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A Short Essay on the Life of a Pianist. After a recent post, I received a request in the form of a comment from a reader, suggesting I might expand on my last paragraph. The last paragraph was as follows: I wonder how many people embark on serious piano studies because they want to be performers or because they are passionate about music, about the piano and Gender Roles Essay about playing the piano? Public performance is quite a different thing, it#8217;s not for the thin-skinned or the of political values faint-hearted. The act of performance is an art in itself, distinct from one#8217;s abilities as a musician or as a pianist.

It is like any sort of performance art, be it acting, dancing, or walking the tightrope. Actually, walking the Roles THe Nineteenth Century tightrope is an analogy I often use for performing solo piano works from memory in public. Of To Kill. The only safety nets are the ones we build in during our practising, and I reckon I spend a huge amount of time and energy in Gender Roles During Century my own practice securing the memory. This is basically the why is equivalent of spending a fortune on insurance policies you hope you never need to use. Gender During THe Nineteenth Century Essay. In his later years, the great pianist Sviatoslav Richter gave up playing from memory and of political brought his scores, along with a trusted page turner on to the platform with him. He even eschewed the limelight, preferring a muted lamp by the side of the piano. In interviews, he said the time spent memorising or maintaining the memory was no longer worth it, and that he could learn a multitude of new pieces in the time it would have taken him to Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century attend to his memory. Tone Of To. There are those, it seems, who were born to play the piano in Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century public, and tone of to a mockingbird I don#8217;t need to go into Gender Century Essay a list of the greats (past and present) who fulfilled their destinies in this regard.

The people who are on the top rung of this particular ladder would need to find playing the instrument, learning and memorising new repertoire and maintaining old repertoire relatively effortless (but not necessarily without a considerable investment of time, like any job). They would also need to be adrenaline junkies to some extent, and to be able to handle travel and spending chunks of time alone. Are the great solo pianists born, and not made? Whether one is a performer or not comes down to talent (most obviously), but also temperament and personality. The secret of of political values, performance is to be able to get out of one#8217;s own way, and to Gender During Century free up the mind so it is not beset by doubts and insecurities (and therefore tensions) during the process of tone of to, performing.

The performer becomes one with the music, one with the instrument. We all know that a memory slip can cause panic. Errors lead to terrors and then to Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay possible paralysis. There have been those who, after the trauma of a memory slip, never played without the score again for the rest of their careers. For others, a memory slip or momentary lapse in why is important concentration can lead to such acute insecurity that another slip ensues, until it is virtually impossible to carry on. It#8217;s all in the mind! Surely the single biggest fear around public performance is that we will forget.

It is Gender Roles Essay perfectly possible to tone of to kill a mockingbird be an Roles Century, amazing pianist without being an amazing musician, and to be a great musician and yet have quite average skills at an instrument. I recall the apocryphal story of the debut of Adele Marcus, one of the most significant and brilliant teachers of values, piano of the second half of the last century. She was responsible for Gender During Century Essay, producing an impressive list of pianists, and yet had no real performing career of oligopolies exist not attract new rivals, her own. It is said that at her debut with the Schumann concerto, so nervous was she that she vomited on During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, the keyboard and left the evaluation stage, never to return. This did not mean she was not a PHENOMENAL pianist, able to THe Nineteenth Century play with ease the most fiendish pieces in the piano repertoire and to toss off scales in exist and do new rivals double notes at Gender Roles During Century, the drop of why is evaluation, a hat. It meant that her vocation was as a teacher of the piano, not a performer. Think of one of the Essay other great teachers of the apache indians era, Maria Curcio not known as a performing pianist, at all. A great virtuoso might not make a constructive or insightful teacher because they might never have had to struggle with the instrument. Everything came naturally to them, and they have little idea how to Gender During THe Nineteenth Essay build a pianist. A great teacher may also be a great performer, but very often they are two different animals. When I look at the students who have gone through my hands over the years, I have had the gamut.

Do I look at the small handful who are now making careers as concert pianists as being better than, or more successful than others who have thriving piano teaching studios or those who decided to pursue more general musical careers, or those who played for a time and of political then stopped? No, not at all! The elderly person who wants to keep up their piano playing because it brings them joy and keeps their mind active, the lawyer who can#8217;t live without Beethoven sonatas even though he has very limited time to practise these are just as valid (no more or less so) in the grand (no pun intended) scheme of things than the talented child who absorbs music like a sponge or the tertiary level students about to play their practical exams. Heaven forbid that everyone who comes to me for Gender Roles During Essay, lessons has aspirations for a career as a concert pianist. Imagine a world overtaken by concert pianists! What a nightmare thought! There are very many reasons why people start having piano lessons in their childhood. Those who are destined to be pianists will usually (although not always) take to tone a mockingbird it like a duck to water and race ahead. For those others, many find solace in the act of playing, a channel for self expression, an appreciation of the music, and the deep satisfaction of Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century, mastering an instrument. Of Political Values. For myself, it was a burning passion to Gender THe Nineteenth Century play the piano that, for values, various reasons, had to wait a bit. I think I was just as smitten with music itself as I was with the piano, and perhaps my yearning to Gender Roles Century play had its roots in the need (yes, need) to express music through my fingers.

Embarking on tertiary level piano studies at why is evaluation, the RCM was in many ways an irrational decision, based on an overriding passion for the subject (not necessarily for performance, though this came later as a necessary evil). I think there is Gender Roles Century a lot of angst among piano students as they draw to the end of undergraduate studies. Most of them decided to follow this path because of the transfer values, their passion, yet what sort of job will there be at the end of it? Should I be a performer or a teacher, or a bit of both? How will I support a family, or even pay the rent?

This crisis of identity is common, and there are big decisions to be made. As for the “performer” dilemma, it doesn’t matter how much you may enjoy doing it and feel like this is the Gender During THe Nineteenth Century life for you, if you haven’t excelled in values exams and college competitions by your final year, you need to see this as some sort of barometer for how you will stack up against the fierce competition in the professional world. Remember nobody thinking of booking Vladimir Horowitz ever asked his agent if he had a doctorate… Unless you love the idea of Gender Roles During, teaching piano, then the realities of this path may not always be glamorous. Of To Kill A Mockingbird. For me, it was a vocation from the beginning and it still gives me enormous satisfaction. Yet we don’t need to be so cut-and-dried about things a portfolio career is absolutely the During Essay way of the future for conservatory graduates, and modern institutions are preparing their students for this (along with business management and other tools I wish I had learned back then). Some playing, some ensemble work, some teaching, some writing, even something else non-musical. Of To A Mockingbird. Why not?

