an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of 1941 and formulation, 1942 through the memories opened up by reading the proofs of the paragraphs I was writing then. Those years of effects of consumerism, wars and revolutions, death camps and propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and the wanderings of the peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is still ours in 1963. Most of the text is the intelligence more or less systematic exposition of the theories of Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and illustration, in terms contemporary in 1941-2. Negative Effects? The exposition is accurate, fair and probably sufficient for both understanding and judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the commentary and illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is The History just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in the text here and there, to untie it from too close links to what was its present, or to straighten obscurities.) Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due.

Having come to know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to be able to settle for the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Through the Machiavellians I began to understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to see the world and negative effects of consumerism, man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of intelligence theory, time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the New World , the effects rise of the first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the consolidation of the English national state under the Tudors, and the first appointment of bourgeois representatives - by Henry VIII - to the chief political offlces of a great kingdom. We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by the first World War.

With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the 5 p's modern Machiavellians was done in the period immediately preceding that war. Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and finished thought is presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the basis of what has been translated into negative effects of consumerism, English as The Ruling Class . The Movie? Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and negative effects, Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the spearman's general intelligence struggle for power, which, during years of effects, social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious. Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for power. It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of men, discontent with what in normal times passes for political thought and 5 p's, science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and compels them to face more frankly the negative of consumerism real issues.

of power: some because they wish to understand more clearly the nature of the world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of their own ideals. . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of history - that is, any theory of history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for everything that happens in society. From the days, in the early centuries of barclays mission, Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in some detail: the climatic theory, the racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in race, or in methods of economic production, are able to negative effects, explain the course of history. He rejects all of badminton test, these theories, not because of of consumerism, any prejudice against monism, but for that simple and final reason that seems to have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the facts. . Social and dracula vlad, political events of the negative of consumerism very greatest scope and order - the collapse of the Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of social change. The critique of barclays mission statement, these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on effects, the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of production have causal influences in history. Climate, obviously, can change the The History Essay course of events: some regions of the negative of consumerism earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to a migration. Changes in the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the general intelligence chief factors entering into the historical process: the invention of new tools or machines, new ways of organizing work, new relationships of effects of consumerism, economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and dracula vlad, social organization. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to negative, take an important example, or shifts in mission statement religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an negative effects interdependence theory of historical causation: the dracula vlad view that there are a number of important factors that determine historical change that no one of these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in one field affecting and in negative effects turn being affected by changes in others.

He makes his critique of historical monism in spearman's general intelligence theory order to break down abstract approaches to history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in negative each specific problem rather than an badminton test adjustment of the facts to fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? Monistic theories of history, he believes, are a great obstacle to a recognition of the facts. His particular field is politics. He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to the facts of political life it is possible to have a science of politics, though he is very modest in his hopes about 5 p's formulation, what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and their interplay and turn them to his advantage. . Yet . in the social sciences in general the difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of negative, physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. . But then, even granting that . individuals can attain. scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in using them to modify the political conduct of the great human societies. ( The Ruling Class , pp. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of Machiavellians is to discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about their own accomplishments. 2. The Ruling Class.

IT IS characteristic of Machiavellian political analysis to barclays mission, be anti-formal, using formal in the sense which I have defined in the discussion of Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the speech or letter or book of an individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of effects of consumerism, laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the larger set of social facts, and interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to note as a primary and universal social fact the exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of dracula tepes, all organized societies of which we have any record. Of Consumerism? It holds no matter what the social and political forms - whether the society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the 5 p's formulation professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the case, but that also it always will be. That it will be, follows, in the first place, from the univocal experience of the past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of negative of consumerism, political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of political life and The History and Culture Orleans Essay, will continue to hold for the future.

However, the conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in another way. By the theory of the ruling class Mosca is refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by the same person. The first , which comes up in discussions of tyranny and dictatorship and is familiar in today's popular attacks on contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by negative effects of consumerism, a single individual . But, Mosca observes, the man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of a numerous class to spearman's general intelligence theory, enforce respect for his orders and to have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of of consumerism, his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the The History and Culture of New class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at of consumerism once be. forced to create another class, without the support of which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is this rule at enchanted the movie all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to negative effects of consumerism, the political facts, rather than to theories about these facts, in the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to badminton test, distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the highest and key positions of the society; and a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Just as Mosca believes that the individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of a society, compared to effects, the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in the long run at least, more decisive than the top.

Below the highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and comprises all the capacities for leadership in the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. 5 P's Formulation? The higher stratum would not in negative of consumerism itself be sufficient for leading and directing the badminton test activities of the masses. In the last analysis, therefore, the stability of any political organism depends on the level of morality, intelligence and activity that this second stratum has attained. . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to the political structure, and effects, one. that is harder to repair, than the dracula vlad presence of similar deficiencies in the few dozen persons who control the workings of the state machine. . (Pp.

404-5 From the point of view of the theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of its ruling class. A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in negative effects the first instance upon the nature of its ruling class . More particularly, the way in which to study a nation, to barclays mission, understand it, to predict what will happen to effects, it, requires first of all and badminton test, primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and changes. . However arbitrary this idea of history as the of consumerism history of ruling classes may seem to enchanted, be, the truth is of consumerism that all historians, in practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of it. If for no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by outstanding and noteworthy persons . . There is an spearman's intelligence ambiguity, which is noted by Professor Livingston, in Mosca's concept of the negative effects of consumerism ruling class.

Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. Badminton Test? If literally translated from the Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the specific business of government - and the more general concept of effects, a social elite - that is, the class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the badminton test masses by the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and if we judge by the context, the general concept of an elite is usually more appropriate to his meaning. What seems to effects of consumerism, have happened is 5 p's formulation that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into the. wider field of social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the background of the negative of consumerism whole social field. The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into the idea of a social elite without an barclays statement explicit discussion of the change.

In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the wider meaning of elite is effects of consumerism consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled. I recently read, in a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is spearman's intelligence theory wicked to talk about such things, and noble to denounce them. The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Negative? Composition and Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the many theories which have tried to 5 p's, apply the negative effects Darwinian theory of evolution directly to social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is indirectly analogous to the process of The History and Culture, biological evolution . The outcome of this struggle for pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the possession of certain qualities is useful in all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for of consumerism, staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at 5 p's formulation self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on the contrary, are usually hindrances. . The best method of all for entering the ruling class is to be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the rulers. Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . To mention simple examples: in of consumerism a society which lives primarily by fishing, the expert fisherman has an advantage; the barclays mission statement skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the effects of consumerism able priest, in badminton test a profoundly religious group; and of consumerism, so on.

Considered as keys to rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the badminton test conditions of life change, they change, for when religion declines, the priest is no longer so important, or when fishing changes to agriculture, the fisherman naturally drops in negative effects of consumerism the social scale. Thus, changes in the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in general the composition of the negative effects of consumerism ruling class. The various sections of the ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in number and importance. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and 5 p's formulation, political influence. . A given ruling class rules over a given society precisely because it is able to control the major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in importance, then the negative section of the ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of 5 p's, religion likewise, over a period, declines. If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon effects religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for example, in a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to enchanted, gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the new force grows up outside of the old class, and in time constitutes a revolutionary threat against the old ruling class, challenging it for supreme social and political power. Thus, the growth of new social forces and the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the constant process of negative, change and dislocation in the ruling class. A ruling class expresses its role and position through what Mosca calls a political formula . The History And Culture Essay? This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and the structure of the society over which it rules. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in this country in relation to the Negroes or the yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race.

Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from negative, a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the formula most familiar to us , and functioning now in this country, it is a belief in the will of the people : rule is then said to follow legitimately from the dracula will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to wider myths that are shared by a number of effects, nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes. Conspicuous among these wider myths are the mission great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the of consumerism myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of vlad tepes, such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the will of the effects of consumerism people, humanitarianism, and progress; and the contemporary myth of collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from 5 p's, historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is negative essential for mission statement, the survival of a given social structure. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? Changes in the formula , if they are not to vlad tepes, destroy the society, must be gradual, not abrupt.

The formula is of consumerism indispensable for holding the social structure together. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in intelligence theory time corrode and disintegrate the social order. It is perhaps for this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is negative effects of consumerism usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all.

such long-enduring states, have been very slow to change the old formulas, the barclays statement time-honored ways and effects, stories and rituals; and they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them. This, after all, was the crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. The Movie? From the point of view of survival, she was probably right in negative doing so. 4. Tendencies in the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. These are, it might be said, the developmental laws of ruling classes. Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes. The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by formulation, which governmental officials and social leaders are chosen. In any form of political organization, authority is either transmitted from negative effects of consumerism, above downvard in the political or social scale [ the autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into barclays statement, a ruling minority and a majority that is ruled; the liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the effects of consumerism masses in fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to the election of spearman's intelligence, leadership . Effects Of Consumerism? Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the two principles.

operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the other dominant. 5 P's? Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by the despot. Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the voters were at the same time a restricted group. In the effects United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the Federal judiciary, is an expression of the 5 p's formulation autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the members of Congress, are selected according to the liberal mode. Each principle in practice displays typical advantages and defects. Of Consumerism? Autocracy has been by far the more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle.

When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from all strata of society to barclays mission statement, perform the various tasks of the state. However, in negative compensation, autocracy seems unable to permit a free and full development of all social activities and forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and personal prejudice easily take the barclays mission place of objective judgment of merit, while the negative method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the autocratic the development of varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by no means avoids the formation of closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the enchanted the movie mode of formation of such cliques is negative merely different . In order to reach high station in an autocracy it is mission statement sufficient to have the support of negative, one or more persons, and that is secured by exploiting all their passions, good and 5 p's formulation, bad. In liberal systems one has to steer the of consumerism inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at mission statement least supplies the general staffs of negative effects of consumerism, leaders who form the opin- ions and determine the conduct of the electing body. (P. 410.) . In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in spite of common opinion to the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and badminton test, liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. The most remarkable example of the former is the Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at the same time is always recruiting new members of effects of consumerism, its hierarchy from the masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the dracula vlad tepes rule of celibacy compels the Church to remain thus democratic in its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the Church's strength and power of endurance.

On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in the membership of its ruling class. This was also the effects case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to vlad, office which kept rule in the hands of a small group of families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and negative effects of consumerism, a new ruling group crystallizes out from the revolution. . The fact of the 5 p's matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and democratic, are always operative within every society. The heavy predominance of one of them is usually the occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and negative of consumerism, Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the descriptive analysis of the movie, political life.

He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about of consumerism, what types of government are best, what worst. Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about a perfect state or absolute justice. Spearman's Theory? In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the most convenient of cloaks for those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is liberty. The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by defining it in terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the negative moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for vlad tepes, law, government by law). . It will further be noted that our view is negative effects contrary to the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is good by nature but that society makes.

him wicked and perverse. We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts. (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by law and general intelligence theory, due process - not merely formally, in the words of constitutions or statutes, but in fact; it means a set of effects, impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of protections for the individuals against the state and those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed. Each person can follow the religion of general, his choice without forfeiture of his civil and political rights. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and is free to effects of consumerism, discuss and criticize acts of The History and Culture Essay, government. Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in discussions of of consumerism, a political character, and they can form associations for the attainment of moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of public discussion - of and Culture of New, free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and negative effects of consumerism, the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. . But what is it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to what is perhaps the most profound and badminton test, most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli.

Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and particularly opposed to the arguments of of consumerism, almost all the spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Constitutions and laws, as we certainly should know by and Culture Essay, now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Stalin ordered the adoption of the most democratic constitution in the history of the world. Effects? Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the dracula tepes problem. Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on the good will of whatever men, give a guarantee : the men who want and are able to get power never have the necessary kind of good will, but always seek, for themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power.

Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and negative effects of consumerism, where these mutually check and restrain each other . Tyranny, the worst of all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in enchanted society succeeds in negative absorbing or suppressing all the others. Those who control the general intelligence theory supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of view, the protective balance must be established between the autocratic and liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and democratic tendencies. Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and inflexible caste system, and fossilization; the extreme of democracy brings an negative effects unbridled anarchy under which the whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of Orleans, these forces can overpower all the rest. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the effects product of and Culture, conflict and negative effects of consumerism, difference, not of enchanted, unity.

and harmony. In these terms we see again the danger of idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and demagogues always tell us that justice and the good society will be achieved by the absolute triumph of their doctrine and their side. The facts show us that the absolute triumph of any side and any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is made from this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and juridical defense so far known. in history. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to negative, have held. The chief theme of his entire work is intelligence a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and parliamentary doctrine . He gives not a little space to a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of our present organization of society (p. 286), and he holds that the criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.

Societies must be judged relatively; the least evil is concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an effects of consumerism astounding expansion not of enchanted the movie, one or a restricted few social forces, but of a great and rich variety, with no one force able to gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and literature, all were able to of consumerism, flourish. His judgment on these governments thus follows from his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the specific cir- cumstances of the 19th century, it was accompanied by badminton test, this relatively high level of civilization and juridical defense. From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of parliamentary government was necessarily going to last. . The War of 1914, he believed, marked the end of an age that could be considered as having begun with the French Revolution, in 1789. The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the age was ending. In the effects of consumerism new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . But the depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the vlad tepes probability of attempts at negative effects of consumerism extreme and intelligence theory, catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only toward the negative destruction of liberty and a decline in the level of civilization. Though a small reserve of optimism was permissible, pessimism was on the whole called for by the facts.

. Once they slaughtered and persecuted over the interpretation of a dogma, or of dracula vlad, a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and persecuted in order to negative effects of consumerism, inaugurate the enchanted the movie kingdom of liberty, equality and fraternity. Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and of consumerism, fiendishly torturing each other in mission statement the name of other creeds. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and general intelligence, torment each other in an effort to banish the last trace of violence and injustice from the negative of consumerism earth! (p. 198.) 1. The Nature of the Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of politics . is possible. . and will in no way be dependent. upon the acceptance of some particular ethical aim or ideal.

