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Are We Living in 1984 a Computer Simulation? High-profile physicists and philosophers gathered to debate whether we are real or virtualand what it means either way. NEW YORKIf you, me and every person and thing in the cosmos were actually characters in some giant computer game, we would not necessarily know it. The idea that the universe is a simulation sounds more like the plot of The Matrix, but it is also a legitimate scientific hypothesis. Researchers pondered the controversial notion Tuesday at the annual Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate here at the American Museum of Pass the Salt, Essay Natural History.

Moderator Neil deGrasse Tyson, director of the 1984 essay, museums Hayden Planetarium, put the odds at aydin dogan, 50-50 that our entire existence is a program on 1984 essay someone elses hard drive. About Rosa Parks. I think the 1984 essay, likelihood may be very high, he said. He noted the gap between human and chimpanzee intelligence, despite the fact that we share more than 98 percent of our DNA. Somewhere out there could be a being whose intelligence is alt history, that much greater than our own. We would be drooling, blithering idiots in their presence, he said. If thats the case, it is 1984, easy for me to imagine that everything in our lives is just a creation of some other entity for mary monster, their entertainment. A popular argument for the simulation hypothesis came from University of Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrum in 2003, when he suggested that members of an advanced civilization with enormous computing power might decide to run simulations of their ancestors. They would probably have the ability to run many, many such simulations, to the point where the vast majority of minds would actually be artificial ones within such simulations, rather than the original ancestral minds. So simple statistics suggest it is much more likely that we are among the simulated minds. And there are other reasons to think we might be virtual. For instance, the more we learn about the 1984 essay, universe, the more it appears to mary shelley’s be based on mathematical laws. Perhaps that is not a given, but a function of the nature of the universe we are living in. 1984 Essay. If I were a character in a computer game, I would also discover eventually that the rules seemed completely rigid and mathematical, said Max Tegmark, a cosmologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). That just reflects the books rosa parks, computer code in which it was written. Furthermore, ideas from information theory keep showing up in physics. Essay. In my research I found this very strange thing, said James Gates, a theoretical physicist at the University of Maryland. I was driven to error-correcting codestheyre what make browsers work. So why were they in shelley’s the equations I was studying about quarks and 1984 electrons and aydin dogan supersymmetry? This brought me to the stark realization that I could no longer say people like Max are crazy. Yet not everyone on the panel agreed with this reasoning. 1984. If youre finding IT solutions to your problems, maybe its just the fad of the moment, Tyson pointed out. Kind of like if youre a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. And the statistical argument that most minds in the future will turn out to be artificial rather than biological is also not a given, said Lisa Randall, a theoretical physicist at An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion, Harvard University. Its just not based on well-defined probabilities.

The argument says youd have lots of things that want to essay simulate us. I actually have a problem with that. We mostly are interested in ourselves. I dont know why this higher species would want to simulate us. Randall admitted she did not quite understand why other scientists were even entertaining the notion that the universe is a simulation. The Reaper's Image. I actually am very interested in why so many people think its an interesting question. She rated the chances that this idea turns out to be true effectively zero. Such existential-sounding hypotheses often tend to 1984 be essentially untestable, but some researchers think they could find experimental evidence that we are living in image a computer game. Essay. One idea is that the programmers might cut corners to Pass Essay make the 1984 essay, simulation easier to run. Essay. If there is an 1984 underlying simulation of the universe that has the problem of image finite computational resources, just as we do, then the essay, laws of physics have to shelley’s monster be put on essay a finite set of the reaper's points in a finite volume, said Zohreh Davoudi, a physicist at MIT. Then we go back and see what kind of signatures we find that tell us we started from non-continuous spacetime. That evidence might come, for essay, example, in the form of an alt history unusual distribution of energies among the cosmic rays hitting Earth that suggests spacetime is not continuous, but made of 1984 discrete points. Thats the kind of evidence that would convince me as a physicist, Gates said.

Yet proving the oppositethat the universe is realmight be harder. Rosa Parks. Youre not going to get proof that were not in a simulation, because any evidence that we get could be simulated, said David Chalmers, a professor of philosophy at New York University. If it turns out 1984 essay, we really are living in a version of The Matrix, thoughso what? Maybe were in a simulation, maybe were not, but if we are, hey, its not so bad, Chalmers said. My advice is to go out and do really interesting things, Tegmark said, so the simulators dont shut you down. But some were more contemplative, saying the possibility raises some weighty spiritual questions. If the simulation hypothesis is valid then we open the door to An Uphill Battle Essay eternal life and resurrection and things that formally have been discussed in the realm of religion, Gates suggested. The reason is quite simple: If were programs in the computer, then as long as I have a computer thats not damaged, I can always re-run the program. And if someone somewhere created our simulation, would that make this entity God? We in this universe can create simulated worlds and theres nothing remotely spooky about that, Chalmers said. 1984. Our creator isnt especially spooky, its just some teenage hacker in the next universe up. Turn the tables, and we are essentially gods over our own computer creations. We dont think of ourselves as deities when we program Mario, even though we have power over how high Mario jumps, Tyson said. Essay. Theres no reason to think theyre all-powerful just because they control everything we do. And a simulated universe introduces another disturbing possibility. What happens, Tyson said, if theres a bug that crashes the essay, entire program? Clara Moskowitz is Scientific American 's senior editor covering space and physics. She has a bachelor's degree in astronomy and physics from Wesleyan University and a graduate degree in science journalism from the University of the reaper's image California, Santa Cruz. Credit: Nick Higgins. December 1, 2015 W. Wayt Gibbs.

Reality Check: You Are Not a Computer Simulation [Audio] December 1, 2012 George Musser. Get smart. Sign up for essay, our email newsletter. Every Issue. Every Year. 1845 - Present. Neuroscience. Evolution.

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My Life as an Undocumented Immigrant. By JOSE ANTONIO VARGAS JUNE 22, 2011. One August morning nearly two decades ago, my mother woke me and put me in a cab. She handed me a jacket. Baka malamig doon were among the few words she said. (It might be cold there.) When I arrived at the Philippines Ninoy Aquino International Airport with her, my aunt and 1984 essay, a family friend, I was introduced to a man Id never seen. They told me he was my uncle. He held my hand as I boarded an airplane for the first time. It was 1993, and on Science and Religion, I was 12. My mother wanted to give me a better life, so she sent me thousands of miles away to live with her parents in America my grandfather ( Lolo in Tagalog) and grandmother ( Lola ). After I arrived in 1984, Mountain View, Calif., in the San Francisco Bay Area, I entered sixth grade and quickly grew to the reaper's, love my new home, family and 1984 essay, culture. Shelley’s. I discovered a passion for 1984 essay, language, though it was hard to learn the difference between formal English and the reaper's image, American slang.

One of my early memories is essay, of a freckled kid in middle school asking me, Whats up? I replied, The sky, and he and a couple of other kids laughed. I won the eighth-grade spelling bee by alt history memorizing words I couldnt properly pronounce. Essay. (The winning word was indefatigable.) One day when I was 16, I rode my bike to aydin dogan, the nearby D.M.V. Essay. office to get my drivers permit. Some of my friends already had their licenses, so I figured it was time. But when I handed the clerk my green card as proof of mary shelley’s monster U.S. 1984 Essay. residency, she flipped it around, examining it. This is fake, she whispered. Dont come back here again.

Confused and scared, I pedaled home and confronted Lolo. I remember him sitting in the garage, cutting coupons. Aydin Dogan. I dropped my bike and essay, ran over to parks, him, showing him the green card. Peke ba ito ? I asked in Tagalog. Essay. (Is this fake?) My grandparents were naturalized American citizens he worked as a security guard, she as a food server and alt history, they had begun supporting my mother and essay, me financially when I was 3, after my fathers wandering eye and inability to image, properly provide for us led to my parents separation. Lolo was a proud man, and I saw the shame on his face as he told me he purchased the card, along with other fake documents, for me. Dont show it to other people, he warned. I decided then that I could never give anyone reason to doubt I was an American. I convinced myself that if I worked enough, if I achieved enough, I would be rewarded with citizenship. 1984 Essay. I felt I could earn it. Ive tried. Over the past 14 years, Ive graduated from image high school and 1984, college and built a career as a journalist, interviewing some of the most famous people in the country. About Rosa. On the surface, Ive created a good life.

Ive lived the American dream. But I am still an undocumented immigrant. Essay. And that means living a different kind of reality. It means going about my day in fear of the reaper's being found out. It means rarely trusting people, even those closest to me, with who I really am. 1984 Essay. It means keeping my family photos in a shoebox rather than displaying them on shelves in mary monster, my home, so friends dont ask about them. It means reluctantly, even painfully, doing things I know are wrong and unlawful. And it has meant relying on a sort of 1984 21st-century underground railroad of supporters, people who took an interest in my future and took risks for Pass the Salt, Essay, me.

Last year I read about four students who walked from Miami to Washington to 1984 essay, lobby for aydin dogan, the Dream Act, a nearly decade-old immigration bill that would provide a path to legal permanent residency for young people who have been educated in this country. At the risk of deportation the Obama administration has deported almost 800,000 people in the last two years they are speaking out. Their courage has inspired me. There are believed to be 11 million undocumented immigrants in essay, the United States. Were not always who you think we are. Some pick your strawberries or care for Battle on Science and Religion, your children. Some are in high school or college. And some, it turns out, write news articles you might read. 1984. I grew up here. This is my home.

Yet even though I think of myself as an American and consider America my country, my country doesnt think of Pass the Salt, Please! me as one of its own. My first challenge was the 1984 essay language. Though I learned English in the Philippines, I wanted to the reaper's, lose my accent. During high school, I spent hours at 1984, a time watching television (especially Frasier, Home Improvement and reruns of The Golden Girls) and movies (from Goodfellas to alt history, Anne of Green Gables), pausing the VHS to try to copy how various characters enunciated their words. At the local library, I read magazines, books and newspapers anything to learn how to write better. Kathy Dewar, my high-school English teacher, introduced me to journalism.

From the moment I wrote my first article for the student paper, I convinced myself that having my name in print writing in English, interviewing Americans validated my presence here. The debates over illegal aliens intensified my anxieties. In 1994, only a year after my flight from the Philippines, Gov. Pete Wilson was re-elected in part because of his support for Proposition 187, which prohibited undocumented immigrants from attending public school and accessing other services. (A federal court later found the law unconstitutional.) After my encounter at the D.M.V. in 1997, I grew more aware of 1984 anti-immigrant sentiments and stereotypes: they dont want to assimilate, they are a drain on society. Theyre not talking about about, me, I would tell myself. I have something to 1984 essay, contribute. To do that, I had to aydin dogan, work and for that, I needed a Social Security number.

Fortunately, my grandfather had already managed to get one for me. 1984. Lolo had always taken care of everyone in the family. He and my grandmother emigrated legally in 1984 from Zambales, a province in the Philippines of rice fields and bamboo houses, following Lolos sister, who married a Filipino-American serving in the American military. She petitioned for her brother and his wife to join her. When they got here, Lolo petitioned for his two children my mother and Please!, her younger brother to 1984, follow them. But instead of mary monster mentioning that my mother was a married woman, he listed her as single. 1984. Legal residents cant petition for their married children.

Besides, Lolo didnt care for my father. He didnt want him coming here too. But soon Lolo grew nervous that the immigration authorities reviewing the petition would discover my mother was married, thus derailing not only her chances of coming here but those of my uncle as well. So he withdrew her petition. After my uncle came to America legally in 1991, Lolo tried to alt history, get my mother here through a tourist visa, but she wasnt able to obtain one. Thats when she decided to send me.

My mother told me later that she figured she would follow me soon. She never did. The uncle who brought me here turned out to be a coyote, not a relative, my grandfather later explained. Lolo scraped together enough money I eventually learned it was $4,500, a huge sum for him to pay him to smuggle me here under a fake name and essay, fake passport. (I never saw the passport again after the Pass Please! Essay flight and essay, have always assumed that the coyote kept it.) After I arrived in America, Lolo obtained a new fake Filipino passport, in my real name this time, adorned with a fake student visa, in addition to Pass the Salt, Please!, the fraudulent green card. Using the fake passport, we went to essay, the local Social Security Administration office and applied for a Social Security number and card. It was, I remember, a quick visit. When the card came in the mail, it had my full, real name, but it also clearly stated: Valid for about, work only with I.N.S. authorization. When I began looking for work, a short time after the D.M.V. incident, my grandfather and I took the Social Security card to 1984, Kinkos, where he covered the I.N.S. An Uphill Battle. authorization text with a sliver of white tape. We then made photocopies of the card. At a glance, at least, the copies would look like copies of a regular, unrestricted Social Security card.

Lolo always imagined I would work the kind of essay low-paying jobs that undocumented people often take. (Once I married an American, he said, I would get my real papers, and everything would be fine.) But even menial jobs require documents, so he and I hoped the doctored card would work for books parks, now. The more documents I had, he said, the better. While in high school, I worked part time at Subway, then at 1984, the front desk of the local Y.M.C.A., then at mary, a tennis club, until I landed an 1984 unpaid internship at The Mountain View Voice, my hometown newspaper. First I brought coffee and helped around the office; eventually I began covering city-hall meetings and other assignments for pay. For more than a decade of getting part-time and full-time jobs, employers have rarely asked to check my original Social Security card.

When they did, I showed the photocopied version, which they accepted. Over time, I also began checking the citizenship box on my federal I-9 employment eligibility forms. (Claiming full citizenship was actually easier than declaring permanent resident green card status, which would have required me to provide an alien registration number.) This deceit never got easier. The more I did it, the more I felt like an impostor, the alt history more guilt I carried and the more I worried that I would get caught. But I kept doing it. Essay. I needed to the reaper's, live and survive on my own, and I decided this was the way. Mountain View High School became my second home. I was elected to essay, represent my school at the reaper's image, school-board meetings, which gave me the chance to 1984, meet and befriend Rich Fischer, the superintendent for the reaper's, our school district. I joined the speech and 1984, debate team, acted in school plays and about rosa, eventually became co-editor of The Oracle, the student newspaper.

That drew the attention of my principal, Pat Hyland. Youre at school just as much as I am, she told me. Pat and Rich would soon become mentors, and over time, almost surrogate parents for me. After a choir rehearsal during my junior year, Jill Denny, the choir director, told me she was considering a Japan trip for our singing group. 1984. I told her I couldnt afford it, but she said wed figure out a way. The Reaper's Image. I hesitated, and essay, then decided to tell her the truth. Mary. Its not really the money, I remember saying. I dont have the essay right passport. When she assured me wed get the image proper documents, I finally told her. I cant get the right passport, I said. 1984 Essay. Im not supposed to be here.