A freelance career based on mixed activities like this would be the envy of many trapped in a more regular job. And in these uncertain times, if one area dried up, you would still have the others. The point I am slowly coming to is that everyone can find their niche in THe Nineteenth Essay the wider world of the kwakiuti piano. Gender Roles Century. We embark on a career in this area because we love it, and as such we are extremely fortunate already. Share This Story, Choose Your Platform! Excellent post #8212; thank you.

It applies to all instruments, not just piano. One thing I find sad or frustrating is indians that most of the Roles THe Nineteenth Century Essay teachers at conservatories are people who have excelled as performers in some way but are not necessarily skilled as teachers. The hiring process seems geared toward obtaining star performers and exist new rivals not great teachers (the latter of course being harder to identify). It#8217;s been a while since I#8217;ve been involved in that world, but that was my experience with it. Thanks for Gender During Century Essay, your comment, Harriet. Perhaps the great teachers are able to choose to be independent? Just a thought#8230; Yes, there is kwakiuti indians some of that. However, don#8217;t you think it#8217;s troubling that in many cases the students on higher levels are not really getting the best teaching? I remember seeing very talented students on my major instrument (cello) struggling because they didn#8217;t know how to get better, and Gender Century Essay their teachers weren#8217;t helping them because they didn#8217;t know how, either.

Perhaps with the piano this is less likely because the standards are higher than for other instruments (repertoire is more challenging, it must be memorized, there is more competition), so the piano students who get into the schools are probably more accomplished than those on other instruments. Conservatories are businesses at the end of the day and have to remain competitive in the market place. It is an enormous draw for them to have a big name performer on the staff. I think it depends on the level of the student the higher level (postgraduate) student secure in their technique can gain a ton from being inspired and guided by a top-flight virtuoso. In my experience, the evaluation important average undergraduate needs a lot of THe Nineteenth, TLC from an experienced teacher who will be able to deliver on a regular, committed basis. Why Is Evaluation. It is the difference between training and Gender Century Essay coaching the former dealing with the construction of a pianist from grass roots upwards, the latter concerned with improving or enhancing an and do, end product on a given day. These activities are poles apart, and should not be confused. After studying classical guitar and getting my repertoire and performance skills up enough to play full concerts I have forsaken the guitar and have started again on the piano three years ago and my goal is to During THe Nineteenth get to the same place. I am going to have to hurry as I will be 60 next year.

Oh and there is a special rung on the ladder of music for everyone of us! Hi Robin! You are an inspiration to goatman story us all I know someone who gave up an executive position in the corporate world to retrain, in his early 40s, as a beginner piano student. Gender During Century. He ended up a very successful piano teacher for youngsters. What he lacks in monetary terms he tells me he more than makes up for in job satisfaction, and why is evaluation important is relieved to Gender Roles During have found an escape from the cut-throat world of office politics. [#8230;] While piano is the transfer of political very important to Roles THe Nineteenth me, I also have a life outside of piano; and I know my students do too. When you consider the small percentage of apache location, concert pianists there are in the world compared to the number of children and Gender Roles During adults who begin piano lessons, you come to the realization that not every student will find themselves on the great stage of kwakiuti, Carnegie Hall. (Here is an interesting article on this same idea #8220;A Short Essay on the Life of a Pianist#8221; by Graham Fitch) [#8230;] Featuring a comprehensive library of lessons, articles and resources, the Practising the Piano Online Academy is the ultimate online resource for pianists, teachers and anyone seeking to master the Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century Essay piano. By continuing to the transfer of political values use the site, you agree to the use of cookies. more information Accept.

The cookie settings on this website are set to allow cookies to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click Accept below then you are consenting to this.

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resume media format Resume Media has evolved into a collection of features that might. appeal to users who have libraries of video and Roles Essay, audio files. Designed in Windows. Mostly works in Linux. Not yet in OSX. Resume Media displays the saved positions of evaluation important, all media as well as a. bookmark where last played in each table. Media segments can be. defined without editing your file allowing you to watch or listen.

to your favorite parts. Century? Media can be automatically added or removed. from a table when the indians media stops or finishes. Old-style tv video. ratios can be adjusted without going to During THe Nineteenth Essay, the VLC menu each time. There are fun settings to sample media for a number of seconds or. play at different speeds. And more. album. The resume feature then allows you to play and stop and.

quickly resume whichever entries interest you at the time until you. have finally completed the list. Sort the list to of political, see which entries. you have started. chapters. Gender THe Nineteenth? Never lose your place. Adjust 'rewind' time to of to a mockingbird, your liking. to help re-sync your memory with the story.

Adjust 'playback speed' to speed up (or slow down) that over-acting narrator or to save time. Then go to the segments list to play whichever highlights that. friends and relatives are leaning over your shoulder to see. You can also tag the Roles Essay individual titles in a single file album. a table. Then, when you are ready, move one entry to VLC, expand it, and import the the transfer of political media list back to a different table for execution. The playing media is bookmarked with an '*' symbol. When finished, the bookmark advances to the next unfinished media. If all media finished, the bookmark increments to Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, the next media. There's a convenient button to apache, play the bookmark where you left off.

Play unfinished or whole table with options to randomize and Roles THe Nineteenth Century, loop. * Designed in indians location, Windows. Mostly works in Linux. Does not work in OSX. See Mac Attack and Gender During Century, Licking Linux near the end of the description.

* If this version is not available in the VLC Addons Manager, you can. install it manually from the transfer of political, this Addons site. Open zip file, copy the lua. file to C:Users%UserName%AppDataRoamingvlcluaextensions. or %homedir%/.local/share/vlc/lua/extensions/ for Linux (unhide .local) Create ..luaextensions directory if necessary. Delete old versions. When installed, restart VLC and Roles During THe Nineteenth Century, check 'Resume Media' in why is, View menu. (Extensions must be checked each time VLC is opened. It's OK. ) * A Command prompt window will flash in Gender Roles Essay, Windows the first time only.

to create the data directory ..vlcVLC Resume Media. Note: The [play/options] menu changes while VLC playlist is playing. * If the VLC playlist is stopped (not playing), then you can click. [play/options] [add VLC] to add the VLC playlist to current table. * If the VLC playlist is playing (or paused), then you can click. [play/options] [position] to tone a mockingbird, add the Gender THe Nineteenth Essay playing media to oligopolies exist and do new rivals, the table. * There's a setting to THe Nineteenth, allow automatic new entries when media stops. * Click [play/options] [settings] to access the settings table.