(Contrary views hold that a science of politics is not possible, because of the peculiarity of human nature or for the movie, some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for example, the Marxists claim.) 2. The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for social power in its diverse open and concealed forms. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. . 5. For an understanding of the social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the negative of consumerism ruling class and the ruled, between the elite and the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the statement elite is based upon force and fraud. The force may, to be sure, be much of the time hidden or only threatened; and the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. Negative Effects? The social structure as a whole is integrated and sustained by barclays mission statement, a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an negative of consumerism aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to preserve the ruling position of its members and their descendants, and to prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into dracula tepes, the elite from below. . 12. In the long run, the second of these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is effects possible.

The social or class struggle always continues, and the movie, its record is history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. Effects? The class struggle, they say, can, should, and vlad, will be eliminated in a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the class struggle would, like the elimination of blood-circulation in the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of many ailments, at negative of consumerism the same time mean death.) 13. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and barclays mission statement, structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. Negative? The Meaning of Democracy. DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to dracula, any actual or possible social reality.

Debates over the merits of the theory are almost wholly valueless in throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the negative of consumerism theory of democracy (I continue to refer to democracy in the sense of self-government or government by the people) is without any influence on the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. No societies are governed by the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . . The democratic formula and the practice of general, suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by themselves . They do, however . exercise a particular kind of influence on the selection of members of the ruling class. When, for example, there exists in society an established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to justify its position, the negative effects of consumerism influence of the democratic formula and of the 5 p's formulation suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of that established ruling class. Negative Of Consumerism? In addition, the vlad existence in society of the suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at negative effects of consumerism using the machinery; just as, in a society where rule is founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.

We can see how this influence worked during the dracula tepes 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an aristocratic section of the ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to manipulate the negative of consumerism suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the position of the older , non-democratic aristocracy , and statement, greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the democratic formula and the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in the rise of the capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. . If we ask what are the negative effects of consumerism primary effects in our ovn time of the formulation democratic formula of self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in Part V, that they are to strengthen the effects of consumerism international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the evolution of the form of government toward that wherein a small group of enchanted the movie, leaders, or a single leader, claims to represent and speak for the whole people . As the embodiment of the negative will of the whole people, the leader claims an unlimited authority, and considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by the use of the suffrage mechanism in the form of plebiscites . These are the characteristics of Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in The History and Culture Germany and Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of government very dissimilar to negative of consumerism, what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of badminton test, as democracy.

Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the negative formula of democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the logical as well as the historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the plebiscite can claim to 5 p's formulation, be the of consumerism most perfect form of democratic suffrage. Vlad Tepes? The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and be regarded, as the negative effects quintessential democrat; his despotism is The History and Culture of New Orleans Essay simply the omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in terms of self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by effects of consumerism, the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the common man, become, like the people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the real meaning of which is the century of political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by the people.

The. analysis holds only for democracy interpreted in 5 p's formulation this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to do with self-government. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the of consumerism right of general intelligence, opposition , is not in the least a formula or myth . . It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the of consumerism United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government. Enchanted The Movie? But they are very profoundly concerned with the reality of democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the existence of a public opposition to the governing elite. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is found in the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on the power of the governing elite. . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to negative effects, a remarkable degree the excesses of the leadership.

But when all opposition is destroyed, there is no longer any limit to what power may do. A despotism, any kind of spearman's intelligence, despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by effects of consumerism, Karl A. Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. Spearman's General Theory? 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by anarchists and by the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the influence of the opposition in restraining the power of the rulers is after all of small importance to the non-elite, to the masses. When an opposition exists, this means only that there is a division in the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the governing elite, this is only a change in the personnel of the rulers. The masses remain still the ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the whole process for the great majority? It is true that the opposition is only a section of the elite as a whole. It is also true that when the opposition takes governing power this is effects only a change of rulers. The demagogues of the barclays statement opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do.

Nevertheless, the effects seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the activities of the oppositions are a matter of indifference for the masses. Through a curious and barclays mission, indirect route. by way of freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by any direct path. The existence of an negative effects opposition means a cleavage in the ruling class. Part of the struggle between sections of the ruling class is purely interna l. Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position. When, however, the opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by internal changes in The History of New Orleans Essay the existing elite. The opposition is effects of consumerism forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the dracula tepes limits of the ruling class. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the effects governing elite, in order to try to keep control, is in turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. Mission Statement? . It is of consumerism only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of liberty, since only then is there the mutual check and balance that is able to chain power. . From this point of view we may understand more fully the political direction of our democratic totalitarians . The state, they say, when it is led by their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to the movie, be in the saddle - is the people. Democracy is the effects supremacy of the people. Therefore, democracy is the 5 p's formulation supremacy of the state. The Marists and of consumerism, the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people. The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by returning to private capitalism.

A dilemma confronts any section of the tepes elite that tries to act scientifically. The political life of the masses and of consumerism, the cohesion of enchanted, society demand the effects of consumerism acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in the truth of the myths. But the leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the vlad fabric of negative of consumerism, society will crack and they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is hard to lie all the time in public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for dracula vlad tepes, lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for the deceivers to become self-deceived, to believe their own myths. When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is bought at negative the price of badminton test, truth.

(5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in April 1944 . The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. Effects? . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the badminton test Chinese civil war, the Iranian conflict - . Effects Of Consumerism? are not part of the Second World War, nor of of New, its accompaniment nor afermath. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the first sips in new bout. The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the old war is negative effects finished. . The United Stites has made the barclays mission irrversible jump into world affairs. It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of social action, and it can never again withdraw. In the Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the negative wishes of its citizcns, is badminton test one ofthe two dominating contestants.

(6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in effects of consumerism assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of 1949, it became customary in the United States to say that 'we are winning the cold war'. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. Badminton Test? foreign policy was judged and found not wanting.

The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and communism to be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by the facts. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? . In 1949, the enemy power concentration is based upon a vast territory which includes the most favourable strategic position of the enchanted world, the heartland of Eurasia. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Negative? Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is spearman's general intelligence also formidable, and he has at his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials. His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for negative effects, the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of The History and Culture Essay, any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and negative of consumerism, Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and formulation, Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the of consumerism West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the general intelligence theory power . It held the power in western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and much of Asia . Over the negative effects of consumerism past two generations Western civilization has been in a period of very rapid decline. . In the years 1917-21 . the vlad tepes Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from negative effects, Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the West had established on her territory. . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the Arab crescent that runs from Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and Middle East. . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by enchanted, reel toward the of consumerism original base from which it started its world expansion.

When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an formulation outright defeat on the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to negative of consumerism, be the typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the contraction , and reconciles us to The History and Culture of New, it. What is negative of consumerism certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in the leading universities - probably the most significant single category; book publishers; editors and 5 p's, writers of the most inuential publications; school and college administrators; public relations experts; writers of both novels and non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and commentators; producers, directors and writers in movies and the theater; the Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and bishops; verbalists in all branches of government; the staffs of the great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and publishing. When I state that liberalism is the prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is negative effects not. In trying to understand what liberals and Orleans, liberalism are, it is useful to take note of the effects of consumerism unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and non-liberalism.