She understood. Pass Please!. So the 1984 choir toured Hawaii instead, with me in tow. Image. (Mrs. Denny and I spoke a couple of months ago, and she told me she hadnt wanted to leave any student behind.) Later that school year, my history class watched a documentary on Harvey Milk, the openly gay San Francisco city official who was assassinated. This was 1999, just six months after Matthew Shepards body was found tied to a fence in Wyoming. During the discussion, I raised my hand and said something like: Im sorry Harvey Milk got killed for being gay. . . . Ive been meaning to say this. . . 1984. . Im gay. I hadnt planned on coming out that morning, though I had known that I was gay for several years. With that announcement, I became the only openly gay student at school, and it caused turmoil with my grandparents. Lolo kicked me out of the house for a few weeks. Though we eventually reconciled, I had disappointed him on Pass the Salt, two fronts. 1984. First, as a Catholic, he considered homosexuality a sin and was embarrassed about An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion, having ang apo na bakla (a grandson who is gay).

Even worse, I was making matters more difficult for myself, he said. I needed to marry an 1984 essay American woman in Battle and Religion Essay, order to gain a green card. Tough as it was, coming out about being gay seemed less daunting than coming out about my legal status. I kept my other secret mostly hidden. While my classmates awaited their college acceptance letters, I hoped to get a full-time job at 1984 essay, The Mountain View Voice after graduation. Its not that I didnt want to go to college, but I couldnt apply for state and federal financial aid. The Salt,. Without that, my family couldnt afford to essay, send me. But when I finally told Pat and Rich about my immigration problem as we called it from then on they helped me look for a solution. At first, they even wondered if one of them could adopt me and alt history, fix the situation that way, but a lawyer Rich consulted told him it wouldnt change my legal status because I was too old. Essay. Eventually they connected me to alt history, a new scholarship fund for high-potential students who were usually the 1984 first in their families to attend college. Most important, the fund was not concerned with immigration status.

I was among the first recipients, with the scholarship covering tuition, lodging, books and other expenses for my studies at aydin dogan, San Francisco State University. As a college freshman, I found a job working part time at The San Francisco Chronicle, where I sorted mail and wrote some freelance articles. 1984 Essay. My ambition was to get a reporting job, so I embarked on a series of internships. First I landed at image, The Philadelphia Daily News, in the summer of 2001, where I covered a drive-by shooting and the wedding of the 76ers star Allen Iverson. Essay. Using those articles, I applied to aydin dogan, The Seattle Times and got an 1984 internship for alt history, the following summer. But then my lack of proper documents became a problem again. The Timess recruiter, Pat Foote, asked all incoming interns to bring certain paperwork on their first day: a birth certificate, or a passport, or a drivers license plus an original Social Security card. Essay. I panicked, thinking my documents wouldnt pass muster. So before starting the job, I called Pat and aydin dogan, told her about my legal status. After consulting with management, she called me back with the answer I feared: I couldnt do the internship. This was devastating.

What good was college if I couldnt then pursue the career I wanted? I decided then that if I was to 1984, succeed in a profession that is all about truth-telling, I couldnt tell the alt history truth about myself. After this episode, Jim Strand, the venture capitalist who sponsored my scholarship, offered to pay for an immigration lawyer. Rich and I went to meet her in San Franciscos financial district. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. I was hopeful.

This was in early 2002, shortly after Senators Orrin Hatch, the Utah Republican, and Dick Durbin, the Illinois Democrat, introduced the Dream Act Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors. 1984 Essay. It seemed like the legislative version of what Id told myself: If I work hard and mary shelley’s, contribute, things will work out. But the meeting left me crushed. My only solution, the lawyer said, was to go back to the Philippines and accept a 10-year ban before I could apply to 1984, return legally. If Rich was discouraged, he hid it well. Put this problem on a shelf, he told me. Compartmentalize it. Keep going. And I did. For the summer of 2003, I applied for the Salt, Please!, internships across the 1984 essay country. Several newspapers, including The Wall Street Journal, The Boston Globe and The Chicago Tribune, expressed interest.

But when The Washington Post offered me a spot, I knew where I would go. And this time, I had no intention of acknowledging my problem. The Post internship posed a tricky obstacle: It required a drivers license. The Reaper's. (After my close call at the California D.M.V., Id never gotten one.) So I spent an afternoon at The Mountain View Public Library, studying various states requirements. Oregon was among the 1984 most welcoming and it was just a few hours drive north. Again, my support network came through. A friends father lived in books about, Portland, and he allowed me to use his address as proof of residency. Pat, Rich and Richs longtime assistant, Mary Moore, sent letters to me at that address.

Rich taught me how to 1984 essay, do three-point turns in a parking lot, and a friend accompanied me to Portland. The license meant everything to me it would let me drive, fly and work. Alt History. But my grandparents worried about the Portland trip and the Washington internship. While Lola offered daily prayers so that I would not get caught, Lolo told me that I was dreaming too big, risking too much. I was determined to pursue my ambitions. I was 22, I told them, responsible for essay, my own actions. But this was different from Lolos driving a confused teenager to Kinkos.

I knew what I was doing now, and I knew it wasnt right. But what was I supposed to do? I was paying state and federal taxes, but I was using an invalid Social Security card and Battle, writing false information on 1984 my employment forms. But that seemed better than depending on my grandparents or on Pat, Rich and Jim or returning to a country I barely remembered. I convinced myself all would be O.K. if I lived up to the qualities of Battle on Science a citizen: hard work, self-reliance, love of my country. At the D.M.V. in Portland, I arrived with my photocopied Social Security card, my college I.D., a pay stub from The San Francisco Chronicle and my proof of state residence the letters to the Portland address that my support network had sent. It worked. My license, issued in 2003, was set to expire eight years later, on my 30th birthday, on Feb. 1984. 3, 2011. I had eight years to books rosa parks, succeed professionally, and to 1984 essay, hope that some sort of image immigration reform would pass in 1984, the meantime and allow me to stay. It seemed like all the time in aydin dogan, the world.

My summer in Washington was exhilarating. I was intimidated to be in a major newsroom but was assigned a mentor Peter Perl, a veteran magazine writer to essay, help me navigate it. A few weeks into the internship, he printed out one of my articles, about a guy who recovered a long-lost wallet, circled the first two paragraphs and left it on my desk. Great eye for details awesome! he wrote. Books About Rosa. Though I didnt know it then, Peter would become one more member of 1984 my network. At the Please! end of the summer, I returned to The San Francisco Chronicle. My plan was to finish school I was now a senior while I worked for 1984, The Chronicle as a reporter for the city desk. But when The Post beckoned again, offering me a full-time, two-year paid internship that I could start when I graduated in June 2004, it was too tempting to pass up. I moved back to Washington.

About four months into my job as a reporter for The Post, I began feeling increasingly paranoid, as if I had illegal immigrant tattooed on my forehead and in about rosa, Washington, of all places, where the 1984 debates over immigration seemed never-ending. Alt History. I was so eager to prove myself that I feared I was annoying some colleagues and editors and worried that any one of these professional journalists could discover my secret. The anxiety was nearly paralyzing. I decided I had to tell one of the essay higher-ups about my situation. I turned to Peter. By this time, Peter, who still works at The Post, had become part of mary shelley’s monster management as the papers director of newsroom training and professional development.

One afternoon in late October, we walked a couple of blocks to Lafayette Square, across from the White House. Over some 20 minutes, sitting on 1984 essay a bench, I told him everything: the alt history Social Security card, the drivers license, Pat and 1984, Rich, my family. Peter was shocked. I understand you 100 times better now, he said. He told me that I had done the right thing by telling him, and that it was now our shared problem. He said he didnt want to do anything about it just yet. Battle And Religion. I had just been hired, he said, and 1984, I needed to prove myself. When youve done enough, he said, well tell Don and Len together. (Don Graham is the chairman of The Washington Post Company; Leonard Downie Jr. was then the papers executive editor.) A month later, I spent my first Thanksgiving in Battle and Religion Essay, Washington with Peter and his family.

In the five years that followed, I did my best to do enough. I was promoted to staff writer, reported on video-game culture, wrote a series on Washingtons H.I.V./AIDS epidemic and covered the 1984 role of technology and social media in the 2008 presidential race. I visited the White House, where I interviewed senior aides and covered a state dinner and gave the Secret Service the Social Security number I obtained with false documents. I did my best to steer clear of reporting on immigration policy but couldnt always avoid it. On two occasions, I wrote about Hillary Clintons position on drivers licenses for undocumented immigrants. I also wrote an article about Senator Mel Martinez of Florida, then the An Uphill Battle and Religion chairman of the Republican National Committee, who was defending his partys stance toward Latinos after only one Republican presidential candidate John McCain, the co-author of a failed immigration bill agreed to participate in 1984, a debate sponsored by Univision, the the reaper's Spanish-language network. It was an odd sort of dance: I was trying to stand out in a highly competitive newsroom, yet I was terrified that if I stood out too much, Id invite unwanted scrutiny. I tried to 1984 essay, compartmentalize my fears, distract myself by alt history reporting on the lives of other people, but there was no escaping the central conflict in essay, my life.

Maintaining a deception for so long distorts your sense of self. Alt History. You start wondering who youve become, and why. In April 2008, I was part of a Post team that won a Pulitzer Prize for the papers coverage of the Virginia Tech shootings a year earlier. Essay. Lolo died a year earlier, so it was Lola who called me the day of the announcement. The first thing she said was, Anong mangyayari kung malaman ng mga tao ? What will happen if people find out? I couldnt say anything. After we got off the phone, I rushed to the bathroom on the fourth floor of the newsroom, sat down on the toilet and the Salt,, cried. In the summer of 2009, without ever having had that follow-up talk with top Post management, I left the paper and moved to New York to join The Huffington Post. I met Arianna Huffington at 1984, a Washington Press Club Foundation dinner I was covering for The Post two years earlier, and she later recruited me to join her news site.

I wanted to learn more about Web publishing, and I thought the new job would provide a useful education. Still, I was apprehensive about the move: many companies were already using E-Verify, a program set up by the Department of Homeland Security that checks if prospective employees are eligible to work, and I didnt know if my new employer was among them. But Id been able to get jobs in other newsrooms, I figured, so I filled out the paperwork as usual and aydin dogan, succeeded in landing on the payroll. While I worked at The Huffington Post, other opportunities emerged. My H.I.V./AIDS series became a documentary film called The Other City, which opened at the Tribeca Film Festival last year and was broadcast on 1984 essay Showtime.

I began writing for magazines and landed a dream assignment: profiling Facebooks Mark Zuckerberg for image, The New Yorker. The more I achieved, the more scared and depressed I became. I was proud of essay my work, but there was always a cloud hanging over it, over me. The Reaper's. My old eight-year deadline the 1984 expiration of my Oregon drivers license was approaching. After slightly less than a year, I decided to alt history, leave The Huffington Post. In part, this was because I wanted to promote the documentary and write a book about online culture or so I told my friends. But the real reason was, after so many years of trying to 1984 essay, be a part of the system, of focusing all my energy on my professional life, I learned that no amount of professional success would solve my problem or ease the sense of loss and displacement I felt. I lied to shelley’s monster, a friend about 1984 essay, why I couldnt take a weekend trip to Mexico. Another time I concocted an excuse for why I couldnt go on an all-expenses-paid trip to and Religion Essay, Switzerland. I have been unwilling, for 1984 essay, years, to and Religion Essay, be in a long-term relationship because I never wanted anyone to get too close and ask too many questions. All the 1984 while, Lolas question was stuck in my head: What will happen if people find out?

Early this year, just two weeks before my 30th birthday, I won a small reprieve: I obtained a drivers license in the state of on Science and Religion Washington. The license is valid until 2016. This offered me five more years of acceptable identification but also five more years of fear, of essay lying to An Uphill, people I respect and institutions that trusted me, of running away from who I am. Im done running. Im exhausted. I dont want that life anymore. So Ive decided to come forward, own up to what Ive done, and tell my story to the best of my recollection. Ive reached out to former bosses and employers and essay, apologized for mary shelley’s monster, misleading them a mix of humiliation and liberation coming with each disclosure.

All the people mentioned in this article gave me permission to use their names. Ive also talked to family and friends about my situation and am working with legal counsel to review my options. I dont know what the consequences will be of telling my story. I do know that I am grateful to my grandparents, my Lolo and Lola, for 1984, giving me the chance for a better life. Im also grateful to my other family the support network I found here in America for encouraging me to pursue my dreams. Its been almost 18 years since Ive seen my mother. Early on, I was mad at her for putting me in this position, and then mad at myself for being angry and ungrateful. By the time I got to and Religion, college, we rarely spoke by phone. It became too painful; after a while it was easier to just send money to help support her and my two half-siblings.

My sister, almost 2 years old when I left, is almost 20 now. Ive never met my 14-year-old brother. I would love to see them. Not long ago, I called my mother. 1984. I wanted to fill the gaps in my memory about that August morning so many years ago. We had never discussed it. Part of me wanted to shove the memory aside, but to write this article and face the facts of my life, I needed more details. Did I cry?

Did she? Did we kiss goodbye? My mother told me I was excited about meeting a stewardess, about getting on image a plane. She also reminded me of the one piece of advice she gave me for blending in: If anyone asked why I was coming to America, I should say I was going to Disneyland. Jose Antonio Vargas ( is a former reporter for The Washington Post and shared a Pulitzer Prize for 1984, coverage of the Virginia Tech shootings. He founded Define American, which seeks to change the conversation on immigration reform. Editor: Chris Suellentrop ( A version of this article appears in about rosa parks, print on June 26, 2011, on Page MM22 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: Outlaw. Today's Paper | Subscribe.

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ACT Writing and New SAT Essay Requirements. The redesigned SAT, with its optional essay, forced many colleges to revisit policies. 1984! A major shift has taken place in the reaper's essay requirements for the SAT and ACT, and there may be additional changes for the classes of 2018 and essay 2019. The Reaper's! Of the 1984 360 colleges and universities in the reaper's image the Compass 360 , fewer than 10% require the SAT Essay or ACT Writing (see below for the complete list). Early on, high profile schools such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Dartmouth, Stanford, and the University of California system affirmed their commitment to the SAT Essay and the recently revamped ACT Writing. Meanwhile, University of Pennsylvania, Columbia, Cornell, Northwestern, and 1984 essay Boston College adopted policies that dropped the essay for both ACT and SAT. College Board and the reaper's image ACT maintain lists of essay policies, but students should not depend upon 1984 essay them. Battle And Religion! College Board#8217;s is new and very incomplete. ACT#8217;s is old and stale (i.e. includes no information on recent drops). In general, the testing companies do an uneven job in keeping such resources up-to-date. Compass goes directly to 1984 the colleges for the latest information.

The following table of 360 popular colleges provides a wide range of institutions and policies. In general, we find that less competitive colleges are less likely to require either essay. Despite the books parks decline in colleges requiring an SAT or ACT essay, Compass is still recommending that students make the essay a part of their testing plans. 1984 Essay! Skipping the essay can leave a student scrambling to fit in an additional test date should his or her college plans change. Alt History! Some colleges requiring the essay will not superscore test dates without the essay. The University of California system alone drives the decision for many of 1984 Compass#8217; students. Just as important, it#8217;s uncommon for an ACT or SAT essay to be a significant negative factor on an application. With a minimum amount of shelley’s practice, most students can reach the 1984 25th 75th percentile score ranges of even the mary most elite colleges in the country #8212; something not at all true about other sections of the exams. In other words, there is more upside to downside when looking at 1984 essay having a longer #8212; and somewhat more expensive #8212; test day.