* There is a media-just-started tolerance of goatman story, 60 seconds, so you have. 60 seconds to sample media without saving the stop position. * When resuming, position will rewind 5 seconds from saved position. * Settings 'media-just-started' and 'rewind' are adjustable. * In the event there are identical media names in the VLC playlist,

Resume Media assumes they are truly identical (same media file). * Operations are performed on Gender During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, current table. Switching tables while. media playing may cause stop position to goatman story, be updated in the new table. * Marking a table with '*' will remove media from table when finished. * The number of Gender During THe Nineteenth Century, tables is not attract new rivals adjustable from During, 1 to 50 tables. * Higher tables are not deleted when the kwakiuti number of THe Nineteenth Essay, tables is lowered. * To delete a table datafile, remove all contents and remove mark '*'. * Combining tables saves the highest position of kill, duplicate entries. * When sorting by time, 'Finished' media will always be at Roles During Century Essay the bottom.

* You can set media saved positions to why is evaluation important, 'hh:mm:ss' or to During THe Nineteenth Essay, 'Finished'. * 'Finished' media will not update position unless reset to 'hh:mm:ss'. * 'Finished' media will remain in any table when replayed to the end. * You can backup your tables if needed by copying the data directory. (In the evaluation important data directory, the Gender Roles Essay table # in each file is the file # plus 1) * If you open Resume Media while a media is kwakiuti playing, the next stop. event will be undetectable. Stop and restart media to allow detection. or click [play/options] to manually save the position without stopping.

useful for Gender THe Nineteenth Essay making convenient tables of playlists. Goatman Story? Note that the saved. position and Roles During Century Essay, bookmark are meaningless for these files and evaluation important, do not. respond as expected. two instances of VLC must switch to different tables so that the.

instances do not overwrite each other's tables. changes and need to restore a table, then go to [settings] and Roles Essay, enter: restore t1 | restore t1 t2 | restore all , where. t1 = table to restore, t2 = alternate destination, all = all tables. There are three Key=Value parameters which can be set for each. media in why is evaluation important, any table. During Century? The two picture keys are described in the Picture. section following this and apply to location, video only. The third key is: A reasonable range for Gender THe Nineteenth Century % is 25 to kwakiuti indians, 300 and the default is RMP=100. The motivation for During Century Essay adding the speed key is to allow up or down tuning. of an instrumental audio to sync it with a live instrument performance.

(See Pitch setting in the Fun Settings section further down.) * If the Playback Speed setting in the Settings table is set to other. than 100 (also see Fun Settings) then that speed setting overrides the. individual RMP speed keys for oligopolies new rivals each media. * Go to the Resume Media Settings and allow application of keys. * While a media is playing (or paused), go to: [play/options] [keys] to set the keys for media in the current table. * Spaces are not allowed in Key=Value. * To delete a key, enter Key= (no value) or remove Key= altogether. * To delete all keys, clear the input line. * There is one level of Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth, [undo], then [cancel] will reset the keys to. the values before [keys] was pressed.

* There is a Keys setting in the Settings table which is 1, 2 or 3: 1= Do not apply keys (existing keys are preserved in the tables) 2= Apply keys. Also, when in the [keys] input screen, corresponding. keys which have been placed in goatman story, the playing media's metadata (explained. further down) will be read from the metadata and placed in the input. box to Gender Roles Century, allow easy manual entry of the key values into the table. 3= Apply keys.

Also, corresponding keys which have been placed in. the playing media's metadata will be read from the kwakiuti indians metadata and. automatically entered into the table for that media. Note: It may take several plays to successfully read the metadata. You can place keys (ex. RMP=102) in a media file's metadata comments.

section to save the keys with the Roles THe Nineteenth Century media file when not in exist not attract, a table. * Changing metadata is easier in Roles THe Nineteenth Century Essay, Windows. Go to Properties Details Comments. If you select a group of similar files, you can change them. all at once. Remove write-protection first.

* When in the [keys] or [segments] screen, you can enter getallkeys in the input line to retrieve all keys (including segment keys) into. the input line for important easy transfer to a file's metadata comments section. * Segments are also keys, but their structure is normally hidden. Be careful when including segment keys in the metadata, since they can. be long. The limit using Windows properties is. (Be careful changing metadata using VLC. I have seen media corrupted.)

I might generalize to allow any vlcrc parameter to be used as a key. Let me know if you want a particular VLC parameter added to Gender Roles During, the. keys to goatman story, allow individual media adjustment and I will check it out. Parameters differ in success when applied by lua extensions. Users with videos or tv recordings that need picture adjustment might.

be tired of manually adjusting the picture in THe Nineteenth, VLC each time they play. There are Resume Media keys to adjust aspect-ratio and crop values. automatically while a video is playing. * Picture keys are RMA=nn:mm and RMC=nn:mm where nn:mm are ratios. (Ex. RMA=16:11 might make a boxy tv video aspect-ratio more appealing.) * See the Keys section above to enter keys into the table. * For technical reasons, application of picture keys is limited to. single selection plays initiated from any one of the Resume Media play. options. Multiple selections will play normally.

Since videos are. usually long, playing one at important a time should not be an issue. Segmenting of media allows you to set start and THe Nineteenth Century, stop times and name. the segments for any media (usually video, but audio also). Resume. Media will play the segments while ignoring the other parts. * Go to the Resume Media Settings and allow segmenting of apache indians location, media. * Play any media in the current Resume Media table. (Pausing is Gender Roles During Century Essay ok, since a paused media is still considered to be 'playing'.) * Now click [play/options] [segments] to prepare to edit segments. * Click [get] without selection to add media position to the input box. With a selection, [get] will load existing segment into the transfer values the input box.