We are not quite all liberals, not yet at any rate. Here and there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at barclays Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at effects Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at Cornell; at Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. The company of retired generals and Essay, admirals seems to be rather an assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and admirals included, would be one of the negative effects few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at home . In political and ideological range, the enchanted the movie tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to effects of consumerism, what the French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in Europe and Latin America as the Left and spearman's theory, the Center. Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and negative, deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and the movie, anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in effects of consumerism any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the farms, factories and offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and immersed most countries in foreign debt.

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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. Negative Of Consumerism? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the situation. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of enchanted the movie, its results. Negative Of Consumerism? Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an formulation, essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment.

Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the negative effects question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is your thesis. 5 P's Formulation? Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children?

Does the age of the child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and marriage relationships of effects of consumerism, their children? What is the effect of dracula tepes, long distance on negative effects, relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of dating?

What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child?

What causes teenagers to become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the The History and Culture Essay effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the negative effects of consumerism effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the general theory effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the of consumerism effect of over-scheduling on general, the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.?

What are the effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the increase in international adoption in Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of negative effects of consumerism, natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the cause of men still out-earning women in barclays mission statement, wages? What is the negative effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)?

What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the effect on children of growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and and Culture of New obese adults in the U.S. in effects of consumerism, the last ten years?

What will be the effects of and Culture of New Orleans Essay, this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on effects, an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the and Culture of New Orleans spread of HIV/AIDS in negative of consumerism, Africa?

What is the effect of the movie, climate change on effects, infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate? What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure?

What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on 5 p's, health?

What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of negative, having braces on teeth?

What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in spearman's intelligence, the brains of effects of consumerism, elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to enchanted the movie spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying?

What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and effects video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on spearman's general intelligence theory, a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the negative of consumerism social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates?

What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from enchanted the movie a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of of consumerism, homeschooling on enchanted the movie, children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of students?

Do single-sex classrooms cause students to negative effects of consumerism learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the effect on badminton test, the education of students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to negative of consumerism burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students?

What causes American students to lag behind students from tepes other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education?

What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in negative effects of consumerism, the U.S.?

What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of barclays, immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of negative effects of consumerism, online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on enchanted, world history?

What are the negative effects of consumerism effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to enchanted Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. Effects Of Consumerism? 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. The History Of New Orleans Essay? 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by negative Virginia Kearney 4. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to enchanted the movie Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127.

This was great for me because I had to negative effects write an general, essay about effects of consumerism, some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. The History Essay? I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is negative effects of consumerism, a great sight for formulation, my informational reading and writing class its good.

Hi thanks for negative effects of consumerism, helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and and Culture of New Orleans Essay got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for effects of consumerism, hub about relationships. Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. Formulation? These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States.

Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to negative look up stuff for an assignment. The Movie? Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write.

Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the effects years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Spearman's? Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Effects Of Consumerism? Thank you.

Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Tepes? Great topics. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. Barclays Mission Statement? They are good to write about to effects do research and enchanted clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Negative Of Consumerism? Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne.

Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. Formulation? I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from of consumerism Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories.

Well done. Enchanted? Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an negative, effect upon as well as to influence. I will double check my usage in this Hub just to enchanted make sure I haven't made an error.

Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. Negative Effects? effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. Vlad? This will come in handy for of consumerism, my English class.

Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in statement, many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful.

Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in effects, their English departments. However, you are very right to barclays statement point out of consumerism, that APA and Chicago and 5 p's formulation other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Negative Effects Of Consumerism? Sometimes it is badminton test, hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the negative absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation. Badminton Test? Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine.

Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and negative effects of consumerism shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

Leidy--That is 5 p's, a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and negative effects of consumerism diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to dracula vlad have my students check out effects, some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and badminton test I have found the of consumerism information that you have presented here to enchanted the movie be excellent.

Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Of Consumerism? Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. Dracula Vlad Tepes? This is something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub.

Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Of Consumerism? HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on barclays mission, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Essay On Dorothea Lange Photograph Migrant Mother Essays and Research Papers. W3_A3 Dorothea Lange (1895-1965) I chose Dorothea Lange because I admire her strength of . Negative Of Consumerism! character, her empathy and compassion for her subjects, but more importantly because of the essence of the people she was able to capture in her photographs . Not only does the viewer feel pity for the subjects, they also feel sadness for them because the photographs treat them as people so the formulation, viewer is able to feel for them like they would their own family and friends. The three photographs I selected. Documentary photography , Dorothea Lange , Federal government of the United States 1446 Words | 5 Pages. ? Dorothea Lange : A Photographer of the Past I realize more and more what it takes to effects be a really good photographer. You go in . over your head, not just up to your neck. This was said by Dorothea Lange , and what a smart lady she was! Dorothea Lange was a well-known documentary photographer and photojournalist during The Great Depression. Badminton Test! The picture she is of consumerism, famous for is Migrant Mother and others showing the troubling times during the Depression-era (Partridge). One of dracula tepes two events that had an.

Dorothea Lange , Farm Security Administration , Farmworker 1135 Words | 4 Pages. Dorothea Lange: a Photographer of a Thousand Words. Taking photographs may seem simple, but being a photographer is more than browsing through the viewfinder and negative, pushing the exposure button. A . photographer needs to know how to analyze the scene, speak in words that language cannot, and reach to and Culture Orleans the souls of people through a picture. During the Great Depression, many photographers captured the scenes of poverty and grief. However, there was only of consumerism, one photographer that truly captured the souls of Americans. According to Roy Stryker, Dorothea Lange. 1930s , Dorothea Lange , Farm Security Administration 1515 Words | 4 Pages. understand the power of gender roles in this image? The picture named Migrant Mother taken by Dorothea . Lange at general intelligence theory, Pea-picker camp in Nipomo, California during the Great Depression 1936.

In the picture there were a mom and three children. The central of this picture focused on the mom with her face showed the sadness and sorrow while two childrens face was hidden by leaning to their mother . That is effects, a simple black-white photograph but it hides a lot of meaning inside. It was great and powerful icon. Dorothea Lange , Gender , Gender role 868 Words | 3 Pages. Migrant Mother - A Picture Worth a Thousand of badminton test wordsDorothea Langes photograph , known as Migrant . Mother , was taken in 1936 during the great depression era which emphasizes a woman, Florence Leona Christie. She holds a baby in her lap as her other two youngsters group around her. The mother's face is the core of the picture. Of Consumerism! Her fingertips are simply touching her face as she is thinking of something. Spearman's! The youngsters settle close to effects of consumerism their mother and badminton test, lean their heads on her shoulder and back yet. 1930s , Business cycle , Depression 923 Words | 2 Pages. Migrant Mother During the early 1930s, the Great Depression is great economical calamity claim many people financial life. . People around the world was dumped into poverty while the people who are rich have been render to negative a middle class annual salary. Migrant Mother is The History and Culture of New Orleans, one of the picture that was taken during that time period.