ACT and SAT Essay Requirements - Class of books about 2018 and 1984 essay Beyond. *School has a Test Optional or Test Flexible policy but may still have requirements for An Uphill Essay students choosing to submit SAT or ACT scores. Note: #8220;TBD#8221; or [blank] reflects a policy to be determined by the college or for which Compass has insufficient information. Post a comment or send an email to 1984 with questions or recommended changes. The Compass 360 provides New SAT and Pass the Salt, Please! ACT scores for some of the most competitive colleges in the country. Subject Test requirements continue to evolve, so Compass keeps an up-to-date list. ACT Writing scores have gone through multiple changes. To try to essay clear things up, Compass has published ACT Writing Scores Explained. A similar analysis for the SAT is also available.

Art graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University, where he was the top-ranked liberal arts student in his class. Art pioneered the one-on-one approach to test prep in California in 1989 and co-founded Compass Education Group in 2004 in order to aydin dogan bring the best ideas and essay tutors into students' homes and computers. Although he has attained perfect scores on all flavors of the SAT and ACT, he is routinely beaten in backgammon. Books About! [#8230;] Chart Compiled by Compass Prep [#8230;] Do you think the 1984 ACT Board will re-examine the inadequacies of the Essay writing score and re-scale so it makes more sense? My daughter rec#8217;d a 27 but it was the 95th percentile. Essay! Low number for high percentile. She also rec#8217;d 10s in Please! Essay each of the 4 domains. Compass would certainly like if they did #8212; or at least published full data on what they are seeing. My guess is that they will not monkey with the scales, however. Once a scale is set, it#8217;s not a simple thing to 1984 essay reset, as it impacts everyone else who has ever taken the test. ACT has left its other scales unchanged since 1989.

It is regrettable that ACT decided to move to aydin dogan 1-36 for Writing #8212; especially before it was ever administered. Recent experiences have proved what we expected #8212; the 1984 essay is simply not reliable enough to image take its place beside the other scores. Keep in mind that everyone is facing the same situation. Writing scores, in general, are more tightly clustered than raw scores on the other tests. Colleges will see this on their reports. And as you see above, many are dropping their policies and few have ever given much weight to essay Writing. It sounds like your daughter did quite well, and that remains true even if her 27 is #8220;lower#8221; than her other scores. Thank you for compiling this list and alt history adding to 1984 essay it throughout the year as other schools may adjust their essay policies. This information is very helpful. You are welcome! We will stay on An Uphill on Science top of it. 1984! [#8230;] the NEW SAT Writing section, which will not, and which require the ACT writing section.

This list is quite helpful! Compass also maintains a list of colleges that require SAT Subject [#8230;] Thank you for on Science Essay the helpful list. I was just wondering how you are obtaining your information? I didn#8217;t see anything on Duke#8217;s site about the new SAT essay the College Board#8217;s list doesn#8217;t mention Duke at all. If College Board doesn#8217;t mention the school at all on its list, do you think it#8217;s risky to assume the essay is not required? Also, do you have any sense of 1984 whether schools would ever do a reverse decide to aydin dogan start requiring the essay even if they previously didn#8217;t? I#8217;d rather not do the essay, but will if I have to. Thanks again for your help! Good questions. When we could not find a definitive answer on a school#8217;s website, we contacted the admissions office directly.

Duke is notable because it is keeping its ACT requirement but only recommending the SAT essay. It has a convoluted rationale involving the Subject Tests. The College Board list is opt-in, I believe. Essay! Schools can submit their information to College Board. As you have found, not all have done so.

I also don#8217;t expect the CB list to be maintained as policies shift. We will be doubling the the reaper's size of our own list (to 200 of the top colleges) within the next week. 1984 Essay! The reverse is possible only for the ACT, since all old SAT students took the An Uphill Battle on Science Essay essay (although it is true that not all colleges used the essay essay). I know of no college moving in that direction, and I think it highly unlikely given the criticism of the alt history new ACT Writing (1 school out of a thousand, perhaps). My daughter took the 1984 essay ACT with writing and scored a 32 for image the composite score but only a 23 for writing. I have two questions. One is essay whether she can submit the ACT but somehow choose not to submit the the Salt, Essay writing section, and the other is whether it makes sense to pay for them to re-score it. Thanks in advance for your answer. Essay! No, your daughter can only books rosa submit the test in its entirety. It is up to 1984 college policies to determine what they will do with it.

I don#8217;t like to be cavalier with other people#8217;s money, but my general advice is Battle Essay that a rescoring is 1984 essay merited if a student is disappointed with his or her score. Personally, I#8217;d like to see every April test-taker march on alt history Iowa City with $50 in one hand and a protest sign in the other. But that last bit has nothing to do with your daughter#8217;s situation. I#8217;d also consider two ideas: 1) College#8217;s think little of the ACT Writing. Most never used it in the first place, and even more are dropping it now that schools no longer have to worry about the (formerly) required SAT essay. Essay! Even those that require it put far less stock in it than any other test score. 2) The mean score of the Writing is misleadingly lower than that of the other sections. Her 23 is 83rd percentile according to the figures released by ACT. In the other 4 subject areas, scores from 25-28 are at that percentile. A 23 seems lower than it is alt history because of 1984 our natural reaction to compare it directly to other 1-36 scores.

Carnegie Mellon has dropped both SAT and ACT essay requirements. Joanna, thank you for the information. We#8217;ve updated Carnegie Mellon#8217;s policy and will be updating other schools shortly. More and more colleges are firming up policies for class of image 2017). My son took the SAT and got a 1500 730 reading/writing 770 Math, but his supplemental wring essay he didn#8217;t far well how much weight will rice University put with that. Rice does not require the SAT essay. Although colleges will still see that score, it#8217;s rare that an essay-optional school would put much weight at all on it. I don#8217;t think you should be concerned about how Rice will view the score. I have a question regarding the SAT with essay. I have taken the essay SAT twice.

The first time i took the SAT with essay but the second one i did it without the essay. If i want to send my second SAT score to colleges can i use the essay score from my first SAT? Unfortunately, I do not know of any colleges that will combine SAT w/Essay with SAT w/o Essay scores. This creates a situation where #8212; even though most colleges do not require the essay #8212; most students are best advised to take the essay. This seems like over-testing that could easily be eliminated if colleges decided to about parks superscore essay an non-essay results, but admission offices have not yet come around to that way of thinking. I#8217;m in the same boat as Arvind. My school required me to take the New SAT in March without the essay. 1984! I took the New SAT again in May with the essay. I am really happy with my essay score and my FIRST Reading/Writing and Math score and I want to combine the two components. An Uphill Battle On Science And Religion! Colleges tend to move slowly in response to essay testing changes and often take direction from the testing organizations. Until this year, there was no ability to send an SAT score without an Pass the Salt, Please! Essay, essay, so policies on superscoring were irrelevant.

There was also the sense that #8220;we want all students to be comparable, so if we require ACT w/Writing, then we are going to only accept scores from ACT w/Writing administrations.#8221; Now that both tests are essay optional and the essays come at the end of the test (so there is no impact on test performance), it is completely illogical for 1984 essay superscoring colleges not to superscore the essay. But colleges have just not figured it out yet. I took old SAT three times, now i decided to take the new SAT in October. Will the colleges combine my old and new scores? since a lot of schools do not require essay portion, can i just not take it? Thanks! Also, I am looking at Northeastern#8217;s website, it said that it required SAT with writing, does that mean that Northeastern require the new SAT essay portion? Are you looking at This information appears to be for the class of 2016, because it is actually referring to Pass the Salt, Essay the ACT with Writing.

Northeastern has decided not to require the new SAT essay or the ACT essay going forward. Colleges will not superscore sections across new and old SATs. They will accept both tests and, in 1984 essay most cases, will evaluate your application on your highest score. The catch is that if any of your target colleges require the Pass essay, then you will not be able to use your new SAT score without an essay. Since you already have three old SAT scores, you would be able to use those. It#8217;s unfortunate that the 20% of universities requiring the essay are making it so difficult students to avoid the essay extra testing and parks expense. When a school says that the essay is optional, does that really mean it is 1984 essay not #8220;required#8221; but highly #8220;recommended#8221;. Because my son plays sports and they have #8220;optional#8221; workouts but really they aren#8217;t optional if you really want to make the team. They are required!! Terri, I really like that analogy.

It#8217;s apt for some colleges that claim to only #8220;recommend#8221; Subject Tests #8212; Stanford and Georgetown, for example. That has not come up on ACT Writing / SAT Essay. Parks! We#8217;ve tried to classify as #8220;Optional#8221; colleges that don#8217;t use the 1984 essay essay for rosa parks admission. There may be several cases where the essay score will be considered if submitted (unfortunately, one can#8217;t leave it off of a submitted test date). More common are schools that #8220;recommend#8221; the essay only 1984 because it is used for freshman composition placement. Mary! I have sons that scored 29 and 31 composite but only essay 17 on the writing. Aydin Dogan! They took it again without writing and went up to 31 and 32. Essay! If certain schools they apply to DO require the writing, do you think they need to retake it with writing again, or is the alt history main focus really on composite score?

I#8217;m usually loathe to recommend retesting based on Writing alone, but the essay discrepancy between your sons#8217; Composite and Writing score and the fact that your sons have higher scores on the test without Writing (which means *some* schools that require writing will not use the 31 and 32) makes me think that a retake would be useful. Scores in the low 20#8217;s are common enough that I don#8217;t think colleges will think much of them one way or the other. High scoring students with Writing scores in the teens may face more stigma. My son scored a 29 composite score overall on the reaper's the ACT (32 English, 30 reading, 30 science 25 math) but a 16 on the essay. I believe that most of the schools that he may apply to do not require the writing portion. I am concerned however that a 16 on the essay will hurt his chances. What do you suggest?

Also he has a learning disability which impacts his math score. Is the fact that his math score is significantly lower than his other scores a cause for concern? Should he address it in his application? When high scoring students receive Writing scores in the teens, I do grow concerned. In informal discussions with admissions officers, many fully admit that they don#8217;t put much weight on 1984 essay Writing. When asked if they might view a 15 as a red flag, they admit #8220;yes, that would raise eyebrows.#8221; Your son did very well, and alt history I#8217;d hate to see him disadvantaged by the Writing score. I would recommend retesting if his schedule allows. If his learning disability impacts his math grades and testing overall, then you may find an opportunity to essay address it in the application. If you are only concerned that it impacted his ability on a speeded test like the ACT, I would not recommend making an issue of it.

I scored 1350 in jun sat. is it an ok score for an international student aspiring to get in to a reasonably good university with computer science. I am also planning to take math level 2 and physics subject adv. I would recommend looking at the Salt, Essay our college profiles with estimated new SAT score ranges. In general, you#8217;ll be competitive #8212; which is not the same thing as saying that you#8217;ll be admitted #8212; at colleges where your scores are closer to the 75th percentile than the 25th percentile. Students and 1984 essay parents often don#8217;t realize that the scores of admitted students are actually higher than the reported scores for enrolled students (we use the latter because not all college provide figures for admitted students). Keep in the reaper's image mind that test scores are only one part of essay your application.

They tend to Pass have a bit more weight for international students, because admission officers are not always as familiar with the curriculum and essay grading standards of other countries. You have Georgetown University listed as required for both essay portions. However in the paragraph on page one it states: #8220;Other schools such as University of the reaper's Chicago and Georgetown never adopted ACT Writing in the first place, ignored the 1984 essay original SAT essay, and will ignore the New SAT Essay. #8221; Can you clarify which is correct? We posted a set of updates yesterday that apparently had the aydin dogan faulty info on Georgetown. They definitely DO NOT require the SAT Essay or ACT Writing. Essay! Thank you for catching that error. We#8217;ll review today to see that nothing else got flipped by mistake. I am hoping to apply Early Decision to Columbia this fall. I have taken the ACT and recieved a 34 composite but I got a 21 on the writing.

I#8217;m not sure how this is possible as I received a 36 on the English section, so I obviously understand language arts. Aydin Dogan! Anyways, should I retake the 1984 essay test? I know the percentiles are shifted on the writing but it seems like a 21 would be a red flag. Also, I have not yet taken subject tests as most schools do not require them when submitting the ACTs. Should I plan on taking those too? Would it be detrimental to my application if I have not taken them? Thank you so much for your help! This list is so useful! As you probably know, Columbia does not require the alt history Writing. It will still be submitted with your ACT score, but the fact that it is optional for test takers gives you an idea of 1984 how important Columbia considers it #8212; not very.

The essay task and Pass Please! Essay scoring system on the ACT writing are quite suspect, and colleges recognize it. We see many students with you composite, and the writing scores fall all over the board. 1984! I don#8217;t think the aydin dogan 21 will serve as a red flag. Columbia does not superscore the ACT, so this may impact your decision a bit. Retaking will only essay help you if you can raise your composite. Although retesting can#8217;t hurt you at monster Columbia (they will consider your highest scores), you#8217;ll need to consider the policies at essay the other schools on your list. Because so many students at the top universities have great ACT or SAT scores, I do recommend that students *consider* Subject Tests. You#8217;ll only want to worry about them if you think that they can improve your testing portfolio.

In the books about parks case of 1984 essay elite schools like Columbia, that means 750+ (or at alt history least 700+). You can try tests from the Official Guide published by 1984 essay College Board. Fewer schools than ever are requiring the Subject Tests #8212; especially with ACT scores. It would be a little challenging to fit them in (including preparing for them) as senior year starts and application season begins, so you may want to just sit tight with your ACT score. I recently read your post on the new ACT writing test and found it to about parks be very thorough and a little unsettling. 1984! I had two quick questions: My son is quite interested in Pass the Salt, the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. 1984 Essay! He took the ACT in September. His ACT composite was 31 #8212; solidly in the school#8217;s range #8212; and he scored a perfect 36 on either the English/Reading component. But his writing score was 6 #8212; which, I think, falls somewhere in the 40th percentile.

Not strong. Alt History! After reading your post, I#8217;m wondering how reliable those scores are. Do you recommend that he should take the test again? And on this post, you indicate the writing test portion is #8220;optional#8221; for the Coast Guard Academy. But its website says it is required. Can you shed some light on that? Thank you.

I#8217;ve got an email into essay, USCGA to see if they can help clarify. You are correct that they appear to be in the #8220;Require#8221; camp, and Essay we will update our information. They had previously left things ambiguous and have still not stated their policy on the College Board website. Essay! The other question I have for them has to do with consideration #8212; is the books essay used for admission? The superscoring example that they give in their testing FAQ and the score range summary only mentions CR and M from the 1984 old SAT. Did they also use Writing or was it just for placement or research? Is the image same true of the ACT Writing? I#8217;d recommend contact them yourself, too. It#8217;s in the 6 range where I do start to have concerns. 1984 Essay! Probably less of one in Battle on Science and Religion Essay your son#8217;s case because his ACT score is very solid for the Academy.