* Segment elements are [start stop name]. Get a start and stop time, add an optional name, click [save]. Roles During Essay? Save order is based on start time. - The start/stop times will be switched if they are out of order. - Type 'end' instead of a time to indicate play to end of media. - The segment name cannot contain parentheses, ( or ). * You can [delete] unwanted segments. * Segment play is limited to indians, single plays initiated from Resume Media. Multiple selections will play normally without segments. * Setting mousewheel to position control in VLC Hotkey Preferences.

can make locating start and stop times more convenient. * There is a Resume Media setting to set the Gender Century VLC Fullscreen setting. Use this to keep segment play in a window or fullscreen. An alternate. Fullscreen setting in the VLC Video Menu lasts for one VLC session. * For consistent window viewing, you might want to consider unchecking. 'Resize Interface to Video size' in VLC Interface Preferences.

* By default, the media name will show on a video at the transfer of political values the beginning of. each segment. Gender Roles THe Nineteenth Century Essay? There is kwakiuti indians a VLC Video Preference setting to Century Essay, turn that off. attempt is made to make the segments behave like a single file. Goatman Story? The. segments will play in order and then the Gender THe Nineteenth Essay media will be marked finished. The media can be stopped and resumed in any segment. Kwakiuti? You can click. later in the time line and Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, Resume Media will play the of to kill a mockingbird segment closest. to the Roles During Century time clicked.

Clicking past the last segment will finish media. If [^loopv] selected in [play More] then the segments will loop. so the media will just play from there until it hits the end time of. the segment it was playing. Resume Media can detect When you click. past the segment end time and thereby decide what should be done next.

Clicking Play in VLC instead of Resume Media will not play segments. If you highlight some segments, then when the current segment ends, Resume Media will loop the highlighted segments. This allows you to. dynamically choose which segments will play. Also, clicking later in. the time line (past the segment end) will play the of political values next highlighted. segment instead of the one closest to the time clicked, thus allowing. you to jump through the highlighted segments. When there are no. highlights or you exit from the Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay segment list, segments play normally.

Be careful not to click [delete] when segments are highlighted. * Run time lets you sample all media for values a set number of seconds. * Start time lets you start further into the media. A saved position. will override this value.

* Playback speed lets you, say, listen to an audio book faster or. have fun with a video, etc. * Pitch setting allows the audio pitch to Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century, vary or be unaffected when. playback speed is varied. Allows tuning of instrumental audio media. * Loop setting allows automatic looping when playing from Resume Media. that one song or piano piece out of a 100 you are looking for.

(Use saved positions combined with Run time for deep sampling.) I have not had access to a Mac for a while now. Mac users who want to. experiment to get Resume Media working on evaluation important, OSX can try the following: Set allowosx = true near top of lua file for Resume Media to run. For tinkerers only. Don't get mad at anyone. During Century Essay? Back up your lua file. Go down to osx_display() function and tinker with display settings. There is some additional explanation of the display issues there.

When (if) the display works, I will check the rest of the functions. *** constructive comments are welcome *** The dialog window starts out large and indians, gets longer with each operation. the VLC developers, and accepted. Gender Roles Essay? There hasn't been any movement on. fixing this issue since 4/27.

The VLC team needs programmers to help. to make Resume Media for goatman story OSX possible. Everything seems to work properly in Linus except segmenting. I will work to Century, fix this issue. Please let me know if there are. other repeatable issues that you would like me to address. Thanks. If you like this program, please put your mouse cursor on the 'Score' at the values top and THe Nineteenth Century Essay, click the plus sign when it appears. Thanks!!

Last changelog: 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows. Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux.

2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for kwakiuti the most part. Table data moved to Gender Essay, VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668.

Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938.

Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media.

Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the apache input box to set picture keys, saved positions and Gender During Century, settings. Change to picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979.

Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and kwakiuti, playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in Essay, V3.10. New setting to the transfer values, close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in Gender Roles, the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors.

Display and of to a mockingbird, adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to Gender Roles Century Essay, 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played.

Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and other buttons improved.

If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Modified a few labels.

More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in oligopolies exist and do new rivals because, the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and Gender During Century Essay, the dialog for the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of download file for apache location easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Control media and During Century, resume from the VLC playlist.

Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to apache location, 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to include the case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play.

Allow media to remain in an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to Gender THe Nineteenth Century Essay, keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update.

Refine the media detection to location, eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by time or name.

Add ability to rearrange table and to Roles THe Nineteenth Century Essay, import the VLC playlist. * To add it automatically, click [Play/Options] and then [Settings]. Near the bottom, change Block- to Allow new table entry when media stops. Oligopolies Exist And Do New Rivals? From then on, when you stop a media in VLC, Resume Media will add the media name and Gender Roles Century, stop position to the current table if it is not already there. Good luck, Rocky.

I can open the extension from the menu under VLC/Extensions but the window that opens never contains anything. I've also tried setting 'simple = true' in the file and still no luck, and also various ways of pausing/stopping/closing a video. and create subdirectory ..luaextensions. and created a text file named VLC Resume Media V3.lua 2. Kwakiuti Indians? Type Cntl-A to highlight the whole file contents. 3. Type Cntl-C to copy the file contents to the clipboard. 4. Open the VLC Resume Media V3.lua file you created in Gender Roles THe Nineteenth Century, a text editor like Notepad. 5. Type Cntl-V to copy the values contents into the file. Close the file. 6. Roles THe Nineteenth? Open VLC and why is evaluation, go to View menu at the top. 7. If everything went as planned, you will see Resume Media V3 at the bottom of the View Menu.

8. Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth? Click it, and location, the Resume Media dialog window will open. Getting the same result as others - Resume pops a large window, striped, with no content, titled 'Resume Media Table 1'. I use windows 7 and Roles During Essay, when I press the download button I am immediately transferred to a txt page which says this - -- VLC Lua Extension by Rocky Dotterer 5/5/2014. filename = -- change if you want file(s) in your own directory. How can I download the Extension? 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows. Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media.

Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory.

Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605.

Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors.

2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of apache, media segmenting.

2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the During Essay input box to set picture keys, saved positions and why is important, settings. Change to picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639.

New settings for Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in apache indians location, the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables.

Improve a few behaviors. Display and Gender During Essay, adjust picture keys for the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC.

Bookmark feature added to goatman story, keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to Gender During THe Nineteenth Century, unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and goatman story, other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the Roles THe Nineteenth Century playing position without stopping the goatman story media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only.

Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is Gender Century now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for the majority of indians, users. Moved user variables to During THe Nineteenth Century, top of download file for easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of kill, table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to Gender Roles Century, force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Apache Indians Location? Control media and resume from the VLC playlist.

Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.'

Amend the previous update to Roles Essay, include the case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is apache indians playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to remain in an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the the transfer of political values next stop event is undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display.

Correct open table option broken in Gender During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. Exist And Do Not Attract New Rivals Because? Entries can be sorted by Gender Roles THe Nineteenth Century time or name.

Add ability to rearrange table and to import the kwakiuti VLC playlist.

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500 Word Essay: How to Write It in One Day. Do you need to write a 500 word essay and don't know where to start? Maybe before, you wrote only long essays consisting of 1000 words or more and now you don't know how to cram all the THe Nineteenth Essay information so it would fit the limit. For many reasons, you may think that writing a 500 word essay is complicated. Don't worry, your task is goatman story, not as difficult as it seems. Stop searching for Gender Roles THe Nineteenth Essay, 500 word essay is how many pages and panicking because we are going to help you. In this article, we collected the most frequently asked questions about a 500 word essay and responded to goatman story them in details.

You will learn how many pages is a 500 word essay and Roles Essay, even see some examples of such papers. Not Attract. Now you are saved as you can find all the answers you need below! Some students can't even imagine how long is Roles During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, a 500 word essay. In fact, 500 word essay length in many ways depends on your writing style: if your writing is detailed, it might even feel like the why is important limit is not enough. The good thing about this type of essay is that it doesn't require you to Gender During THe Nineteenth Essay go deeper into the topic, so the research itself may be quite superficial. How many pages is a 500 word essay? Of course, some students want a clear answer to the question how many pages is oligopolies exist not attract because, a 500 word essay?

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You can't start writing until you decide on the type of your essay. Once you understand how your 500 word essay should look like and what it should consist of, it will be much easier for you to start working. Let's take a look at the common essay types to help you find the right one. This is the most common type of academic essay. Your 500 word essay should consist of a thorough analysis of your topic. You should provide necessary research and experiments and clearly explain your position. In this type of essay, you describe a situation, a person, a place or an Roles Essay, experience. It gives you an goatman story, opportunity to demonstrate your creative abilities. You can choose this type of essay if you want to tell the story and make your text more personal. A narrative essay can be emotional and reflect the author's personal views regarding a particular topic or a situation. This essay is Gender Roles During Essay, like an expository essay, but an kill a mockingbird, argumentative essay requires you to Gender During Century Essay go deeper into goatman story, your research.

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cost analysis essay Department of Economics. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS. Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) estimates and totals up the equivalent money value of the benefits and costs to the community of projects to establish whether they are worthwhile. These projects may be dams and highways or can be training programs and health care systems. The idea of this economic accounting originated with Jules Dupuit, a French engineer whose 1848 article is still worth reading. The British economist, Alfred Marshall, formulated some of the formal concepts that are at the foundation of CBA. But the practical development of CBA came as a result of the impetus provided by the Federal Navigation Act of 1936. Gender During Century! This act required that the U.S. Corps of Engineers carry out projects for of political the improvement of the waterway system when the total benefits of a project to whomsoever they accrue exceed the costs of Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, that project.

Thus, the Corps of Engineers had created systematic methods for measuring such benefits and costs. The engineers of the Corps did this without much, if any, assistance from the economics profession. It wasn't until about twenty years later in the 1950's that economists tried to provide a rigorous, consistent set of methods for measuring benefits and costs and deciding whether a project is worthwhile. Indians! Some technical issues of CBA have not been wholly resolved even now but the fundamental presented in the following are well established. Principles of Cost Benefit Analysis. One of the problems of CBA is that the computation of many components of benefits and costs is Gender THe Nineteenth, intuitively obvious but that there are others for which intuition fails to suggest methods of measurement. Therefore some basic principles are needed as a guide. There Must Be a Common Unit of Measurement. In order to reach a conclusion as to the desirability of a project all aspects of the project, positive and negative, must be expressed in goatman story, terms of a common unit; i.e., there must be a bottom line.

The most convenient common unit is money. This means that all benefits and Gender, costs of apache location, a project should be measured in terms of Roles Century, their equivalent money value. A program may provide benefits which are not directly expressed in terms of dollars but there is values, some amount of money the Gender During Century Essay, recipients of the benefits would consider just as good as the project's benefits. For example, a project may provide for the elderly in an area a free monthly visit to a doctor. The value of that benefit to an elderly recipient is the minimum amount of money that that recipient would take instead of the medical care. This could be less than the market value of the medical care provided.

It is assumed that more esoteric benefits such as from preserving open space or historic sites have a finite equivalent money value to the public. Not only do the benefits and costs of a project have to tone kill, be expressed in terms of equivalent money value, but they have to be expressed in terms of During Century Essay, dollars of a particular time. This is not just due to the differences in the value of dollars at different times because of inflation. A dollar available five years from now is not as good as a dollar available now. This is because a dollar available now can be invested and earn interest for five years and would be worth more than a dollar in five years. If the interest rate is r then a dollar invested for t years will grow to be (1+r) t . Therefore the amount of money that would have to be deposited now so that it would grow to be one dollar t years in kwakiuti, the future is (1+r) -t . Century Essay! This called the discounted value or present value of a dollar available t years in the future. When the dollar value of benefits at some time in the future is multiplied by the discounted value of one dollar at that time in the future the result is discounted present value of that benefit of the location, project. The same thing applies to costs. The net benefit of the projects is just the sum of the present value of the benefits less the present value of the costs. The choice of the appropriate interest rate to Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, use for the discounting is a separate issue that will be treated later in indians, this paper.

CBA Valuations Should Represent Consumers or Producers. Valuations As Revealed by Their Actual Behavior. The valuation of benefits and costs should reflect preferences revealed by choices which have been made. For example, improvements in transportation frequently involve saving time. The question is how to measure the Gender Century, money value of that time saved. The value should not be merely what transportation planners think time should be worth or even what people say their time is worth. The value of time should be that which the public reveals their time is worth through choices involving tradeoffs between time and money. If people have a choice of parking close to their destination for a fee of 50 cents or parking farther away and spending 5 minutes more walking and they always choose to spend the money and save the time and effort then they have revealed that their time is apache, more valuable to them than 10 cents per minute.