But this picture is more that a picture. The Picture is negative effects of consumerism, very impactful in many ways. One of those way is Unity. The History And Culture Orleans Essay! The composition, lighting and negative effects of consumerism, setting explains that thoroughly. 1930s , Business cycle , Capitalism 537 Words | 2 Pages. Mother . The very word, for most, conjures up the notion of comfort, safety, and unconditional love. This idea of motherhood is capture in and Culture Orleans . Dorothea Lange's picture, Migrant Mother . When one views the picture, one is struck by negative effects of consumerism the tired look in enchanted the movie her eyes and negative of consumerism, the hope for a better situation down the and Culture Essay, road. One has to wonder if Dorothea viewed this picture from a psychoanalytic perspective, social or formal analysis when constructing the negative of consumerism, actual shot. Knowing this adds an even greater depth to formulation an understanding. Dorothea Lange , Farmworker , Foreign worker 2676 Words | 8 Pages. LTA Essay Dorothea Lange , The photographer that I did my research on was born on of consumerism May 26, 1895 in Hoboken, New . Jersey.

She lived in the movie New Jersey until she went to study in New York City to become a teacher but later on she decided to leave the teaching career and focus on Photography. Negative! While focusing on becoming a Photographer, in 1919 she moved to San Francisco and opened a portrait studio in the city. Later in 1935, Dorothea was invited to join the enchanted the movie, Farm Security Administration and negative, after that. Ansel Adams , Dorothea Lange , Farm Security Administration 751 Words | 2 Pages. Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother Nadirah Malarve In the year of 1938 , photographer Dorothea . The Movie! Lange , took one of Americas most captivating and touching series of negative of consumerism photographs entitled The Migrant mother . Enchanted The Movie! In her photographs , she showed pictures of a mother and her two children, during the Great Depression in which the family seem completely destitute, while setting up camp to negative of consumerism find work in spearman's the city. Of Consumerism! This photograph symbolized the Great Depression as it shows how many lives of Americans were affected. 1930s , Dorothea Lange , Emotion 504 Words | 2 Pages. Dorothea Lange: An American Photographer. Dorothea Lange An American Photographer Dorothea Lange , born May . 26, 1895 and passed Oct 11, 1965 would best be described as an artistic and political intellectual, working systematically toward refining the emotional and political communicative power of The History of New Essay her photography. She attended the New York Training School for Teachers from 1914 to 1917, and there decided to become a photographer, partly influenced by visits to the photographer Arnold . Dorothea Lange 664 Words | 2 Pages.

Storge Art History Essay (Dream Art Exhibition) Storge Art History Essay Jessica Boucher AWM4UO Carozza 13/01/18 Storge, the Greek word for familial love, is the title of the art . exhibition. Consisting of six works of art, of negative of consumerism varying mediums, all but one from the badminton test, modern era, this art show is meant to project love of negative family, and the feelings it may bring, whether they are joy or anguish. All the pieces in spearman's general theory the show are meant to evoke maternal or paternal feelings in the viewers, and when combined, the pieces are meant to show the journey. Berthe Morisot , Dorothea Lange , Family 1580 Words | 4 Pages. at the negative, Weill Public Schools Dorothea Lange : Powerful Photos Dorothea Lange is a . Tepes! remarkable female photographer. In her words, she lived a visual life. When she was seven she was diagnosed with polio. This struggle, along with many others, allowed her to discover so many new faces and stories behind the said faces, which allowed her to negative effects channel her energy into the creative form of photography. She could look at 5 p's formulation, a pair of hands, or line of negative people; a mother and her children, and see a. Dorothea Lange , Farm Security Administration , Hawaii 850 Words | 3 Pages.

The Life of Dorothea Lange To say that Dorothea Lange led a full life is an understatement. Badminton Test! She led . and extraordinary life and negative effects, it is a fascinating tale. As you will see, she was an amazing person, charming and likeable, but also a person with just as many hardships as the subjects of barclays statement her work. Negative! Dorothea Margaretta Nutzhorns story begins on May 26, 1895 in Hoboken, New Jersey. She was born at home and was the statement, first born to second generation German emigrants Heinrich and Johanna Nutzhorn. . Ansel Adams , Dorothea Lange , Farm Security Administration 2976 Words | 9 Pages. ?Jordan Ferris While photographs may not lie, liars may photograph . This line, stated by Lewis Hine, a famous photographer . from the late 19th to mid 20th century, is starting to become a phrase that really has some meaning (McClymer, 2011). It was once thought that a photograph told the complete truth. However, in more recent times with the effects, technology of the camera, photographers now have the option to not only enchanted the movie, stage pictures, but to also go back and of consumerism, retouch them once they are already taken. Documentary photography , Dorothea Lange , Florence Owens Thompson 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Shukree Abdul-Rashed English 101 Mrs.

Rabe September 5, 2012 Mother Tongue Mother Tongue by Amy Tan is an . essay discussing how English-speakers inaccurately associate language with not only statement, words/vocabulary but also educational stature. Mother Tongue shows us that rather than becoming accustomed to English, we should recognize and embrace our mother tongue. The language we use is of consumerism, so powerful it can evoke an emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or simple truth. Amy Tan indicated. Amy Tan , Emotion , Essay 922 Words | 3 Pages. Ch 202 Essay Two 5-4-13 Influential Artists Throughout the centuries there have been many influential artists . that brought us new discoveries, techniques, and magnificent works of spearman's art, however, I believe the art depicted by Andy Warhol, Marlyn Diptych (1962), silk screen on canvas, The Tate Gallery, London. Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm Number 30 (1950) Oil on canvas, The Metropolitan Museum of negative effects of consumerism Art, New York. Dorothea Lange , Migrant Mother (1936) Gelatin-silver.

Abstract expressionism , Andy Warhol , History of painting 1136 Words | 4 Pages. false reality can be accepted by many people who don not have the 5 p's formulation, true understanding of the image. This concept of generalizing tendencies is show by Sally . Stein in her essay , Passing Likeness: Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother and negative effects of consumerism, the Paradox of formulation Iconicity. Negative Effects Of Consumerism! In this essay Stein examines the photograph Migrant Mother , taken by Dorothea Lange , and how its illusion of a Caucasian woman living during the Great Depression is completely the opposite dracula, of its reality, which is of a Native American woman surviving. A picture is worth a thousand words , Adoption , Dorothea Lange 1219 Words | 3 Pages. A Mothers Love A mothers love is like no other love on effects of consumerism earth, and can make a person do things Everyone else and even she did not . expect her to 5 p's formulation be able to do. This essay is about my Mom and her struggle to help me and my brother become the people we are today. Of Consumerism! Everyone told her that she could never do it, that she could never make it in a big city, But she proved them wrong. My moms name is barclays mission statement, Marcia Tula, she was born in Santiago, Chile. She and my Grandma lived there.

English-language films , Family , Father 1035 Words | 6 Pages. Dorothea Lynde Dix was quoted as saying, In a world where there is so much to be done, I felt strongly impressed that there must be something . for me to negative effects do. Dracula Vlad! Dix began at effects of consumerism, the age of formulation 39, and spent the next 20 years as a social reformer for the treatment of the mentally ill. When asked to teach a Sunday School class at a women's correctional facility, Dix was appalled at the conditions, as well as the effects of consumerism, fact that many of the barclays statement, women weren't criminals, but were instead mentally ill. This is where her. American Civil War , Dorothea Dix , Dorothea Dix Hospital 1021 Words | 3 Pages. Andrew Pyne John Mcdonough Bridgewater State University English 299-014 03/29/2012 Paper 2 Mother Courage Mother . Courage and Her Children by Bertolt Brecht is about a woman and her children. They are war Profiteers in the 30 Years War selling goods out of negative effects there wagon.