It sounds like his ELA score would be strong despite the essay low essay score. Mary Shelley’s Monster! It#8217;s highly likely that he could improve his essay score upon retesting. Essay! I would try to push admissions for their take. Unless you can pin them down that it won#8217;t matter much, your son may want to Pass Please! Essay think about taking the ACT again. I hate to see students commit to extra testing just because of 1984 Writing, but I#8217;d also hate to see your son not have everything working in books rosa his favor. Please update if you find anything new. I#8217;ll do the same. USCGA got back to me with the 1984 following response: #8220;The requirement to take the writing section is just to put all applicants on the same playing field, it is not heavily weighed when considering an applicants competitiveness.#8221; It sounds like it would be unlikely to impact your son#8217;s application #8212; especially since, given his other scores, there would no concern about his verbal abilities. Thank you for this very helpful post. Just wondering about books about parks, Reed; the 1984 essay table specifies the writing sections as #8220;optional#8221; but the Updates paragraph includes Reed in the list of the reaper's image colleges for 1984 which the requirement for the SAT essay has recently been added? Thank you for pointing this out.

We had originally had misinformation on Reed#8217;s policy. Mary Shelley’s Monster! Our table was corrected, but the paragraph had not been fixed. 1984 Essay! Reed is Battle and Religion essay optional for both the SAT and ACT. My son will be applying to essay Harvard and mary other schools. He took the new SAT in March and received a 790 CR, 800 Math and 1984 a 17 on the essay. He retook the new SAT in June and received a 770 CR, 790 Math and a 21 on the essay. Shelley’s! Should he submit both scores so that Harvard sees the higher essay score? Or should he just submit the first score of 1590 with a 17 on the essay? Thanks for essay the help. This is very confusing! Given your son#8217;s circumstances, I would submit both scores.

First, Harvard superscores the SAT, so that makes the decision far easier. Even if the don#8217;t superscore the writing, your son would be no worse off. Second, neither of image his non-essay scores is essay a concern, so it is Pass the Salt, not as if Harvard would see a score that would scare them off. While the difference between the 1984 essay 17 and 21 is minimal and is unlikely to impact your son#8217;s chances for admission, there is no reason for alt history him to put his best scores forward. If it#8217;s any solace, it#8217;s just as confusing for 1984 admission offices. Mary Monster! Hello. I have done the 1984 new SAT with essay on books about parks October, and have got the 1984 essay required score for the essay, but not a good score for the SAT. If i retake the SAT without essay on December, would i be able to include the essay score which was done on October, Combined with the New SAT retaken score ( without essay) to Please! colleges that requires the Essay.

Thank you. Essay! There is not a universal policy on this and colleges have not always clarified things. Some essay-requiring colleges #8212; the University of California system is alt history a prominent example #8212; do not accept test dates that do not include the essay. Superscoring institutions are more likely to mix-and-match as long as a student has taken the essay. Essay! As much as I hate recommending additional testing, retaking the essay in December ensures the most flexibility. It#8217;s unlikely that a lower essay score would hurt you, whereas it would defeat the purpose of An Uphill on Science your December testing if you can#8217;t use your EBRW and Math scores. Hello. 1984 Essay! The CR and Writing portions of the NEW SAT are two separate scores (out of mary monster 40).

Do colleges that superscore also superscore between CR and writing. For instance if I got a 35 CR and a 37 writing, then a 37 CR and essay a 36 writing would they view the highest scores separately (the 37#8217;s) or would they only look at the highest overall score out of 800 (720). I have not heard of any college that will be superscoring Evidence-Based Reading and Writing #038; Language separately. My head is the Salt, Please! swimming and I feel we have been worried for 2 years already. Thank you for 1984 the list, it is books about parks very helpful. My son has a learning disability, which puts him at a complete disadvantage for 1984 the writing portion#8230; even with accommodations at 100% time and the use of a computer/word processor to type#8230; his problem is such, that he does not retain spelling and grammar when translating them for mary shelley’s monster practical use. The kicker, he is brilliant and a brilliant writer, aspiring to write novels, plays, and for film and television. However, he uses many learning tools to reach his end product.

This writing portion is just a nightmare for us in 1984 general and a source of high anxiety. So, if you could, please help me to clarify a few things; when you say, #8220;Compass expects that fewer than one-third of An Uphill Battle and Religion Essay competitive colleges will require a standardized test essay for the fall of 2017 admission class.#8221;, are you referring to the students who will be attending College/University in essay the fall of 2017, or applying in 2017/18 for attending fall 2018? My son will be graduating June 2018 and alt history attending University that coming fall. How do these current tests guidelines apply to my son? Somehow, I was under the impression by spring of 2017, the essay essay portions were being eliminated entirely from the SAT and ACT. Is this correct? I thought it was understood, if we waited until March 2017 or later to test, there would not be any requirements for monster an essay portion on 1984 essay either test.

Therefore, College/University would not have the option to even require the written portion from the students beginning the application process in fall of 2017. Or am I completely turned around? Thank you for your time and attention. Let me see if I can help. There are no impending changes to the SAT or ACT essays. The ACT has always been optional for test-takers, and the SAT became optional as of March 2016. Neither will be dropped from the tests unless ACT and College Board suddenly come to alt history their senses. Once the SAT essay became optional, however, many colleges reevaluated their requirements and decided to 1984 make the essay optional for their applicants. This shift happened in a big way.

The #8220;fewer than one-third#8221; is a huge understatement that I should probably correct. Of 360 of the shelley’s top schools in the country, we#8217;ve found 24 that required an essay for essay class of 2017 (those applying right now). And that counts every UC campus independently! The percentage of schools outside the about 360 who require the essay is even lower. 1984! I do not expect any college to add an essay requirement, and we may see a few more drops. If your son is planning on applying to Essay Harvard or Duke or UCLA, then he will likely need the essay.

If he is not applying to those 24 schools, though, you can#8217;t chalk it off the list of 1984 concerns. It doesn#8217;t sound like your son is in a position to just do some additional practice and ace the essay, so the Pass best thing to do is to bypass it (and I don#8217;t say that very often). What if he has his heart set on one or some of those 24 colleges? Here is the plan I would recommend. 1984 Essay! If he has not already tried the essay, then he should. If you are near one of Compass#8217; CA offices, we can provide proctored testing. If you are not, we also do fee-based testing with online proctoring.

We grade essays in the same way that the College Board and ACT do. You may find that your concerns are overblown. If you don#8217;t, then I would recommend a two-pronged attack. Make plans for your son to take the official SAT or ACT without the essay, and to then take it with the essay. The idea of the first is that he can focus on acing the test without the stress of the essay looming over him. Then he can take the test with the essay so that he has an exam for the colleges that require an essay. First, though, I would think carefully about where he is applying and aydin dogan whether the whole essay nonsense (and it is nonsense) can be avoided. Do colleges superscore with the essay?

For example, I took the essay new SAT in October and December and I want to books rosa use my composite score from December and 1984 essay my essay score from October. The concept of the optional SAT essay is still new enough that not many colleges have explicitly stated their policies. In general, I think it is safe to books rosa assume that superscoring colleges like to view scores through the #8220;most favorable#8221; lens and will consider your highest essay score. 1984 Essay! Also, keep in mind that your essay score is by far the least important score on your report. You don#8217;t mention your scores, but they might make a difference. For example, if you received good essay scores in December, it may not be worth submitting your October scores. My son took the SAT with essay in November. About Rosa! He plans to retake the SAT with out the essay in the spring. He is applying to schools that do not require the essay.

We are confused by superscoring. Will colleges superscore the SAT with essay and the SAT without essay, or are they considered two separate tests that can not be superscored? As far as I know, all superscoring schools where the essay is optional will superscore between essay and 1984 essay non-essay exams. The tricky part is when colleges require the essay. In those cases, some college superscore (I#8217;d say that this is the majority), but a few do not. About! It sounds like your son is in good shape. Boston University no longer requires the ACT writing.

Thank you, I#8217;ve updated our table. My son did well on the SAT (780, 780) but only a 16 on the essay. Is it worth taking the 1984 ACT? He also has AP Language this year, and it seems like a good grade and a good score on the AP will show he can write. He is looking at books Stanford and Princeton as reach schools. (It probably doesn#8217;t matter to his safety schools) Thank you for insight.

The essay score is 1984 a very, very small part of a testing portfolio. His 16 may not be the aydin dogan score he wanted, but it is not so far off the norm for top scorers that I recommend a retest #8212; and certainly not a switch to the ACT given his strong SAT score. I expect 25th-75th percentile scores for 1984 enrolled students at even schools such as Stanford and Princeton to be in alt history the 15-21 range. 1984 Essay! The benefit of being higher in aydin dogan that range is dubious. 1984 Essay! My daughter was recently approved for time accommodations and took the SAT yesterday for the first time. Because this would be her initial effort, we thought the best course, given the long day, would be to have her take the SAT without essay this first round. The concept was that she#8217;d take some subject tests in May, then retake the Battle and Religion Essay SAT WITH the essay in June or August. 1984! I hadn#8217;t realized that she would be unable to superscore the Pass Essay two SAT#8217;s. This will be irrelevant if her second set of scores are higher across the 1984 board, but I now see that it could be problematic if that#8217;s not the the Salt, Please! case. I#8217;m trying to find a silver lining here, because nothing is to be done about yesterday. Only a few of the schools on her preliminary list require the essay.

For those schools, would there be any utility in sending in both sets of scores for general consideration, even if one set doesn#8217;t have the essay? The changing regulations certainly make for a muddle of testing. Thanks for any insights you have to offer. Essay! Your site has been a great resource! She may not have a problem superscoring between her two administrations #8212; colleges have not always been clear on the topic. The UC system requires all scores to aydin dogan come from a single administration, but the University of Michigan, on the other hand, simply wants to see at least one Essay score.

Given the trend in 1984 essay requirements and the number of colleges that will likely superscore between the two administrations, I would not worry much about her decision to skip the March essay. It sounds like it was the alt history right decision for her first SAT. The new August test also provides a nice added opportunity for essay the class of 2018. Books Parks! I agree with you about the muddle. Thank you!

What are your thoughts on 1984 essay Spanish with or without listening. The November test date for Pass the Salt, listening forces students to take the essay test the Battle fall of junior without completing a full year of Spanish 4. Essay! Georgetown uses the score for language placement. Should a non-native speaker bypass the November test date, complete Spanish 4, and take the test in June? I am a former Spanish teacher and looked at the practice tests. Shelley’s! Having A full year of Spanish 4 is extremely beneficial. What are your thoughts? Please ignore my original replay, as I misread your comment entirely.

The Spanish Subject Test #8212; like the other foreign language exams #8212; is 1984 challenging enough for students to do well on even with 3 full years of high school language. I would definitely recommend that students take the additional 7 months and wait for the June date. If Listening is important, then it can always be taken in November of shelley’s senior year (it dates to a time when senior year testing was more the norm). The FAQ section for Brown has some conflicting info. They state that the SAT or ACT with writing is required. Essay! They also provide the link to the College Board which indicates that Brown neither requires nor recommends the alt history writing section. Do you have any idea which one is correct? I see what you are referring to. It seems that on essay this page and on the first-year application page, Brown is alt history saying that they do require the 1984 essay/writing. Pass! That conflicts with what we found last year and with the essay College Board information to monster which they link.

I have contacted Brown in an effort to get clarification. I#8217;ve confirmed with Brown that the requirement of essay SAT w/Essay or ACT w/Writing is new for the class of 2018. The College Board information is outdated. An Uphill On Science! We#8217;ll be changing the information on our site, of course. Thank you for bringing this to our attention. Trying to add to the info on your site, because your site has helped me. My son (in FL) scored 1540 on the first SAT but 17/24 on the essay. He retook the test on the #8220;SAT School Day#8221; (so it was free) . He told me that the free version was much more difficult than the earlier test that he had taken. His recent score of 1460 reflected his assessment.

But we looked into the essay and what we learned is below. His essay score on 1984 the recent SAT was 24/24. He went from alt history, a 17/24 to a 24/24 after doing this. (I am not associated with anyone, just a parent trying to 1984 essay help my son.) Maybe this info will help some other parents or kids taking the SAT. Alt History! I am no expert, and my son#8217;s writing did NOT improve in 2 months time. 1984 Essay! He just gave the reviewers what they wanted in a format to allow them to Pass Please! Essay check boxes. Write longer#8230; +700 words if possible. Be positive about the speech / work that you are reviewing (never negative) Don#8217;t analyze the speech (what they could have done better), point out how he/she elicited or what they did/said to elicit the response that he/she wanted.

Looks like the easiest/best way to 1984 do this is: (intro/body/conclusion style) Paragraph 1 = Introduction, short summary of how he/she elicits reaction. Paragraph 2-4 = pick a few specific examples and rosa parks elaborate on those examples from your introduction (how they elicited the response/ or intended to) Paragraph 5 = conclusions say what a great job they did, and confirm some of the introduction. You may want to 1984 quickly outline your 3 body paragraphs first then start on your introduction, so you don#8217;t miss something in your introduction and are erasing/trying to go back and include it. Watch the videos in this series: Look at these essay examples: Thank you, Kelly. I#8217;ve shared your suggestions. Hi Art. My son who is class of 2018 took the SAT w/o the essay, scored well at a 1460. The Reaper's! He did take the essay with the ACT however got 32 composite and 10 on the essay (in the fall so using the new ACT essay score).

If he#8217;s applying to one of the colleges that requires an essay, will the fact that he did take the ACT essay fulfill the essay requirement? Or will he HAVE to essay submit an SAT essay score too? Thanks for a new and interesting twist on this question. I#8217;m quite sure that I haven#8217;t seen any college specifically address the it #8212; other than, perhaps, the UC system which has always demanded that scores be from a single administration (so an An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion Essay, ACT essay won#8217;t be combined with an SAT total score). My guess is that most essay-requiring colleges would look askance at a mix-and-match approach. His ACT score is just as strong has his SAT score, though, so I#8217;m not sure that it is much of a concern. 1984! If he decides to aydin dogan repeat the SAT, I would advise him to take the essay.

Do superscoring colleges superscore the SAT essay? My daughter got a better SAT score in 1984 essay March (1560) but only 17 on essay. Last November she got 1520 but 24 on essay. Not sure how colleges will view this. Also for colleges that need one score, will the 1560 with 17 on monster essay look bad?

Any advise is appreciated. It#8217;s a question that only a few colleges have addressed directly. To my knowledge, there are no superscoring colleges that have said that they will not superscore the essay. Colleges that superscore choose to view students#8217; scores in the most favorable light, so I don#8217;t think they will choose to handle essay scores differently. Your daughter#8217;s 24 is 1984 essay extraordinary; her 17 is inline with what we see from aydin dogan, many top-scoring students. It should not be a concern. My daughter is essay a Junior and took the Pass the Salt, Please! Essay January 2017 SAT and scored a 1280 (640 and 640 splits) but scored a 23/24 on the Essay.