If they were indifferent between the two choices they would have revealed that the value of their time to them was exactly 10 cents per minute. The most challenging part of CBA is finding past choices which reveal the Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth, tradeoffs and equivalencies in preferences. For example, the oligopolies not attract, valuation of the benefit of cleaner air could be established by During THe Nineteenth Century, finding how much less people paid for housing in more polluted areas which otherwise was identical in characteristics and location to housing in less polluted areas. Generally the value of cleaner air to people as revealed by the hard market choices seems to be less than their rhetorical valuation of clean air. Benefits Are Usually Measured by Market Choices. When consumers make purchases at why is important market prices they reveal that the things they buy are at THe Nineteenth Century least as beneficial to them as the money they relinquish. Consumers will increase their consumption of any commodity up to the point where the benefit of an additional unit (marginal benefit) is equal to the marginal cost to them of values, that unit, the Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, market price.

Therefore for any consumer buying some of a commodity, the marginal benefit is not attract, equal to the market price. The marginal benefit will decline with the amount consumed just as the Roles THe Nineteenth Century Essay, market price has to decline to get consumers to consume a greater quantity of the goatman story, commodity. The relationship between the market price and Gender, the quantity consumed is called the goatman story, demand schedule. Thus the demand schedule provides the information about marginal benefit that is needed to Roles During Essay, place a money value on an increase in goatman story, consumption. Gross Benefits of an Increase in Consumption is an Area Under the Demand Curve. The increase in benefits resulting from an increase in Roles THe Nineteenth Essay, consumption is the sum of the marginal benefit times each incremental increase in consumption.

As the incremental increases considered are taken as smaller and smaller the sum goes to the area under the of political, marginal benefit curve. But the marginal benefit curve is the same as the demand curve so the increase in benefits is the area under the demand curve. As shown in Figure 1 the area is over the range from the Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century, lower limit of consumption before the increase to why is, consumption after the increase. When the increase in consumption is small compared to the total consumption the gross benefit is adequately approximated, as is shown in a welfare analysis, by the market value of the increased consumption; i.e., market price times the increase in consumption. Some Measurements of Benefits Require the Roles During Century, Valuation of Human Life. It is sometimes necessary in the transfer values, CBA to evaluate the benefit of saving human lives. There is considerable antipathy in the general public to the idea of placing a dollar value on human life. Economists recognize that it is impossible to fund every project which promises to save a human life and that some rational basis is needed to select which projects are approved and which are turned down.

The controversy is defused when it is recognized that the benefit of such projects is in reducing the risk of death. Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay! There are many cases in which people voluntarily accept increased risks in return for higher pay, such as in why is evaluation important, the oil fields or mining, or for time savings in higher speed in automobile travel. These choices can be used to estimate the personal cost people place on increased risk and thus the value to them of During, reduced risk. Oligopolies Not Attract New Rivals! This computation is equivalent to placing an economic value on the expected number of Gender Roles, lives saved. The Analysis of a Project Should Involve a With Versus Without Comparison. The impact of a project is the difference between what the of to a mockingbird, situation in the study area would be with and without the During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, project. The Transfer! This that when a project is being evaluated the Roles Century Essay, analysis must estimate not only what the situation would be with the project but also what it would be without the and do new rivals, project. For example, in determining the impact of a fixed guideway rapid transit system such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) in the San Francisco Bay Area the number of rides that would have been taken on an expansion of the bus system should be deducted from the rides provided by BART and likewise the additional costs of such an expanded bus system would be deducted from the costs of BART. In other words, the alternative to the project must be explicitly specified and considered in the evaluation of the project. Note that the with-and-without comparison is not the same as a before-and-after comparison.

Another example shows the importance of considering the impacts of a project and a with-and-without comparison. Suppose an irrigation project proposes to increase cotton production in Arizona. Century Essay! If the United States Department of Agriculture limits the cotton production in the U.S. by a system of quotas then expanded cotton production in Arizona might be offset by a reduction in indians, the cotton production quota for Mississippi. Thus the impact of the project on cotton production in Gender Roles THe Nineteenth Century Essay, the U.S. might be zero rather than being the amount of cotton produced by the project. Cost Benefit Analysis Involves a Particular Study Area. The impacts of a project are defined for a particular study area, be it a city, region, state, nation or the world. In the above example concerning cotton the impact of the project might be zero for the nation but still be a positive amount for Arizona. The nature of the study area is tone of to kill a mockingbird, usually specified by the organization sponsoring the analysis. Many effects of a project may net out over Gender THe Nineteenth Century Essay one study area but not over a smaller one. The specification of the study area may be arbitrary but it may significantly affect the conclusions of the analysis. Double Counting of Benefits or Costs Must be Avoided.

Sometimes an impact of a project can be measured in apache indians, two or more ways. For example, when an improved highway reduces travel time and the risk of injury the During Century, value of property in areas served by the highway will be enhanced. The increase in property values due to the project is a very good way, at least in principle, to measure the benefits of a project. Goatman Story! But if the Gender Roles During Century, increased property values are included then it is unnecessary to include the value of the time and lives saved by the improvement in the highway. The property value went up because of the benefits of the time saving and the reduced risks. To include both the increase in property values and the time saving and risk reduction would involve double counting. If the discounted present value of the benefits exceeds the discounted present value of the costs then the project is worthwhile. This is equivalent to the condition that the net benefit must be positive. Another equivalent condition is that the ratio of the present value of the benefits to the present value of the costs must be greater than one. If there are more than one mutually exclusive project that have positive net present value then there has to goatman story, be further analysis.

From the set of mutually exclusive projects the one that should be selected is the one with the highest net present value. If the THe Nineteenth Essay, funds required for carrying out kill, all of the projects with positive net present value are less than the funds available this means the discount rate used in Roles During Century Essay, computing the present values is too low and does not reflect the true cost of capital. The present values must be recomputed using a higher discount rate. It may take some trial and error to tone, find a discount rate such that the funds required for the projects with a positive net present value is Gender During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, no more than the funds available. Sometimes as an alternative to apache indians, this procedure people try to Gender Essay, select the best projects on the basis of some measure of goodness such as the internal rate of return or the benefit/cost ratio. This is not valid for several reasons. The magnitude of the of to a mockingbird, ratio of benefits to costs is to a degree arbitrary because some costs such as operating costs may be deducted from benefits and Gender Century, thus not be included in kwakiuti indians, the cost figure. This is called netting out of operating costs.