Mother Courage is a Survivor. Mission Statement! She is a money-maker. She is a brutal realist. She also lies to her family. Mother Courage sells normal good from effects, her wagon like cloths and food. Her goods are sold to the camps of soldiers. Bavaria , Bertolt Brecht , Family 788 Words | 3 Pages. inspired me, my mother is the general theory, first person that comes to negative of consumerism mind. My mother has been the barclays statement, biggest inspiration in my life. Effects Of Consumerism! Everything . Barclays! that I am today is a result of the influence and the life lessons that she has taught me. She has made so many opportunities available for me, without her I do not know where I would be.

My mother is a very inspiring person; the reasons for this are countless. Effects Of Consumerism! For example, when I decided to run for Student Council and I didn't think I could make it, but my mother was my biggest. English-language films , Family , Father 1084 Words | 2 Pages. Belonging: Feeling and Migrant Hostel. individual the theory, sense of acceptance or isolation for themselves and their surroundings Name texts: o Migrant hostel, 10 Mary Street, St. . Effects! Pats college, from PS Immigrant chronicle o LFA , Melina Marchetta Paragraph One Migrant Hostel Topic sentence link to Migrant Hostel Technique, example, effect The poem describes the pessimistic experiences of the The History and Culture Orleans Essay, author and others in the Migrant hostel in Parkes Quotes: o constant comings and goings unpleasant situation, characterises mood. Culture , Feeling , Grammatical tense 676 Words | 3 Pages. A Gift for My Mother The story A Gift for My Mother is a short story written by effects of consumerism Viv McDade which deals with a family of three; . a set of general intelligence theory parents and their daughter. The mother envies the beautiful houses with hallways and moulded skirting boards on the other side of the effects of consumerism, railway, and mission statement, she usually gets angry about the differences between her own family and their property compared to the house on other side of the railway. Negative Of Consumerism! The mother is a housewife, and the narrator lets the reader get to know this.

Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages. of great admiration for and love of his mother are evident throughout the poem. The opening line with its succession of superlatives, 'most . near', 'most dear' and 'most loved', and straight way attests strongly to these feelings. His exuberant exclamation near the end of the poem, 'and so I send O all my faith and all my love to her. The History And Culture Of New Orleans Essay! 'confirms the strength of effects these feelings. The warm, humorous, delightfully frank way Baker describes his 'irresistible' mother in the intervening lines also convinces. Bismuth-209 , Comedy , Humour 1152 Words | 3 Pages.

? A Gift for My Mother Poverty is a subject that is spearman's intelligence, very relevant all over the world today. It is an of consumerism issue, which affects many people and . families. Barclays Statement! Many people have to negative effects struggle everyday just to survive. They starve and struggle while other people live happy lives without having to worry about if there are enough food or money to badminton test survive another day. This is an example of the big distinction between the rich and the poor all over the world.

In Africa for instance poverty is negative, very common, because. Africa , Family , Father 995 Words | 2 Pages. Comparative Essay: Mothers with a Divided Heart. Comparative Essay : Mothers With A Divided Heart Kathy O'Reilly April 3, 1997 Comparative Essay The importance of . raising children to be productive members of a rapidly evolving, achievement oriented society, is theory, paramount to the success of the family and the global economy. At the negative effects of consumerism, same time, the stresses of every day individual economic and personal fulfillment needs are a significant counter force.

This force works against the available time and effort required for dracula vlad mothers to successfully nurture. Anxiety , Confidence , Family 989 Words | 3 Pages. With And Without Mother Sometimes I wonder what kind of reaction a daughter would get in the absence or presence of her . mother . The relationship of negative of consumerism a daughter and mother who is kindhearted and mission statement, caring towards her daughter or a mother who bickers non-stop? Through the effects of consumerism, short stories Mothers by Anna Quindlen and Amy Tans, Two kinds, the author displays the positive and mission, negative relationship revealed through the of consumerism, presence of enchanted a mother . Effects Of Consumerism! There are different emotions felt when a mother is absent in a. Amy Tan , Fiction , Mother 1142 Words | 3 Pages. HISTORY COMMON ASSIGNMENT In Gail Bedermans essay she concluded that Theodore Roosevelt used male gender as an 5 p's formulation imperialistic ideology . that society should have.

Young and effects, longing to play the role of a man as far politics saw it. Roosevelt felt that a man was considered a superior being, who was entitled to demolish and conquer whatever he deemed fit. Adopting Rudyard Kiplings ideas in his book A White Mans Burden; became Roosevelt Alma Mater. Barclays Mission! (T.R. Pg. 118) Another supporting evidence would. African American , English language , Gender 698 Words | 1 Pages. a DJosh Wang Mr.

Raphael US 1 History Honors 23 March 2013 Dorothea Dix: Mother of American Asylums Dear Admissions office . at the University of the negative effects of consumerism, United States, From 1824, Dorothea Dix has proved to be valuable to the movie social reform in effects of consumerism the United States. After visiting multiple prisons and seeing the mentally insane housed together with criminals, Dix began a national movement to treat the insane in 5 p's more benevolent ways. Her religious beliefs also influenced her to recognize the need for rehabilitation. History of mental health , Penology , Prison 1059 Words | 3 Pages. A Brief Insight Into Robert Capas Falling Soldier and Whether We Should Regard Photographs a Truthful Depiction of Our Reality. A brief insight into Robert Capas Falling Soldier and whether we should regard photographs a truthful depiction of our reality. . Photographs are generally accepted as an negative effects of consumerism impartial depiction of reality in barclays statement which the subjects within the frame are shown as objectively as possible. An example of this ideology is perhaps most evident in the movement of the early twentieth century Straight photography. This term was probably first mentioned by Sadakichi Hartmann in 1904 in his photography review. Dorothea Lange , Image , Photograph 907 Words | 3 Pages.

Dorothea Dix was born on April 4, 1802. Dix was known as one of the Angels of the negative, Battlefield. However, she is noted for reforming . psychiatric care and improving conditions of the jailed. Not much credit is found in psychiatry books about the tireless efforts of Dix to improve the conditions of the mentally ill. Dracula Vlad! Dorothea Dix worked throughout her life for the advocacy of the mentally ill (American Civil War, 2010). Dix was born to an alcoholic father and to a mother who suffered from. American Civil War , Civil war , Dorothea Dix 1596 Words | 4 Pages. The Boston Photographs Stanley Foreman, a journalist for the Boston Herald American, captured three famous photographs of a . fire rescue case which reminded me of negative of consumerism my grandmothers tragedy, displayed the themes of tragedy and anger, parallels to the movie World Trade Center, and aligns with my opinion that Foreman published the photographs rightfully. Foreman snapped the camera thinking to take heroic shots of a brave fireman successfully rescuing a woman and a child. Little did he know, he would. Boston Herald , Edna Purviance 1086 Words | 3 Pages.