In March 2017, she scored a 1450 (750 Evidence based reading writing and 700 Math) but did not retake the essay. 1984! She is also looking to alt history retake the SAT again in August to try to boost the Math section. Do you know how some of the top colleges will view this (particularly those requiring the essay) as her best sitting score wasn#8217;t on the same date as her essay? Also if her Math improves in August, she will have her best three components on three different dates. Will this hurt her chances at some of the top schools? Colleges that superscore will generally look at the highest scores across each section #8212; including the Essay. Some schools that require the Essay simply want the essay Essay taken at least once (University of Michigan falls in this group). Other colleges #8212; such as the alt history University of California system #8212; will only 1984 consider test dates that include the Essay. Colleges have not been particularly helpful in nailing down their policies. Keep in mind that some colleges #8212; Yale and Stanford, for Essay example #8212; will require all her scores and essay consider them in a more holistic fashion. The #8220;hurt her chances#8221; part is glass half-full/empty.

Having her best scores on a single test date would make things cleaner all around. On the other hand, a higher Math score in August will still be a higher score. She certainly showed great progress from Battle on Science and Religion Essay, January to March, so it seems like she can put up good scores. Essay! I would recommend that she take the Essay again. Even if she scores lower (and the statistics on the Essay make it likely), my feeling is that it is more important to the reaper's image have a test date that can be used everywhere than it is to skip the Essay because she already nailed it. For example, at a Score Choice college, I#8217;d be more comfortable seeing a student submit only a 730ERW / 730M 6/6/6 Essay than having to also submit the 640/640. Our situation is a bit the 1984 essay reverse of Brad#8217;s. My son scored a 1350 on his first SAT (740 Math, 610 Evidence Based Reading Writing) and books about parks a 5/3/5 on 1984 the Essay. He then took his second SAT at mary school (in NYC), and scored 1540 (780 Math, 760 Evidence Based Reading Writing) but the NY DOE did not offer the essay Essay. Is it possible to Super score, using the complete second SAT (1540) and the Essay from the first SAT? And if so, can we extract that Essay score on the reaper's image its own, or will we need to 1984 essay send the entire SAT scores from the first test (1350) ? Would prefer for schools not to see the mary lower score at 1984 all, but at least to submit the aydin dogan Essay from essay, that test would be what we need. [Edit: Art, I read many of the questions from the others after I sent you mine, many of which are similar.

Just to clarify I was asking this: if colleges don#8217;t super score the alt history optional essay from one test with another entire SAT test (no essay taken), and my son wants to apply to essay schools where Essay is required, would you suggest we send both complete SAT tests? Thanks again!] Many thanks, Diana. I#8217;m sorry to mary monster hear that the NY DOE did not offer the Essay. There is no ability to 1984 send just the Essay score. The only case where he would not send the first SAT is alt history where a college does not require the Essay. His second scores are better all around, so he can ignore the first exam in those cases. The school policies would determine how favorably his scores get treated. In the case of college superscoring across tests w/ and w/o essays, he is in excellent shape. His Essay score is, perhaps, a little weak given his overall scores. What would concern me is if he applies to colleges where only tests with Essays are used.

The difference between his EBRW scores is substantial. I#8217;d suggest at 1984 least considering repeating the SAT. As you#8217;ve likely read, I prefer students not re-take the SAT just to raise an Essay score. But the alt history 190 point difference in total score is 1984 impossible to ignore. This only image matters if your son is 1984 applying to colleges that will not combine his scores. For example, UCLA would only Pass the Salt, Please! consider his 1350. That#8217;s the 1984 exception, though, so I would recommend examining his target colleges closely. Thank you for all of this useful information!

My son took the alt history ACT 3 times: 1) 34 C 35 W 35 M 35 R 31 S (no essay) 2) 34 C 35 W 36 M 35 R 28 S (essay 8) 3) 35 C 35 W 36 M 34 R 35 S (essay 8) Do you see any reason to 1984 essay send anything other than the An Uphill and Religion third score? I know that his reading was one point higher on the first two but not sure if that matters. Thanks so much! I really appreciate any insight. No, I don#8217;t see any reason to send scores 1 or 2 (except where a college requires all scores). 1984! In theory, score #2 provides a slightly higher R, but it would not change his overall composite of 35 even at schools that superscore. There are problems with the other scores (the 28 Science on #2 and the lack on an essay on #1) that make me think your son should keep it simple. My son is interested in UVA and the Salt, Please! Essay was wondering if he needs to take SAT subject tests to apply this school. The subject tests are optional for UVA. 1984! Also he took SAT math2 in May and received 740.

Is 740 an ok score? Thank you so much! Your son does not need to take Subject Tests. UVA used to #8220;strongly recommend#8221; the tests, but they have downgraded their policy to #8220;Subject Test optional.#8221; As with many #8220;recommended#8221; or #8220;optional#8221; colleges, Subject Tests can demonstrate a student#8217;s strengths. Yes, a 740 is the reaper's strong enough that I think it is worth sending. If your son has academic strengths in other areas #8212; chemistry or biology, for example #8212; then he might consider trying the essay exams. I am a student who recently scored a 35 composite score on the ACT without writing. I took it without writing because it was my first time and I was expecting to get a lower score that I could later improve upon.

I would like to aydin dogan submit this score to 1984 essay the colleges I am applying to, but some of the colleges require the writing portion and will therefore not accept my 35 composite without writing. I plan on image retaking the ACT with writing, but I am afraid I will score less than a 35. 1984 Essay! If I score less than a 35, should I send both my 35 without writing and my lower score with writing? Will colleges like Brown and Stanford even accept this? Thank you for your help. Sorry to hear that the lack of a Writing section poses a problem, but congratulations on your great score! Since you are applying to colleges that require Writing, you know that you will be repeating. Pass! I would focus on the positive. While colleges have not been good about 1984 essay, stating policies on the topic, most seem to be leaning toward considering all scores (the UC system is on Science and Religion a notable exception). As an #8220;all scores#8221; school, Stanford emphasizes the testing portfolio, so I#8217;d be surprised if they ignored your 35.

There is no reason *not* to send your 35 unless you do even better next time. At the very worst, a college can ignore it, but I would encourage you to put it in their hands. I#8217;m shaping myself on essay my application as a writing student. I#8217;m Editor-in-Chief of two publications at my school and have won a few prestigious writing competitions. An Uphill Battle And Religion Essay! I got a 1580 on my SAT, but a 6/5/6 on my essays. 1984 Essay! I want to alt history go to UPenn and am wondering if I should retake the SAT to bump my essay score. 1984! I don#8217;t know if my good writing extracurriculars will outweigh my poor essay score or if my poor essay score will delegitimize by good writing extracurriculars. An Uphill Battle On Science And Religion Essay! What should I do? Please do not retake the SAT. 1984 Essay! Your editorships, writing awards, and application essays will do the work, and your essay scores will not get in the way.

In fact, should you go to Penn, you#8217;ll likely find that your essay scores are the exact median of your classmates#8217; scores. The SAT Essay is books a task in search of a mission. Don#8217;t let it distract you from yours. Hello Art Sawyer, My son took ACT couple times in his 10th grade and got composite scores for essay 35 and 36. His essay scores both times was 8. He is thinking of applying for engineering major at University of Michigan, Stanford and UC Berkeley. Wondering how are the chances with low essay score and do i need to send both scores to universities. Appreciate your insights.

Stanford expects students to aydin dogan send all ACT scores unless it will be a financial burden (because ACT requires payment for 1984 essay each reporting date). Image! The UC#8217;s and Michigan will look at your son#8217;s highest scores. I would send both scores simply because it allows you to do the same things for all schools (there is no college where a 35 will hurt him). Essay! His 8 is at the lower range of enrolled students at those colleges #8212; which would see a range of 8-10 for 25th to aydin dogan 75th percentile. 1984! This means, though, that at least 25% of enrolled students have an 8 or lower. Even that distribution is mary more a reflection of the applicant pool than it is the 1984 importance of the essay. I would not worry about the score. I have taken the ACT three times but only the first sitting was with Writing. For schools I#8217;m interested in that are #8220;writing optional#8221; such as BC and Notre Dame I#8217;m assuming the admissions process will consider all my test dates regardless of whether that date had he writing section scored or not? For some schools Harvard, Princeton, Duke and mary Dartmouth, will they not consider scores from the dates I didn#8217;t take the writing section? You are correct about the writing optional schools.

Things are a little dicier when it comes to 1984 essay schools that require the essay, and the Salt, Please! admission offices have not been great about communicating policies. The elite schools you mention often take a #8220;portfolio#8221; approach. While they will often emphasize your higher scores, they like to evaluate the full record. In your case, this works in your favor, as they will likely consider your test dates without Writing. If a college requires ACT with writing and does not superscore (website says they look at the highest composite score from one sitting) does this mean they will not consider any ACT scores that were not taken writing? There is not one answer. If you want to name names, I can at least let you know if I have any firm word on that school. The most obvious example of must-be-on-the-same-test-date is the University of California system. My son took the new SAT w/Essay got a 1590 but a 15 on Essay. Took two subject tests: Math2: 730, Chemistry 710. Unweighted GPA 4.0, Took 15 AP#8217;s: APLang 5, APLit 5, AP CALC AB and essay BC 5 on alt history both, AP Chem 5, AP Bio 5, AP Physics 1= 4, plus many more (all 5#8217;s except for 1984 a 4 on about rosa Latin) but not relevant to my question.

Should he retake either of the Subject tests in the case of Harvard or Princeton and if majoring in Biomedical Engineering, or do they weigh in his AP scores as well in that regards, or what if he decides to major in law, would that change anything. I believe they use this formula for 1984 essay a thing called the Academic Index Score based on Subject Tests, SAT, GPA, and class rank, his school does not rank so his Academic Index score comes to parks 231. Is that good enough? Does Harvard and Princeton even utilize this AIS anymore since they now say they are taking a more holistic approach? On another topic I have another child who scored 1460 SAT w/essay (21), she plans to retake SAT. She is interested in Stanford and we wanted to know if she took it again without the essay if they would superscore the two SAT#8217;s and they said yes. Here was their response: #8220;Hello, We require ALL the scores from ALL the tests taken and will consider the 1984 essay highest scores from all the monster results, including the tests without the writing portion. Best, Office of essay Undergraduate Admission Stanford University#8221; The Academic Index Score causes a great deal of confusion. Alt History! AIS is not used for 1984 essay admission (with an exception important for only a slice of students). The Ivy League is, first and foremost, a sports league.

In order to maintain parity and academic standards, the universities have agreed on how to compare student athletes to the rest of the student body. The holistic factors for books about rosa parks admission aren#8217;t of much use here. How do you compare #8220;Her essay blew me away#8221; at Dartmouth to essay the same reaction at Harvard? How do you compare the perception of academic rigor or legacy status or artistic ability etc.? So the universities have a straightforward formula of the Salt, Please! Essay GPA and test scores. 1984! Because the alt history AIS is used for athletes, it can come into play in the case of recruited athletes. A useful article at The Crimson is here. Back to your son#8217;s Subject Test scores. I do think there is essay room for improvement.

While they are good scores, they would probably put him toward the lower end when compared to admitted students. AP scores can be thought of as a part of his coursework than part of his testing portfolio. Please! Essay! APs are not designed to essay be admission tests. Pass Please!! Most colleges will at least take a look at them, but his grades in those courses are likely more important than his test scores. Thank you for essay the update on Stanford. I#8217;m glad to add another college to the common sense category regarding the essay (although dropping it might be even better). Despite Stanford#8217;s all caps ALLs, the answer neglects to mary shelley’s monster mention that they mean SATs and ACTs. They specifically do not require reporting of all Subject Tests. His grades in the AP Classes that correlate to the subject tests were high A#8217;s (without the AP score incorporated), since his school incorporates the AP score into 1984 essay, the final grade on the transcript.

One thing that concerns me for a few other classes where he had a 92 before the AP was incorporated (which is image considered an A- at his school, but with the AP score incorporated it got bumped up to an A) is that I#8217;ve read that colleges don#8217;t like that and 1984 essay prefer that the class grade be separate from the AP score. Do admissions sometimes request the high school give them the Pass Please! Essay class grade without the AP incorporated? Colleges typically use unadjusted GPA when looking at transcripts. For example, some schools give an essay, A in an AP class a 5.0 rather than a 4.0. Your school#8217;s situation sounds like it may be different. If the only course grade on your son#8217;t transcript is an A and alt history your school reports this as a 4.0, then I#8217;m not sure how a college would work backwards. This falls out of my area of 1984 essay expertise, though, so I don#8217;t want to mary shelley’s make any definitive statements. Art it looks like my son will be a NMSF from Virginia and he scored 1570 on his SATs.

Unfortunately, he only got a 14 on the essay, because he did not prepare at all. He is planning to apply to the most competitive schools including schools that require the essay. He is 1984 essay planning to retake the essay, but is aydin dogan worried that his SAT scores will drop. Any recommendations for us? As you#8217;ve probably gleaned, I usually try to talk students out of repeating the SAT when the only goal is to increase the 1984 essay score. Mary Monster! It#8217;s far less important than the EBRW/Math components even at colleges that require it.

It is hard to imagine that many scenarios where it is the decision maker. The 25th-75th score range for the essay is likely to 1984 be 5-7 (in each area), so your son#8217;s score is not that out-of-whack. As you may also have gleaned, I#8217;m a believer in supporting students. If your son wants to raise his Essay score and is willing to repeat the SAT, then I#8217;d encourage him to books parks focus on the positive. He is a Semifinalist from VA and scored a 1570, so he knows his stuff. A #8220;drop#8221; is not going to be significant and is completely irrelevant for 1984 essay superscoring colleges. My only recommendation would be to alt history make sure that he continues preparing for the V/M as he tries to improve his Essay.

He can#8217;t go into the test just thinking #8220;gotta do great on the Essay,#8221; especially since the Essay comes at the end. I#8217;m sure he#8217;ll do fine. very helpful. thanks so much. Hello Art My daughter plans on applying to several ivies. On her first SAT with Essay she received 22 on 1984 her essay, but was not happy with her overall SAT score. Recently, in August, she retook the SAT without the essay. She is happy with her August SAT score of 1550. Will Yale, for example, allow her to image use the August SAT score along with the essay score from her previous SAT test? I understand she must submit all her scores when she applies and am hoping her essay score will be accepted although it was not taken with her August SAT.

Thank you! Almost all of the admission offices that we have talked to are happy to see at least one testing with an essay and essay are ok if other sittings do not include an essay. The UC system is a major exception, and UCLA now gets more applications than any school in the country. Monster! I have not spoken to Yale, but it has its #8220;send all scores#8221; policy because it prefers to take a holistic review. There is no reason to think that Yale will ignore her 1550. I appreciate your reply. Thank you!

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essay press dom Freedom of Expression on the Internet. By William Fisher. Last Updated June 14, 2001. The Internet offers extraordinary opportunities for speakers, broadly defined. Political candidates, cultural critics, corporate gadflies -- anyone who wants to express an opinion about 1984, anything -- can make their thoughts available to a world-wide audience far more easily than has ever been possible before.

A large and monster growing group of Internet participants have seized that opportunity. Some observers find the resultant outpouring of speech exhilarating. They see in it nothing less than the revival of democracy and the restoration of community. Other observers find the amount -- and, above all, the kind of speech -- that the Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening. Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over 1984 essay, the future of the Democratic Party and An Uphill on Science exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in 1984 essay Patagonia. This phenomenon has provoked various efforts to limit the kind of An Uphill Battle and Religion, speech in 1984 which one may engage on the Internet -- or to develop systems to the reaper's image, filter out the more offensive material.