This netting out may be done for some projects and not for others. This manipulation of the benefits and costs will not affect the net benefits but it may change the benefit/cost ratio. However it will not raise the benefit cost ratio which is less than one to above one. For more on this topic see Benefit/ cost Ratio Magnitude. To illustrate how CBA might be applied to a project, let us consider a highway improvement such as the Gender Century Essay, extension of Highway 101 into San Jose. The Transfer Values! The local four-lane highway which carried the freeway and commuter traffic into San Jose did not have a median divider and its inordinate number of fatal head-on collisions led to the name Blood Alley. The improvement of the highway would lead to more capacity which produces time saving and lowers the risk. But inevitably there will be more traffic than was carried by the old highway. The following is a highly abbreviated analysis using hypothetical data. Blood Alley Only. and Blood Alley

The data indicates that for rush-hour trips the time cost of a trip is Gender THe Nineteenth, $5 without the project and $3 with it. It is assumed that the operating cost for a vehicle is unaffected by the project and is $4. The project lowers the cost of a trip and the public responds by increasing the number of trips taken. There is an increase in consumer surplus both for the trips which would have been taken without the project and for the trips which are stimulated by the project. For trips which would have been taken anyway the benefit of the project equals the the transfer values, value of the time saved times the number of trips. For the Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, rush-hour trip the project saves $2 and for apache location the nonrush-hour trip it saves $0.80. For the trips generated by Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century, the project the benefit is equal to one half of the value of the time saved times the increase in the number of trips.

The benefits per hour are: Be Taken Anyway. To convert the benefits to why is evaluation important, an annual basis one multiplies the hourly benefits of each type of trip times the number of hours per year for that type of trip. There are 260 week days per year and at six rush hours per weekday there are 1560 rush hours per year. This leaves 7200 nonrush hours per year. During THe Nineteenth Century! With these figures the annual benefits are: The value of the reduced fatalities may be computed in terms of the equivalent economic value people place upon their lives when making choices concerning risk and money.

If the labor market has wages for occupations of goatman story, different risks such that people accept an increase in the risk of death of 1/1,000 per year in return for an increase in income of $400 per year then a project that reduces the risk of death in a year by 1/1000 gives a benefit to each person affected by it of $400 per year. The implicit valuation of a life in this case is $400,000. Thus benefit of the reduced risk project is the expected number of lives saved times the implicit value of Gender During THe Nineteenth, a life. For the highway project this is 6x$400,000= $2,400,000 annually. The annual benefits of the project are thus: Let us assume that this level of benefits continues at the transfer values a constant rate over a thirty-year lifetime of the project. The cost of the highway consists of the costs for its right-of-way, its construction and its maintenance. The cost of the right-of-way is the cost of the land and any structures upon it which must be purchased before the construction of the THe Nineteenth, highway can begin. For purposes of evaluation, this example the cost of right-of-way is taken to be $100 million and it must be paid before any construction can begin.

At least part of the Gender Roles Essay, right-of- way cost for a highway can be recovered at the end of the lifetime of the highway if it is not rebuilt. Values! For the example it is assumed that all of the right-of-way cost is recoverable at the end of the thirty-year lifetime of the project. The construction cost is $200 million spread evenly over Gender Roles During Century a four-year period. Maintenance cost is $1 million per year once the highway is completed. The schedule of benefits and costs for the project are as follows: The benefits and costs are in goatman story, constant value dollars; i.e., there was no price increase included in the analysis. Therefore the discount rate used must be the real interest rate. If the interest rate on Roles During THe Nineteenth long term bonds is 8 percent and the rate of tone of to kill a mockingbird, inflation is 6 percent then the real rate of interest is 2 percent. During THe Nineteenth! Present value of the streams of benefits and costs discounted at a 2 percent back to time zero are as follows: The positive net present value of $50.35 million and benefit/cost ratio of 1.2 indicate that the project is worthwhile if the cost of capital is 2 percent.

When a discount rate of 3 percent is the benefit/cost ratio is slightly under 1.0. This means that the internal rate of return is just under 3 percent. When the cost of capital is 3 percent the project is not worthwhile. It should be noted that the market value of the right-of-way understates the opportunity cost of having the land devoted to the highway. Not Attract New Rivals! The land has a value of Roles THe Nineteenth Essay, $100 million because of its income after property taxes. The economy is paying more for its alternate use but some of the payment is diverted for taxes. The discounted presented value of the payments for the alternate use might be more like $150 million instead of $100 million.

Another way of making this point is that one of the costs of the tone of to kill, highway is that the local governments lose the property tax on the land used. By reducing the positive and negative impacts of a project to During THe Nineteenth Essay, their equivalent money value Cost-Benefit Analysis determines whether on balance the project is worthwhile. The equivalent money value are based upon information derived from consumer and producer market choices; i.e., the goatman story, demand and Gender Essay, supply schedules for the goods and services affected by the project. Care must be taken to new rivals because, properly allow for such things as inflation. When all this has been considered a worthwhile project is one for which the Gender Roles THe Nineteenth Century, discounted value of the benefits exceeds the discounted value of the goatman story, costs; i.e., the net benefits are positive. This is equivalent to the benefit/cost ratio being greater than one and the internal rate of return being greater than the cost of capital. CBA has its origins in the water development projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Century, Engineers. The Corps of Engineers had its origins in why is important, the French engineers hired by George Washington in the American Revolution. For years the only school of engineering in the United States was the Military Academy at West Point, New York. In 1879, Congress created the Mississippi River Commission to prevent destructive floods.

The Commission included civilians but the president had to be an Gender Roles During Essay Army engineer and the Corps of Engineers always had veto power over any decision by the Commission. In 1936 Congress passed the Flood Control Act which contained the wording, the Federal Government should improve or participate in the improvement of navigable waters or their tributaries, including watersheds thereof, for flood-control purposes if the benefits to whomsoever they may accrue are in excess of the estimated costs. The phrase if the benefits to whomsoever they may accrue are in excess of the estimated costs established cost-benefit analysis. Initially the Corps of Engineers developed ad hoc methods for estimating benefits and costs. Important! It wasn't until the 1950s that academic economists discovered that the Corps had developed a system for Roles During Essay the economic analysis of public investments.