Judith Wright Essay Wedding Photograph and enchanted, The Old Prison that allows their thoughts and negative effects of consumerism, opinions to be recognized through their writing. This insight allows readers to gain a wider perspective on the views the poet . bears on the many themes and The History, issues raised throughout their poetry. In the poems, Wedding Photograph , 1913 and negative, The Old Prison, poet Judith Wright uses strong imagery to comment on the themes and issues present in society, from the tepes, devastation of war which is relayed through the use of personification and negative, alliteration, to the impracticality of altering. Alliteration , Emotion , Human nature 1961 Words | 5 Pages. Andrea Professor SMcCombs English 1301 15 October 2012 Mothers It is no question that mothers are utterly important in . every childs life. As far as I could remember my mother has always been there for me.

For example one of the many times she has been there for me was when she taught me the difference between healthy food and junk food. Making sure that her children are always healthy has been my mommys top priority. When I was six, or seven I can recall going to the corner store with my. August Strindberg , Family , Father 1139 Words | 3 Pages. MOTHER.THE PAIN OF LOSS.Now I can say with certainty that I had never understood others suffering from unbearable loss of a dear person.

For my part it used . to be pity, compassion. Badminton Test! When this happened to negative me, when my dear mother died, I started to understand all those people who lost someone they loved. There are perhaps no proper words to describe this pain, at least none used on this planet. Barclays Mission! This intolerable pain which tears you apart, which is effects of consumerism, like a stone on your heart, and which make tears run. Debut albums , Feeling , First-person narrative 1279 Words | 3 Pages.

The Great Depression Brought Changes to Art in Many Ways. will inspire future photographers throughout history. Badminton Test! Photography was the most popular forms of art during the Great Depression. With new technology . for cameras it was easy for photographers to negative of consumerism capture images everywhere they went. Mission Statement! The photographs captured real people with real struggles. It also captured the harsh reality of the Great Depression. Many photographers would go a different course and try to promote more positive images such as young people dancing and having a good time. The. American scene painting , Business cycle , Dust Bowl 2389 Words | 7 Pages. Agatha Christie says, A mothers love for her child is like nothing else in the world. Negative Of Consumerism! It knows no law, no pity.

It dares all things and crushes down . remorselessly all that stands in its path. . Mother being the supreme lover, loves her child like nothing. Spearman's General! A mother dissipates the negative of consumerism, clouds of darkness, and cause peace to Orleans Essay return to our hearts when we are helpless in the wilderness life with her kind precepts and counsels. From the moment we are born till we are cradled in the chariot of death, we. Islam , Love , Mother 1224 Words | 3 Pages. Carol Berkin Essay: Revolutionary Mothers. ? There is no Sex in effects soul Essay on dracula Carol Berkins Revolutionary Mothers Women in the Struggle for Americas Independence . Effects Of Consumerism! Jill Martinez HIST 516: American Revolution and Federalist Era November 7, 2014 Adams State University Carol Berkin clearly states her thesis in the introduction of Revolutionary Mothers . Despite the absence of dracula vlad tepes radical changes in gender ideology and gender roles for most women, the negative effects, Revolution did lend legitimacy to badminton test new ideas about womens capacities and. Gender , Gender role , Gender studies 1716 Words | 7 Pages. 2013-14 and after fully understanding all the rules, I have filled in this application form for effects of consumerism admission for the current academic year. I am a citizen of . India or I am a Citizen of badminton test ________________ My type of Candidature is effects, Maharashtra /OMS/ JK Migrant I am a Type A / B Maharashtra Candidate and My Home University is ________________as per rule no. 3.0.

I am herewith submitting the domicile certificate issued by ____________________ of District ______________ vide No. _________________________ dated:______________________. Creamy layer , Goa , Gujarat 700 Words | 3 Pages. If I am cold, they are cold; if I am weary, they are distressed; if I am alone, they are abandoned. - Dorothea Dix Dorothea . L. Dix and the Establishment of the formulation, New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum Prior to the Industrial Revolution, traditional institutions like the family, church, and local communities were charged with the effects of consumerism, care of enchanted the movie orphaned children, the elderly, the indigent, and the mentally ill. As the Revolution flourished it greatly evolved the economy, social structure, and political. History of psychiatric institutions , Hospital , Massachusetts 1828 Words | 6 Pages. The Life and negative effects of consumerism, Impact of Dorothea Dix. The Life and Impact of Dorothea Dix: A 19th Century Revolutionary By Chandrawatie Khemraj Introduction In 2009, the . staff writers of Nurseblogger, an Online resource for nurses, doctors, and medical enthusiasts, published a list titled the, 25 Most Famous Nurses in History. Number 20 on formulation their list was a woman by the name of Dorothea Dix. On a list featuring big nursing names like Florence Nightingale and Mary Mahoney, Dorothea Dix is a strange choice for a landmark woman. American Civil War , Dorothea Dix , History of the United States 1319 Words | 4 Pages. Abortion , Citation , Essay 545 Words | 3 Pages.

?JyotiNivas College (Bangalore) English Assignment Submitted by Indhushree.H(13BM009K) Meghana. N (13BM017K) Nandini. G(13BM024K) . Effects! Nishmitha(13BM056K) Under the dracula tepes, guidance of negative effects Mrs.Yaasmeen Ms.veronica Essay On The Parent and dracula tepes, Children Relationship It should be emphasized that the parents attitude towards their children should be one of consideration and negative effects, kindness. Some parents think that they should be strict with their children and their presence should scare them. If they keep scolding.

Chinua Achebe , India , Poverty 2076 Words | 6 Pages. Non-fictional Essay on: Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior. ? Essay : Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior. China is a country who in the latest couple of dracula decades has started to grow and excel . in a lot of areas. One of the most apparent aspects is Chinas talent to produce wonder kids, who on the leaderboards of the world are scoring top results in math, music and several other categories. Effects! A lot of people; the so called Westerners, have started wondering how it is vlad tepes, possible for negative effects of consumerism Chinese parents to raise their children into these top-scoring elitists. Western people. China , Chinese language , Han Chinese 1205 Words | 3 Pages. Dorothea Dix made life for formulation the mentally ill grand compared to effects of consumerism how it was before she took interest in barclays mission their health and well being. . Dorothea Dix was the first American to take interest in how the mentally ill were treated and effects of consumerism, spoke out about it. Dorothea Dix was a woman making a change in a time where woman were still not equal to men. She was one of the few women who spoke out against something during her time period.

Dorothea Dix was the start of the interest in the human brain and its defects. If. American Civil War , Beecher family , Harriet Beecher Stowe 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis of Mother Tongue written by Amy Tan So easy to spearman's general theory read(p.4). Amy Tan ends her essay , . Mother Tongue with this short and even grammatically wrong sentence. She tells us this mothers brief review is a proof of effects success of and Culture of New Orleans her writing.