This module examines some of the legal issues implicated by the increasing bitter struggle between the 1984 advocates of free speech and aydin dogan the advocates of filtration and control. Before plunging into the details of the proliferating controversies over essay, freedom of expression on the Internet, you need some background information on two topics. The first and alt history more obvious is the Free-Speech Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The relevance and authority of the First Amendment should not be exaggerated; as several observers have remarked, on the Internet, the First Amendment is just a local ordinance. However, free-expression controversies that arise in the United States inevitably implicate the essay Constitution. An Uphill On Science And Religion Essay! And the arguments deployed in the course of American First-Amendment fights often inform or infect the handling of essay, free-expression controversies in alt history other countries. The upshot: First-Amendment jurisprudence is worth studying. Unfortunately, that jurisprudence is large and 1984 arcane. The relevant constitutional provision is simple enough: Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press . Pass The Salt,! . .. But the case law that, over the course of the twentieth century, has been built upon this foundation is complex. An extremely abbreviated outline of the principal doctrines would go as follows:

If a law gives no clear notice of the kind of 1984, speech it prohibits, it?s void for vagueness. If a law burdens substantially more speech than is necessary to advance a compelling government interest, it?s unconstitutionally overbroad. A government may not force a person to endorse any symbol, slogan, or pledge. Governmental restrictions on the time, place, and manner in which speech is permitted are constitutional if and only if: they are content neutral, both on their face and as applied; they leave substantial other opportunities for speech to take place; and they narrowly serve a significant state interest. On state-owned property that does not constitute a public forum, government may restrict speech in any way that is reasonable in light of the nature and parks purpose of the property in question. Content-based governmental restrictions on speech are unconstitutional unless they advance a compelling state interest. To this principle, there are six exceptions: 1. Speech that is likely to lead to imminent lawless action may be prohibited. 2. Fighting words -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited. 3. Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person, that lacks serious artistic or social value -- may be prohibited. 4. Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value, because it induces people to engage in essay lewd displays, and the creation of it threatens the welfare of children.

5. Defamatory statements may be prohibited. (In other words, the making of image, such statements may constitutionally give rise to civil liability.) However, if the target of the defamation is a public figure, she must prove that the defendant acted with malice. If the target is not a public figure but the statement involved a matter of essay, public concern, the An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion Essay plaintiff must prove that the defendant acted with negligence concerning its falsity. 6. Commercial Speech may be banned only if it is misleading, pertains to illegal products, or directly advances a substantial state interest with a degree of suppression no greater than is reasonably necessary. If you are familiar with all of these precepts -- including the various terms of art and 1984 essay ambiguities they contain -- you're in good shape. If not, you should read some more about the First Amendment. A thorough and insightful study of the field may be found in Lawrence Tribe, American Constitutional Law (2d ed.), chapter 12. Good, less massive surveys may be found at image the websites for The National Endowment for the Arts and the Cornell University Legal Information Institute.

The second of the two kinds of background you might find helpful is a brief introduction to the current debate among academics over the character and 1984 essay desirability of what has come to be called cyberdemocracy. Until a few years ago, many observers thought that the Internet offered a potential cure to aydin dogan, the related diseases that have afflicted most representative democracies in essay the late twentieth century: voter apathy; the narrowing of the range of political debate caused in part by the inertia of a system of political parties; the growing power of the media, which in turn seems to reduce discussion of Pass Please!, complex issues to a battle of sound bites; and the increasing influence of 1984 essay, private corporations and other sources of wealth. All of these conditions might be ameliorated, it was suggested, by books rosa the ease with which ordinary citizens could obtain information and then cheaply make their views known to one another through the 1984 essay Internet. A good example of this perspective is a recent article by Bernard Bell, where he suggests that ?[t]he Internet has, in many ways, moved society closer to the ideal Justice Brennan set forth so eloquently in New York Times v. Sullivan. It has not only the reaper's image made debate on 1984 public issues more 'uninhibited, robust, and wide-open,' but has similarly invigorated discussion of non-public issues. By the same token, the Internet has empowered smaller entities and even individuals, enabling them to widely disseminate their messages and, indeed, reach audiences as broad as those of established media organizations.? Recently, however, this rosy view has come under attack. The Internet, skeptics claim, is not a giant town hall. The kinds of information flows and books about rosa discussions it seems to essay, foster are, in some ways, disturbing. One source of trouble is that the Pass the Salt, Please! Essay Internet encourages like-minded persons (often geographically dispersed) to cluster together in bulletin boards and other virtual clubs.

When this occurs, the participants tend to 1984, reinforce one another's views. The resultant group polarization can be ugly. More broadly, the Internet seems at least potentially corrosive of something we have long taken for alt history, granted in the United States: a shared political culture. Essay! When most people read the same newspaper or watch the same network television news broadcast each day, they are forced at least to glance at stories they might fight troubling and become aware of persons and groups who hold views sharply different from their own. The Internet makes it easy for people to avoid such engagement -- by enabling people to select their sources of information and their conversational partners. The resultant diminution in the power of parks, a few media outlets pleases some observers, like Peter Huber of the Manhattan Institute.

But the concomitant corrosion of community and 1984 shared culture deeply worries others, like Cass Sunstein of the University of Chicago. An excellent summary of the Pass the Salt, Please! Essay literature on essay this issue can be found in a recent New York Times article by the reaper's image Alexander Stille. If you are interested in digging further into these issues, we recommend the following books: Cass Sunstein, (Princeton Univ. 1984! Press 2001) Peter Huber, Law and Disorder in Cyberspace: Abolish the F.C.C. and Let Common Law Rule the Telecosm (Oxford Univ. About! Press 1997) Andrew Shapiro, The Control Revolution (Public Affairs 2000)

To test some of these competing accounts of the character and potential of discourse on the Internet, we suggest you visit - or, better yet, participate in essay - some of the sites at which Internet discourse occurs. Here's a sampler: 1. Restrictions on Pornography. Three times in the past five years, critics of pornography on An Uphill on Science and Religion Essay the Internet have sought, through federal legislation, to prevent children from gaining access to it. The first of these efforts was the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (commonly known as the CDA), which (a) criminalized the knowing transmission over the Internet of obscene or indecent messages to any recipient under 18 years of age and (b) prohibited the 1984 essay knowin[g] sending or displaying to aydin dogan, a person under 18 of any message that, in context, depicts or describes, in 1984 terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs. Persons and organizations who take good faith, . . Aydin Dogan! . effective . . 1984 Essay! . actions to restrict access by aydin dogan minors to the prohibited communications, or who restricted such access by requiring certain designated forms of 1984, age proof, such as a verified credit card or an adult identification number, were exempted from these prohibitions. The CDA was widely critized by civil libertarians and soon succumbed to a constitutional challenge. The Reaper's! In 1997, the United States Supreme Court struck down the statute, holding that it violated the First Amendment in several ways: because it restricted speech on the basis of its content, it could not be justified as a time, place, and manner regulation; its references to indecent and patently offensive messages were unconstitutionally vague; its supposed objectives could all be achieved through regulations less restrictive of speech; it failed to exempt from its prohibitions sexually explicit material with scientific, educational, or other redeeming social value. Two aspects of the Court's ruling are likely to have considerable impact on future constitutional decisions in this area. First, the Court rejected the Government's effort to 1984, analogize the Internet to traditional broadcast media (especially television), which the Court had previously held could be regulated more strictly than other media.

Unlike TV, the Court reasoned, the Internet has not historically been subject to the reaper's image, extensive regulation, is not characterized by a limited spectrum of available frequencies, and is not invasive. Consequently, the Internet enjoys full First-Amendment protection. Second, the Court encouraged the development of 1984, technologies that would enable parents to block their children's access to Internet sites offering kinds of material the parents deemed offensive. A year later, pressured by vocal opponents of Internet pornography -- such as Enough is Enough and mary the National Law Center for Children and Families -- Congress tried again. Essay! The 1998 Child Online Protection Act (COPA) obliged commercial Web operators to restrict access to material considered harmful to minors -- which was, in turn, defined as any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing or other matter of any kind that is obscene or that meets three requirements: (1) The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find, taking the material as a whole and Essay with respect to essay, minors, is designed to on Science, appeal to, or is designed to pander to, the prurient interest. (2) The material depicts, describes, or represents, in a manner patently offensive with respect to minors, an 1984 actual or simulated sexual act or sexual conduct, an actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act or a lewd exhibition of the genitals or post-pubescent female breast. (3) The material, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors. Title I of the statute required commercial sites to evaluate material and to enact restrictive means ensuring that harmful material does not reach minors.

Title II prohibited the collection without parental consent of personal information concerning children who use the Internet. Affirmative defenses similar to those that had been contained in the CDA were included. Once again, the courts found that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. In the judgment of the alt history Third Circuit Court of Appeals, the critical defect of COPA was its reliance upon essay, the criterion of contemporary community standards to and Religion, determine what kinds of speech are permitted on the Internet: Because material posted on the Web is accessible by all Internet users worldwide, and because current technology does not permit a Web publisher to restrict access to its site based on the geographic locale of a each particular Internet user, COPA essentially requires that every Web publisher subject to the statute abide by the most restrictive and conservative state's community standard in 1984 order to avoid criminal liability. The net result was to impose burdens on permissible expression more severe than can be tolerated by the Constitution. The court acknowledged that its ruling did not leave much room for books about rosa parks, constitutionally valid restrictions on 1984 essay Internet pornography: We are forced to recognize that, at the reaper's image present, due to technological limitations, there may be no other means by which harmful material on 1984 essay the Web may be constitutionally restricted, although, in light of rapidly developing technological advances, what may now be impossible to regulate constitutionally may, in the not-too-distant future, become feasible.

In late 2000, the anti-pornography forces tried once more. At their urging, Congress adopted the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA), which requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding (either grants or e-rate subsidies) to install Internet filtering equipment on library computers that can be used by Pass the Salt, Essay children. This time the Clinton administration opposed the law, but the essay outgoing President was obliged to rosa parks, sign it because it was attached to a major appropriations bill. Opposition to CHIPA is intensifying. Opponents claim that it suffers from essay, all the constitutional infirmities of the monster CDA and essay COPA. In addition, it will reinforce one form of the digital divide -- by subjecting poor children, who lack home computers and must rely upon public libraries for access to the Internet, to restrictions that more wealthy children can avoid. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has organized protests against the statute. In April of this year, several civil-liberties groups and public library associations filed suit in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania seeking a declaration that the statute is unconstitutional.

It remains to be seen whether this statute will fare any better than its predecessors. The CDA, COPA, and CHIPA have one thing in common: they all involve overt governmental action -- and thus are subject to mary shelley’s monster, challenge under the 1984 First Amendment. Some observers of the Internet argue that more dangerous than these obvious legislative initiatives are the efforts by private Internet Service Providers to install filters on their systems that screen out Battle on Science and Religion Essay, kinds of content that the ISPs believe their subscribers would find offensive. Because policies of this sort are neither mandated nor encouraged by essay the government, they would not, under conventional constitutional principles, constitute state action -- and thus would not be vulnerable to constitutional scrutiny. Such a result, argues Larry Lessig, would be pernicious; to avoid it, we need to revise our understanding of the An Uphill Battle state action doctrine. Charles Fried disagrees: Note first of all that the state action doctrine does not only limit the power of courts to protect persons from private power that interferes with public freedoms. 1984! It also protects individuals from the courts themselves, which are, after all, another government agency. Battle And Religion Essay! By limiting the First Amendment to protecting citizens from government (and not from each other), the state action doctrine enlarges the sphere of unregulated discretion that individuals may exercise in what they think and say. In the name of First Amendment values, courts could perhaps inquire whether I must grant access to my newspaper to opinions I abhor, must allow persons whose moral standards I deplore to 1984, join my expressive association, or must remain silent so that someone else gets a chance to reach my audience with a less appealing but unfamiliar message.

Such inquiries, however, would place courts in the business of deciding which opinions I would have to publish in my newspaper and which would so distort my message that putting those words in my mouth would violate my freedom of speech; what an organization's associational message really is and on Science and Religion whether forcing the organization to accept a dissenting member would distort that message; and which opinions, though unable to attract an audience on their own, are so worthy that they must not be drowned out by 1984 more popular messages. I am not convinced that whatever changes the Internet has wrought in our environment require the courts to mount this particular tiger. The United States may have led the way in seeking (unsuccessfully, thus far) to restrict the flow of pornography on the Internet, but the alt history governments of other countries are now joining the fray. For the status of the struggle in a few jurisdictions, you might read: Joseph C. Rodriguez, A Comparative Study of Internet Content Regulations in the United States and Singapore, 1 Asian-Pacific L. Pol'y J. 1984! 9 (February 2000). (Singapore) Mark Konkel, Internet Indecency, International Censorship, and Service Providers' Liability, 19 N.Y.L. Sch. J. INt'l Comp. L. 453 (2000). (Canada, Maylasia, and China) In a provocative recent article, Amy Adler argues that the shelley’s effort to curb child pornography online -- the kind of 1984, pornography that disgusts the most people -- is fundamentally misguided. Please! Essay! Far from essay, reducing the incidence of the sexual abuse of children, governmental efforts to curtail child pornography only aydin dogan increase it.

A summary of her argument is available here. The full article is 1984 essay available here . When does speech become a threat? Put more precisely, when does a communication over the Internet inflict -- or threaten to An Uphill on Science, inflict -- sufficient damage on its recipient that it ceases to be protected by the First Amendment and properly gives rise to criminal sanctions? Two recent cases addressed that issue from different angles. The first was popularly known as the Jake Baker case. In 1994 and 1995, Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz, also known as Jake Baker, was an undergraduate student at the University of Michigan.

During that period, he frequently contributed sadistic and sexually explicit short stories to a Usenet electronic bulletin board available to the public over the Internet. In one such story, he described in detail how he and a companion tortured, sexually abused, and essay killed a young woman, who was given the name of one of Baker's classmates. (Excerpts from the story, as reprinted in the Court of Appeals decision in the case, are available here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and aydin dogan may be troubling to some readers. It is presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the 1984 essay case.) Baker's stories came to the attention of another Internet user, who assumed the An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion name of 1984 essay, Arthur Gonda. Baker and Gonda then exchanged many email messages, sharing their sadistic fantasies and discussing the methods by which they might kidnap and torture a woman in Baker's dormitory. Mary Shelley’s Monster! When these stories and email exchanges came to light, Baker was indicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 875(c), which provides:

Whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to kidnap any person or any threat to injure the person of another, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Federal courts have traditionally construed this provision narrowly, lest it penalize expression shielded by the First Amendment. Specifically, the courts have required that a defendant's statement, in order to trigger criminal sanctions, constitute a true threat -- as distinguished from, for example, inadvertent statements, hyperbole, innocuous talk, or political commentary. Baker moved to quash the indictment on the ground that his statements on 1984 the Internet did not constitute true threats. Alt History! The District Court agreed, ruling that the class of 1984 essay, women supposedly threatened was not identified in image Baker's exchanges with Gonda with the degree of essay, specificity required by the First Amendment and that, although Baker had expressed offensive desires, it was not constitutionally permissible to infer an intention to act on a desire from a simple expression of desire. Image! The District Judge's concluding remarks concerning the 1984 essay character of the reaper's image, threatening speech on the Internet bear emphasis:

Baker's words were transmitted by means of the Internet, a relatively new communications medium that is itself currently the subject of much media attention. The Internet makes it possible with unprecedented ease to achieve world-wide distribution of material, like Baker's story, posted to its public areas. 1984 Essay! When used in such a fashion, the Internet may be likened to a newspaper with unlimited distribution and no locatable printing press - and with no supervising editorial control. But Baker's e-mail messages, on which the superseding indictment is based, were not publicly published but privately sent to Gonda. While new technology such as the aydin dogan Internet may complicate analysis and essay may sometimes require new or modified laws, it does not in this instance qualitatively change the analysis under the aydin dogan statute or under the First Amendment. 1984 Essay! Whatever Baker's faults, and he is to be faulted, he did not violate 18 U.S.C. § 875(c).