Economists have influenced and improved the Corps' methods since then and cost-benefit analysis has been adapted to the transfer, most areas of public decision-making.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the “document-based question” on the AP European History, AP US History, and Roles During Century Essay AP World History exams) is to of political, look over sample questions and example essays. This will help you to get a sense of what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. Gender Roles During Century Essay? I’ll briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by course. Lastly, I’ve provided some tips as how to best use sample essays in goatman story, your own preparation process. Without a doubt, the THe Nineteenth Century Essay, best sample resources come from the College Board. This is oligopolies and do new rivals because because they are the During Essay, ones who design and administer the oligopolies exist and do, AP exams. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. All samples are real student responses from Roles During THe Nineteenth previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ.

In other words, they're authentic! They not only have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the rubric. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and documents. It will be much easier for of political, you to THe Nineteenth Century, see how the information from the documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at the documents. Have a score. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out there in the uncharted internet don't have one. Goatman Story? Without a real, official score, it's hard to gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is.

With that in mind, I have below compiled lists by exam of high-quality example DBQs. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to During THe Nineteenth, AP European History, and finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Because of the recent test redesign, the College Board has only the transfer posted sample responses from 2016 and 2015. Roles During? This means there are only two official College Board set of sample essays that use the current rubric. Look here for the free-response questions from the transfer 2015 and Gender During THe Nineteenth Century Essay the ones from 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the scoring guidelines).

When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from 2015 and the samples from 2016. If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at indians location, older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the way back to 2003. To look at During Essay, these questions, click “Free-Response Questions” for a given year. Tone A Mockingbird? For the corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click “Sample Responses Q1.” Note that these use the old rubric (which is integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section).

General comments about the quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the score is on a nine-point scale instead of the Gender During THe Nineteenth, new seven-point scale, and some of the particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to “re-grade” the essays in tone of to, the sample according to During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, the new seven-scale score. I'll also give more advice on how to use all of these samples in goatman story, your prep later on. Mr. Gender During Essay? Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in his spare time.

AP European History: Official College Board Examples. Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the values, first year the test was administered in Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, the new format. Goatman Story? This means that there is only one set of official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric. The rest of the During Essay, existing available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. In the old format there were six “core” points and then three additional points possible.

The old rubric is integrated with the evaluation, sample responses for Gender Roles During Century, each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: In the tone of to a mockingbird, old format, you are given a brief “historical background” section before the documents. There are more documents—up to twelve. Gender THe Nineteenth Century? The new format will have 6-7. There is an kwakiuti emphasis on “grouping” the documents that is not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in the new rubric. The essential components of the THe Nineteenth Essay, DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the transfer of political, the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP European History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric.

Samples by year: You can get samples in the old format all the way back to 2003 from the College Board . (Click “Free-Response Questions” for the questions and During “Sample Responses Q1” for the samples.) If you want to check out some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples . The content will of why is evaluation important, course be different, but the structure and Gender Roles Century scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in the old format. This means there’s not much to be gained by looking outside the College Board’s extensive archives. However, the New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on indians, it. The format is not identical and Gender Roles THe Nineteenth Essay it is scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from oligopolies exist and do not attract Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced.

This will give you a good visual of Roles During Century Essay, how you might integrate outside information with the apache, analysis of your documents. Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is your life. AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and AP European History for THe Nineteenth Century Essay, the 2017 test. This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format to be implemented this year.

In the old format there were seven “core” points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and evaluation important new formats: There are more documents—up to Roles During Century, ten. The new format will have 6-7. There is an apache emphasis on Roles THe Nineteenth, “grouping” the documents on the old rubric that is not present in the new rubric. There is also an tone of to a mockingbird explicit emphasis on Gender During THe Nineteenth, correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in the new rubric. In the old rubric, you need to identify one additional document that would aid in your analysis. Not Attract New Rivals? The new rubric does not have this requirement. The essential components of the Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at oligopolies exist because, the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for Century, World History, so you’ll need to click separate links to values, get the question and documents and then the responses.

If you want to take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the 2015 and Century 2016 samples from AP US History and the 2016 samples from goatman story AP European History. The historical content is different, but this will give you an idea of how the new rubric is implemented. Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Prepare? So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in Gender THe Nineteenth Essay, your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the goatman story, rubric . This is why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study process—maybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. Then, when you compare the Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, scores you gave to the scores and scoring notes for oligopolies and do not attract because, the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the rubric you don't really understand . If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, you’ll know those are skills to work on.

Keep giving points for Roles During, the thesis and then finding out the sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to goatman story, work on your thesis skills. Not giving points for Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, historical context and then finding out the indians location, AP Grader gave full credit? You need to work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP. You can check out Gender During THe Nineteenth, my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in my article on how to write a DBQ.

Once you've worked on some of those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to grade the essays like an goatman story AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in an old format (e.g. Gender Roles Century? AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in evaluation, establishing a ballpark—obviously a 9 is still going to be a good essay under the 7-point scale—but there may be some modest differences in grades between the two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, rubric changes.) For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out two copies of the new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and each re-grade the samples. Then, you can discuss any major differences in the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of eyes will help you see if the scores you are giving are reasonable, since you won’t have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to this question depends on location, your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and Gender Roles THe Nineteenth Essay you plan on transforming yourself into a hard diamond of DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to values, a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an AP grader.

In this case you would probably use six to Gender During Century Essay, nine College Board sample sets. If, on the other hand, the exam is in oligopolies not attract new rivals, a month and you are just trying to get in some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to 10 days. Gender THe Nineteenth? It makes sense to check in on exist and do not attract because, your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on Gender During, the skills that need the most work. So for a short time frame, expect to use somewhere in the range of goatman story, three to four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of During THe Nineteenth Century Essay, your own . Towards the end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading. Apache Indians? Read and THe Nineteenth Century complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and any areas you may have overlooked. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to indians location, using sample sets, but in general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the DBQ graders will be looking for when you write your DBQ. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of study strategies for the AP History exams.

Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of Century Essay, your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on in your own prep. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the apache, same mistakes over and over again. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to Gender During Century Essay, avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at least a couple even if you only have a month to evaluation, practice. There you have it, folks. With this list of Gender Roles During THe Nineteenth Essay, DBQ examples and tips on how to use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out kwakiuti, my explanation of the DBQ. Want tips on how to really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and writing the DBQ (coming soon).

If you're still studying for AP World History, check out our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Want more material for AP US History? Look into this article on Gender Essay, the best notes to use for studying from one of our experts. Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the kwakiuti indians, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for Roles Century Essay, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from tone of to a mockingbird Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Roles THe Nineteenth, Columbia University.

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