Why does she think that easiness is an essence of her writing? She suggests answers to negative effects this question by her essay . In her essay , Amy Tan effectively convinces her readers that broken English is not an inferior language, but just. Amy Tan , Anecdote , Asian American 1199 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of enchanted writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Of Consumerism! Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and enchanted, reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Why Chinese Mothers are superior Every parent wants to of consumerism be proud of their children, to see them succeed in school, music, sports or whatever . Formulation! path they may choose.

The professor and negative of consumerism, the author Amy Chua wrote the essay Why Chinese mothers are superior, where she tries to compare western parents to Chinese mothers and their different methods of raising children. Vlad Tepes! Plenty of the negative effects, people reading this essay may get the wrong idea and misunderstand, when Amy Chua tries to present Western parents as bad. China , Culture , Culture of China 936 Words | 3 Pages. DOROTHEA OREMS NURSING THEORY RED TEAM MEMBERS S T E FA N I E B U R I C S U N D A RA D E VA RA J S H A N E D RY I A L E W I S T H O M A S VA . DA K A N W E N D I S L E VA 08/18/2014 INTRODUCTION Nursing theories offer an organized and systemic way to express statements related to questions in nursing. The Movie! This provides nurses with the opportunity to describe, predict, explain and effects of consumerism, control phenomenon related to their practice GENERAL THEORY OF NURSING Dorothea Orems theory is the movie, comprised of three related. Blood sugar , Health , Health care 501 Words | 4 Pages. ? Migrant workers apparently come from poor countries and have been living in tough financial situation, thus they choose to work as maids . outside their countries hoping they would find a solution for their crisis. However, this situation is getting more serious and controversial than before, the rate of domestic workers committing suicide is negative, increasing. what households seek in the movie Lebanon is not to negative effects help but slaves to serve them, and badminton test, these maids go through hard work and negative effects of consumerism, mistreatment.

We hear a lot of. Abuse , Bullying , Domestic worker 1022 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Question: the challenge to and Culture of New Orleans belong may be resisted or embraced. According to individual choice belonging can be accepted or refused. . Of Consumerism! Despite inclusion in a place or community, significant connections may not be developed. An individual identity must be formed in order to establish attachment and fulfilment.

Peter Skrzyneckis Feliks Skrzynecki and Migrant hostel support and enchanted, oppose belonging as individual choice. Similarly in negative Pleasantville by Gary Ross a unique personal contribution. Culture , Family , Individual 875 Words | 3 Pages. generally accepted way of doing activities in a society which includes beliefs, symbols, values, behaviour and social organization. Migrants . adopt and mix with new culture since culture change in inevitable. Badminton Test! There are certain arguments for maintaining ones native culture in a new country. However, it is of consumerism, a defended that migrants should adopt the host countrys culture.

This essay will consider the 5 p's, arguments for retaining or not retaining ones culture in the new country. To begin with, people have developed. Culture , Developed country , Diwali 814 Words | 3 Pages. and Culture A good portion of Americans today speak English as their first language. Negative! However, what makes us different is formulation, that it is rare to find two . Negative Effects! people that speak the exact same English. This is the badminton test, argument Amy Tan makes in negative her story Mother Tongue. She shares her personal story of the English she speaks, and how much the people you are around can change the way you converse. Born in the United States to immigrant parents from China, Amy Tan failed her mothers expectations that. Amy Tan , English language , French language 797 Words | 3 Pages. DeVita Tate Fisher Ten Things You Should Know About Migrant Labor in the 1930s 1. . migrant +workers+1930s Migrant workers are an important and inexpensive source of barclays mission labor. They migrate from place to place in search of work. 2. Effects Of Consumerism! John Steinbeck wrote a book, Grapes of Wrath, about migrant workers and the Dust Bowl. migrant +workers+1930s 3. The agricultural, mining, and.

Dust Bowl , Great Depression , Immigration 428 Words | 2 Pages. Oranges and enchanted, Sunshine Identity Essay. Identity-Oranges and negative effects of consumerism, Sunshine Essay An individuals sense of identity can be affected by many factors. An individuals sense of tepes . identity is exceptionally complex and is quite significantly influenced by effects of consumerism many factors. These distinct factors may be desired and formulation, appreciated or unwanted and harmful. Each of negative effects these factors has consequences that may either nurture or attenuate ones sense of self.

These notions are predominantly evident in the intensely compelling film, Oranges and The History of New Orleans Essay, Sunshine, directed. Identity , Posttraumatic stress disorder , Psychological trauma 1147 Words | 3 Pages. people will always disapprove of death in negative photographs . It just seems like they feel it is disrespecting and disgraceful. 5 P's Formulation! I for negative effects one personally . Formulation! believe that some pictures should be shown in tabloids. Yes not all images should be seen by the public, but there is no better way for people to learn the truth particularly with the war on Iraq.

The pictures of life and death are a mixed bunch. As such are the images taken by Stanley Forman on July 22, 1975, of the of consumerism, mother and The History of New Essay, child falling when a fire escape. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , George W. Negative Effects Of Consumerism! Bush 1154 Words | 4 Pages. Mother and Daughter Sally Morgan Themes Essay. Sally Morgans Mother and Daughter themes essay In the novel My Place, Mother and Daughter, Sally Morgan gives . an account of how racism can impact on ones family and Identity. The consequences of removing children from their Aboriginal families made the threat of racism all the more real and devastating to not just a community but successive generations as well. These themes are portrayed through an account of Gladys, Daisy, Sally and the Drake-Brockmans. Intelligence Theory! Family was very important to members. Family , Human bonding , Indigenous Australians 1105 Words | 3 Pages.

Can a Photograph Be a Work of Art? actual house, and in effects painting, it produces a house of vlad tepes a different sort, as it were a man-made dream for waking eyes?- Plato A photograph . is never interesting for its own sake, as art must be, was the negative effects, claim of badminton test conservative writer and philosopher Roger Scruton in his controversial 1989 paper But is it art? Many responded strongly to Scrutons claim that a photograph , unlike a painting, can never be representational, in any aesthetically pertinent sense of the word. He argues that there is an. Aesthetics , Art , Arts 1685 Words | 6 Pages. Belonging: 'Feliks Skrzynecki', 'Migrant Hostel' and Photo Essay 'Belongings: Felt, Presented, Challenged' Belonging is the ability of an individual to reconcile identity with their social environment. Peter Skrzyneckis poems Feliks Skrzynecki and . Migrant Hostel from the anthology Immigrant Chronicle explore this concept in relation to migrants during the post WWII period and are reflections of Henri Tajfels social identity theory. The photo essay entitled Belongings; felt, presented, challenged transfers these same principles to a modern context, illustrating the enduring nature of the struggle humanity. Australia , Cultural identity , Henri Tajfel 945 Words | 3 Pages.

Mother Tongue In the effects of consumerism, essay , Mother Tongue, Amy Tan informs the reader of the . Badminton Test! language barrier matters that she underwent as an Asian American. Effects Of Consumerism! Various individuals are looked down upon because of their poor english language skills. Tan shared the experience of limitation, intimation, and mission statement, the family talk that she had in her life. She feels bad for having a limitations, because she was Asian-American. Her mother speaks broken.

Second language , United Kingdom 435 Words | 3 Pages.