Two of the three judges on the panel that heard the appeal agreed. In their view, a violation of 875(c) requires a demonstration, first, that a reasonable person would interpret the communication in question as serious expression of an intention to inflict bodily harm and, second, that a reasonable person would perceive the about rosa parks communications as being conveyed to effect some change or achieve some goal through intimidation. Baker's speech failed, in their judgment, to rise to this level. Judge Krupansky, the third member of the panel, dissented. In a sharply worded opinion, he denounced the majority for compelling the prosecution to meet a standard higher that Congress intended or than the First Amendment required.

In his view, the essay pertinent inquiry is whether a jury could find that a reasonable recipient of the communication would objectively tend to believe that the speaker was serious about alt history, his stated intention. A reasonable jury, he argued, could conclude that Baker's speech met this standard -- especially in light of the fact that the woman named in the short story had, upon learning of it, experienced a shattering traumatic reaction that resulted in recommended psychological counselling. The second of the two decisions is popularly known as the Nuremberg files case. In 1995, the American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), an 1984 anti-abortion group that advocates the use of force in their efforts to books rosa, curtail abortions, created a poster featuring what the ACLA described as the Dirty Dozen, a group of essay, doctors who performed abortions. The posters offered a $ 5,000 [r]eward for information leading to arrest, conviction and on Science revocation of license to practice medicine of the doctors in question, and listed their home addresses and, in some instances, their phone numbers.

Versions of the poster were distributed at anti-abortion rallies and later on television. In 1996, an expanded list of abortion providers, now dubbed the Nuremberg files, was posted on the Internet with the assistance of an anti-abortion activist named Neil Horsley. The Internet version of the essay list designated doctors and aydin dogan clinic workers who had been attacked by anti-abortion terrorists in two ways: the names of people who had been murdered were crossed out; the names of people who had been wounded were printed in grey. (For a version of the Nuremberg Files web site, click here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and 1984 may be disturbing to many readers. It is presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the case). The doctors named and described on the list feared for their lives. An Uphill Battle On Science And Religion Essay! In particular, some testified that they feared that, by publicizing their addresses and descriptions, the ACLA had increased the ease with which terrorists could locate and attack them -- and that, by publicizing the names of doctors who had already been killed, the ACLA was encouraging those attacks. Some of the doctors sought recourse in the courts. They sued the ACLA, twelve individual anti-abortion activists and an affiliated organization, contending that their actions violated the federal Freedom of essay, Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994 (FACE), 18 U.S.C. §248, and mary shelley’s the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. 1984 Essay! §1962.

In an effort to shelley’s, avoid a First-Amendment challenge to the suit, the trial judge instructed the jury that defendants could be liable only if their statements were true threats. The jury, concluding that the ACLA had indeed made such true threats, awarded the plaintiffs $107 million in actual and punitive damages. 1984 Essay! The trial court then enjoined the defendants from making or distributing the posters, the image webpage or anything similar. This past March, a panel of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturned the verdict, ruling that it violated the First Amendment. 1984! Judge Kozinski began his opinion by likening the anti-abortion movement to other political movements in books about rosa parks American history, such as the Patriots in the American Revolution, abolitionism, the labor movement, the anti-war movement in the 1960s, the animal-rights movement, and the environmental movement. All, he argued, have had their violent fringes, which have lent to the language of their non-violent members a tinge of menace. However, to avoid curbing legitimate political commentary and agitation, Kozinski insisted, it was essential that courts not overread strongly worded but not explicitly threatening statements. Specifically, he held that: Defendants can only be held liable if they authorized, ratified, or directly threatened violence. If defendants threatened to commit violent acts, by working alone or with others, then their statements could properly support the verdict.

But if their statements merely encouraged unrelated terrorists, then their words are protected by the First Amendment. The trial judge's charge to the jury had not made this standard adequately clear, he ruled. More importantly, no reasonable jury, properly instructed, could have concluded that the standard had been met. Accordingly, the trial judge was instructed to dissolve the essay injunction and enter judgment for alt history, the defendants on all counts. In the course of his opinion, Kozinski offered the following reflections on the fact that the defendants' speech had occurred in 1984 public discourse -- including the alt history Internet: In considering whether context could import a violent meaning to 1984, ACLA's non-violent statements, we deem it highly significant that all the statements were made in the context of public discourse, not in direct personal communications. Although the First Amendment does not protect all forms of public speech, such as statements inciting violence or an imminent panic, the public nature of the speech bears heavily upon whether it could be interpreted as a threat. As we held in McCalden v. California Library Ass'n, public speeches advocating violence are given substantially more leeway under the First Amendment than privately communicated threats. There are two reasons for this distinction: First, what may be hyperbole in a public speech may be understood (and intended) as a threat if communicated directly to the person threatened, whether face-to-face, by telephone or by letter.

In targeting the recipient personally, the speaker leaves no doubt that he is sending the recipient a message of some sort. In contrast, typical political statements at rallies or through the media are far more diffuse in their focus because they are generally intended, at least in aydin dogan part, to shore up political support for 1984, the speaker's position. The Reaper's Image! Second, and more importantly, speech made through the normal channels of group communication, and concerning matters of public policy, is given the essay maximum level of protection by the Free Speech Clause because it lies at An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion Essay the core of the 1984 essay First Amendment. The First Amendment forbids Congress to make any law ?abridging the freedom of An Uphill Battle and Religion Essay, speech.? The copyright statute plainly interferes with certain kinds of speech: it prevents people from ?publicly performing? or ?reproducing? copyrighted material without permission. In other words, several ways in which people might be inclined to ?speak? have been declared by Congress illegal. 1984 Essay! Does this imply that the aydin dogan copyright statute as a whole ? or, less radically, some specific applications of it ? should be deemed unconstitutional?

Courts confronted with this question have almost invariable answered: no. Two justifications are commonly offered in support of the compatibility of copyright and ?freedom of speech.? First, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the 1984 Constitution explicitly authorizes Congress ?To promote the mary shelley’s monster Progress of Science and 1984 the useful Arts, by Pass the Salt, Essay securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the 1984 essay exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries,? and there is no indication that the drafters or ratifiers of the First Amendment intended to nullify this express grant of lawmaking power. Second, various doctrines within copyright law function to alt history, ensure that it does not interfere unduly with the ability of persons to express themselves. Specifically, the principle that only the particular way in which an idea is ?expressed? is copyrightable, not the idea itself, ensures that the citizenry will be able to discuss concepts, arguments, facts, etc. without restraint. Even more importantly, the fair use doctrine (discussed in the first module) provides a generous safe harbor to 1984 essay, people making reasonable uses of copyrighted material for educational, critical, or scientific purposes. These considerations, in aydin dogan combination, have led courts to turn aside virtually every constitutional challenge to the enforcement of copyrights. Very recently, some of the ways in which copyright law has been modified and then applied to activity on the Internet has prompted a growing number of scholars and litigants to suggest that the conventional methods for reconciling copyright law and the First Amendment need to be reexamined. Two developments present the issue especially sharply: (1) For reasons we explored in the second module, last summer a federal court in New York ruled that posting on a website a link to 1984, another website from which a web surfer can download a software program designed to break an about parks encryption system constitutes ?trafficking? in anti-circumvention technology in violation of the 1984 Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The defendant in the case contended (among other things) that the DMCA, if construed in this fashion, violates the First Amendment.

Judge Kaplan rejected this contention, reasoning that a combination of the Copyright Clause and an generous understanding of the Necessary and Proper clause of the Constitution provided constitutional support for the DMCA: In enacting the DMCA, Congress found that the restriction of technologies for books about rosa parks, the circumvention of technological means of 1984 essay, protecting copyrighted works facilitate[s] the robust development and on Science and Religion world-wide expansion of electronic commerce, communications, research, development, and education by mak[ing] digital networks safe places to 1984, disseminate and exploit copyrighted materials. That view can not be dismissed as unreasonable. Section 1201(a)(2) of the DMCA therefore is on Science and Religion a proper exercise of Congress' power under the Necessary and Proper Clause. This conclusion might well dispose of essay, defendants' First Amendment challenge. Given Congress' justifiable view that the DMCA is instrumental in carrying out the objective of the Essay Copyright Clause, there arguably is no First Amendment objection to 1984 essay, prohibiting the dissemination of means for An Uphill Battle on Science Essay, circumventing technological methods for controlling access to copyrighted works. But the Court need not rest on 1984 this alone. In determining the constitutionality of governmental restriction on speech, courts traditionally have balanced the public interest in Pass Please! the restriction against the public interest in the kind of speech at issue. This approach seeks to determine, in light of the goals of the First Amendment, how much protection the speech at issue merits. It then examines the underlying rationale for the challenged regulation and assesses how best to accommodate the relative weights of the interests in free speech interest and the regulation. As Justice Brandeis wrote, freedom of speech is important both as a means to achieve a democratic society and 1984 as an end in itself.

Further, it discourages social violence by permitting people to seek redress of their grievances through meaningful, non-violent expression. The Reaper's Image! These goals have been articulated often and 1984 consistently in the Salt, Please! Essay the case law. The computer code at issue in this case does little to serve these goals. Although this Court has assumed that DeCSS has at least some expressive content, the expressive aspect appears to be minimal when compared to its functional component. Computer code primarily is a set of instructions which, when read by the computer, cause it to function in a particular way, in this case, to render intelligible a data file on a DVD. It arguably is 1984 best treated as a virtual machine . Aydin Dogan! . . . On the other side of 1984, this balance lie the interests served by the DMCA. Copyright protection exists to encourage individual effort by personal gain and thereby advance public welfare through the promot[ion of] the the reaper's image Progress of Science and useful Arts. The DMCA plainly was designed with these goals in essay mind. It is a tool to protect copyright in the digital age. It responds to the risks of technological circumvention of access controlling mechanisms designed to protect copyrighted works distributed in digital form. It is designed to further precisely the goals articulated above, goals of unquestionably high social value.

This is quite clear in the specific context of this case. Plaintiffs are eight major motion picture studios which together are largely responsible for the development of the American film industry. Their products reach hundreds of millions of viewers internationally and doubtless are responsible for image, a substantial portion of the essay revenue in the international film industry each year. Books Parks! To doubt the 1984 essay contribution of plaintiffs to the progress of the arts would be absurd. DVDs are the newest way to distribute motion pictures to the home market, and Essay their popularity is growing rapidly. The security of DVD technology is central to the continued distribution of motion pictures in this format. The dissemination and use of circumvention technologies such as DeCSS would permit anyone to make flawless copies of DVDs at little expense. Without effective limits on these.

technologies, copyright protection in the contents of DVDs would become meaningless and the continued marketing of DVDs impractical. This obviously would discourage artistic progress and undermine the goals of copyright. The balance between these two interests is 1984 clear. Executable computer code of the type at issue in this case does little to Pass the Salt, Please! Essay, further traditional First Amendment interests. The DMCA, in 1984 contrast, fits squarely within the the reaper's goals of copyright, both generally and as applied to 1984, DeCSS. In consequence, the balance of interests in this case falls decidedly on the side of plaintiffs and the DMCA.

One of the axes of debate in alt history the ongoing appeal of the lower-court ruling concerns this issue. For a challenge to Judge Kaplan's discussion of the First-Amendment, see the amicus brief submitted to the Second Circuit by a group of 1984 essay, law professors. (2) Some scholars believe that the ambit of the fair use doctrine should and Battle on Science and Religion Essay will shrink on the Internet. Why? Because, in their view, the essay principal purpose of the doctrine is to enable people to use copyrighted materials in ways that are socially valuable but that are likely, in the absence of a special legal privilege, to be blocked by transaction costs. The Internet, by enabling copyright owners and persons who wish access to their works to negotiate licenses easily and cheaply, dramatically reduces those transaction costs, thus arguably reducing the need for the fair-use doctrine. Recall that one of the justifications conventionally offered to alt history, explain the compatibility of copyright law and essay the First Amendment is the safety valve afforded critical commentary and mary shelley’s educational activity by the fair use doctrine. If that doctrine does indeed shrink on the Internet, as these scholars predict, then the question of whether copyright law abridges freedom of expression must be considered anew. 1. 1984! Are you persuaded by the judicial opinions declaring unconstitutional the CDA and COPA?

Should CHIPA suffer the shelley’s monster same fate? Are there any ways in which government might regulate the Internet so as to shield children from 1984 essay, pornography? 2. Some authors have suggested that the the reaper's best way to respond to pornography on the Internet is through zoning. For example, Christopher Furlow suggests the use of ?restricted top-level domains? or ?rTLDs? which would function similarly to essay, area codes to the reaper's image, identify particular areas of the essay Internet and make it easier for parents to control what type of material their children are exposed to online. See Erogenous Zoning on The Cyber-Frontier, 5 Va. J.L.

Tech. 7, 4 (Spring 2000). Aydin Dogan! Do you find this proposal attractive? practicable? effective? 3. Elizabeth Marsh raises the following question: Suppose that the Ku Klux Klan sent unsolicited email messages to large numbers of African-Americans and Jews. Those messages expressed the KKK's loathing of blacks and Jews but did not threaten the essay recipients. Under the shelley’s monster laws of the United States or any other jurisdiction, what legal remedies, if any, would be available to the recipients of such email messages? Should the First Amendment be construed to shield hate spam of this sort?

More broadly, should hate spam be tolerated or suppressed? For Marsh's views on the matter, see Purveyors of Hate on the Internet: Are We Ready for essay, Hate Spam?, 17 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 379 (Winter 2000). 4. Were the Jake Baker and Nuremberg Files cases decided correctly? How would you draw the line between threats subject to criminal punishment and speech protected by the First Amendment? 5. Does the First Amendment set a limit on the permissible scope of copyright law? If so, how would you define that limit? 6. Lyrissa Lidsky, points out that the ways in which the Supreme Court has deployed the aydin dogan First Amendment to limit the application of the tort of defamation are founded on the assumption that most defamation suits will be brought against relatively powerful institutions (e.g., newspapers, television stations).

The Internet, by enabling relatively poor and powerless persons to broadcast to essay, the world their opinions of powerful institutions (e.g., their employers, companies by which they feel wronged) increases the likelihood that, in the future, defamation suits will be brought most often by formidable plaintiffs against weak individual defendants. If we believe that [t]he Internet is . . . a powerful tool for Please!, equalizing imbalances of power by giving voice to the disenfranchised and by allowing more democratic participation in public discourse, we should be worried by this development. Lidsky suggests that it may be necessary, in 1984 this altered climate, to reconsider the shape of the constitutional limitations on defamation. Do you agree? If so, how would you reformulate the relevant limitations? 7. Like Lessig, Paul Berman suggests that the Internet should prompt us to reconsider the the reaper's traditional state action doctrine that limits the kinds of 1984, interference with speech to which the First-Amendment applies. Berman supports this suggestion with the about parks following example: ??an online service provider recently attempted to take action against an entity that had sent junk e-mail on 1984 essay its service, a district court rejected the e-mailer's argument that such censorship of e-mail violated the First Amendment. The court relied on the state action doctrine, reasoning that the service provider was not the state and therefore was not subject to the commands of the First Amendment.? Such an outcome, he suggests, is unfortunate. To avoid it, we may need to monster, rethink this fundamental aspect of Constitutional Law. Do you agree?

See Berman, Symposium Overview: Part IV: How (If At All) to Regulate The Internet: Cyberspace and the State Action Debate: The Cultural Value of Applying Constitutional Norms to 1984, Private Regulation, 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. 1263 (Fall 2000). ACLU offers various materials relating to the Reno v. ACLU case. Electronic Frontier Foundation (Browse the Free Expression page, Censorship Free Expression archive and the reaper's the Content Filtering archive.) The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) offers links to various aspects of CDA litigation and discussion. Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) (Skim the PICS and Intellectual Freedom FAQ. Essay! Browse What Governments, Media and Individuals are Saying about PICS (pro and con).) provides a guide to cyberstalking that includes a very helpful definitions section. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for the reaper's image, Law Enforcement and Industry ? A Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President (August 1999) provides very helpful definitions and essay explanations related to cyberstalking, including 1 st Amendment implications; also provides links to additional resources.

The Anti-Defamation League web site offers a wealth of the reaper's, resources for 1984 essay, dealing with hate online, including guides for parents and filtering software. The filtering software, called Hate Filter, is mary monster designed to give parents the ability to make decisions regarding what their children are exposed to online. 1984 Essay! The ADL believes that ?Censorship is not the answer to mary, hate on the Internet. ADL supports the free speech guarantees embodied in essay the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, believing that the best way to alt history, combat hateful speech is essay with more speech.?

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Family court cases involving child custody, access and support arrangements, 2009/2010. Family law cases include matters such as separation, divorce, custody, access, child and/or spousal support arrangements, child protection and guardianship. These kinds of issues may be very complex, sensitive, and emotionally difficult for the individuals involved. This can be especially true for essay, parents and children transitioning through a separation or divorce when arrangements for the care of the children need to be decided (Department of mary, Justice, 2010). In Canada, there are many provincial and territorial programs and services aimed at encouraging individuals to 1984 essay, resolve their family law disputes instead of bringing their case to court. These types of services include mediation and conciliation, as well as parent education programs and family law information centres that provide support and guidance to alt history, those involved (Department of Justice, 2006). In 2006, nearly six in essay, ten recently separated or divorced individuals made use of at least one of these services to parks, help work through their break-up ( Beaupre and Cloutier, 2007). Some individuals turn to the civil court system to resolve their family law issues.

For instance, for about one-fifth of essay, parents with an arrangement for Essay, spending time with their children in 2006, the arrangement had been ordered as a result of a decision made during a court hearing or trial (Robinson, 2009). As family law cases proceed through the courts, many questions surrounding the process arise. Essay? For example, how many family law cases are handled through the courts? How long does it generally take the courts to process different types of family law cases? Are there differences among specific cases, such as those involving child access, custody and support arrangements, in the court activity and time needed to address the aydin dogan issues? Using data from the Civil Court Survey, this article examines family law cases within the 1984 essay civil court system in order to books parks, more closely examine the key questions mentioned above. Essay? It is important to note that collection of the Civil Court Survey data is in Pass Essay, its early stages of development and is limited to information available from the 1984 court operational systems used in seven reporting provinces and territories (Nova Scotia, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut) representing 66% of Canada's population. 1 Information related to the types of aydin dogan, issues involved in family cases, such as child access, custody and support, may not be fully captured by these systems and, as such, data presented in this article may represent an 1984 undercount of these matters. In addition, differences in aydin dogan, how cases are processed in 1984 essay, the provinces and territories may impact results. Structure of the family court system. In Canada, responsibility for the civil court system is divided between the federal and provincial/territorial governments.

2 As such, family law cases may be handled by different levels of court. Image? Cases related to federal statutes, such as divorce cases, as well as property matters, are heard under superior level, also referred to as Section 96 courts, while most other family law matters, such as child custody, access and support are usually dealt with by 1984 essay provincial or territorial courts. Some provinces have unified family courts which permit all aspects of family law to Pass the Salt, Please!, be dealt with in a single court. 3 The unified family courts are presided over by superior court judges, who hear matters of both federal and provincial/territorial jurisdiction. This approach permits all aspects of family matters to be dealt with in essay, an integrated manner and eliminates the necessity of going before different courts to settle related matters (Department of Justice, 2005). Small increase in family law cases in 2009/2010. In 2009/2010, family law cases accounted for Pass the Salt, Please!, just over one-third (35%) of all civil court cases in the seven reporting provinces and territories, ranging from 34% in Ontario to 76% in Nunavut (Table 1). 1984 Essay? The remaining civil court caseload involved civil actions, such as bankruptcy, probate matters and other claims involving money. The active family court caseload, composed of on Science and Religion Essay, both new cases initiated during the year and cases ongoing from a previous year, grew slightly (+1%) in 2009/2010 to almost 330,000 cases (Table 1). Essay? Increases were seen in all but two of the reporting jurisdictions, namely British Columbia and the Northwest Territories. The increase in active cases in 2009/2010 was the result of new cases initiated throughout the year.

Nearly 180,000 new family law cases were initiated in 2009/2010, an increase of 2% from the year before (Table 1). The number of new cases was higher than the year before in image, all reporting provinces and territories with the exception of the 1984 Northwest Territories. New cases represented over one-half (54%) of all active family cases, although the proportion varied among the provinces and An Uphill on Science territories, ranging from 1984, 37% in British Columbia to 79% in Nunavut. Divorce and other family breakdown most common types of family law cases. Together, divorce and other family breakdown cases compose the majority of family law cases.

In the seven reporting provinces and territories in 2009/2010, divorce cases accounted for just over the reaper's one-third (35%) of all family court cases 4 (Table 2, Chart 1). These types of cases are dealt with under the federal Divorce Act legislation and may involve corollary issues such as custody, access and child and spousal support arrangements, as well as decisions involving the division of marital property. 5. Another 35% of 1984, family court cases in image, 2009/2010 involved other family breakdown cases dealt with under provincial or territorial legislation. 1984 Essay? These cases addressed issues of custody, access, support or division of property outside of a divorce proceeding such as cases of separation or those deciding arrangements for a child born outside a union. 6. Family court cases, by type of Essay, case, 2009/2010. 1. Refers to family court cases that had activity or were initiated during the year.

2. Refers to 1984 essay, cases that addressed issues of books about rosa parks, custody, access, support or division of property outside of a divorce proceeding such as cases of essay, separation or those deciding arrangements for a child born outside a union. An Uphill And Religion? Additionally, the category includes cases that may also have involved other issues, such as child protection, civil protection or guardianship. 3. Includes, for example, cases involving adoption, child protection, civil protection, enforcement, family estate matters and those categorized as other family. 1984 Essay? Cases involving only aydin dogan, other family matters represent 49% of this category. Note: Excludes data from Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba and Saskatchewan due to 1984, the unavailability of data.

Information related to separation, custody, access, support (child and/or spousal and/or other) and/or division of aydin dogan, property may be under reported due to 1984 essay, data limitations. Some cases under the the reaper's Other or Unknown categories may have involved these issues, but they have not been identified in the survey data. Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for 1984 essay, Justice Statistics, Civil Court Survey. The remaining 30% of family court cases involved adoption, child protection, civil protection, enforcement of an existing order, guardianship and other family matters that that did not involve family breakdown (Table 2). 7. Half of Battle and Religion, all divorce and other family breakdown cases still active more than one year later. The following sections focus on cases involving family breakdown, more specifically, cases involving divorce as well as those outside of a divorce proceeding involving custody, access, child and spousal support arrangements and property decisions. In 2009/2010, about half (51%) of all active divorce and 1984 essay family breakdown cases in the reporting provinces and the reaper's image territories had been initiated more than one year earlier. 8 The other half (49%) were new cases initiated that year (Chart 2).

Divorce and other family breakdown court cases, by time since initiation, 2009/2010. 1. 1984 Essay? Refers to court cases that had activity or were initiated during the year. Please!? Percentages exclude cases where time since initiation is 1984 unknown. Note : Excludes data from An Uphill Battle on Science, Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba and Saskatchewan due to the unavailability of data. 1984? Other family breakdown refers to cases that addressed issues of custody, access, support or division of property outside of a divorce proceeding such as cases of separation or those deciding arrangements for mary, a child born outside a union.

Source : Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Civil Court Survey. The length of time since initiation for divorce and family breakdown cases varies among the reporting provinces and territories (Table 3). Essay? 9 For example, the on Science proportion of essay, cases initiated more than four years earlier ranged from 2% of cases in the Northwest Territories to over 20% in Yukon, British Columbia and An Uphill Essay Nova Scotia. Information available from the reporting provinces and territories indicates that the length of time since initiation also varies according to the particular issues involved in the family court case (Table 4). 10 Those cases identifying issues involving children, such as access, custody and child support, appear to remain longer in 1984 essay, the civil court system. More specifically, 75% of divorce cases with issues related to children had been active for more than one year, compared to 46% for divorce cases with no issues involving children. Divorce cases involving both child access and child and/or spousal support were shown to have the highest proportion of cases remaining in the civil court system for more than four years (32%) (Table 4). Support is most common issue for lengthy divorce and other family breakdown cases.

The most common issue for the reaper's image, divorce and essay other family breakdown cases involving children that have been proceeding through court for longer periods is support. Of those cases remaining in the court system for more than four years, 84% had addressed support arrangements at some point during the life of the case. This may partly reflect cases being brought back to court over time to vary original support agreements due to a change in the circumstances of the parties involved. Aydin Dogan? 11. Cases dealing only with custody involve shorter periods of time in 1984 essay, civil court system. In order to better understand how civil courts handle family law issues concerning children, the monster remaining sections examine cases addressing a single issue only, in other words, one of the 1984 following: custody, access or child support.

12 More specifically, the alt history average case length as well as the volume and 1984 timing of court activity are analysed. Examining single issue cases by length of case, shows that cases involving only custody involve shorter periods of time in An Uphill Essay, the court system compared to access or child support cases. In 2009/2010, cases involving only custody had been active in court for an average of about 8 months. In comparison, access cases had been active for closer to a year and 1984 a half, while child support cases had been ongoing for an average of just over two years. Child access cases involve higher number of on Science and Religion Essay, court events than child support or custody cases. A variety of activities or events take place as family law cases proceed through court.

Some events, such as pre-trial hearings or conferences, move cases forward through the civil court process while others, namely adjournments, prolong the court process by essay postponing hearings to a later date. There are also events that involve dispositions or decisions that resolve or dispose of An Uphill Battle on Science Essay, some or all of a case. Many of these events are considered to be judgments, which include all decisions made by the court, including interim orders, orders and summary judgments. Measuring the number of events that occur throughout the life of a given case is essay one way of measuring its complexity. These data show that child access cases tend to the reaper's, involve a more complex court process, or a higher number of events, compared to those involving only child support or custody (Table 5).

In other words, access cases involve, on average, more pre-trial hearings, adjournments and judgments over the life of the case, compared to child support or custody cases. Another factor related to the complexity of a case and the time needed to resolve issues is essay whether or not issues in the case are being contested or disputed between the parties involved. In 2009/2010, one-third (33%) of access cases were contested, the highest proportion among single issue cases (Text table 1). In comparison, about 23% of shelley’s monster, cases involving custody and 17% of child support cases were contested. Contested divorce and other family breakdown cases involving a single issue, 2009/2010. 2. Refers to those cases where a Statement of Defence (the defendant's response to 1984, a claim or application) has been filed. Note : Excludes data from Newfoundland and mary shelley’s monster Labrador, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba and Saskatchewan due to the unavailability of 1984, data. The Reaper's Image? Other family breakdown refers to cases that addressed issues of 1984 essay, custody, access, support or division of property outside of a divorce proceeding such as cases of separation or those deciding arrangements for a child born outside a union.

Source : Statistics Canada, Civil Court Survey. Child support and access cases take longer to reach trial than custody cases. Although most single issue cases had involved pre-trial hearings, adjournments and judgments throughout the case, the vast majority had never involved a trial (Table 5). In 2009/2010, less than 10% of each of these types of cases had involved a trial event during the case. Of those cases that did reach the aydin dogan trial stage, the 1984 length of image, time taken differed by type of case (Text table 2). Most cases (82%) involving custody reached trial within one year, whereas about half of all access cases (53%) and child support cases (57%) reached trial within one year. 13 Divorce and other family breakdown cases involving a single issue with trial event, by elapsed time from 1984 essay, case initiation to trial, 2009/2010. Note : Excludes data from Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba and Saskatchewan due to the unavailability of data. Aydin Dogan? Calculated for those cases with trial and 1984 where the complete case history has been collected by the Civil Court Survey.

Other family breakdown refers to cases that addressed issues of custody, access, support or division of property outside of a divorce proceeding such as cases of separation or those deciding arrangements for aydin dogan, a child born outside a union. Source : Statistics Canada, Civil Court Survey. First decision in cases involving access, custody and child support usually reached within three months. Dispositions, or decisions that resolve some or all of a case, include judgments and other decisions made to settle, withdraw or dismiss a case. In the essay majority of single issue cases involving access, custody or child support, the first disposition (in most cases a judgment) was reached within three months (Table 6).

The proportion was lower in child support cases (66%) compared to custody (85%) and access (84%) cases. In 2009/2010, the volume of disposition events varied among cases involving the three issues (Table 7). Cases involving access were found to have a higher average number of disposition events per case (3.2) during 2009/2010 than child support (2.5) or custody cases (2.0). This article examined family law cases within the civil court system in alt history, seven provinces and territories: Nova Scotia, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. In 2009/2010, more than two-thirds of family law cases in these jurisdictions involved divorce or other family breakdown cases relating to issues of separation, custody, access, support or division of property. Support was the most common issue handled by the courts for cases remaining in the court system for essay, more than four years. Cases involving only access were found to involve a higher average number of pre-trial hearings, adjournments and judgments made throughout the life of the case compared to cases involving only custody or child support.

Although most family law cases do not involve trials, it was found to take longer for a trial to be reached in cases involving access and child support than custody cases. The objective of the Civil Court Survey (CCS) is to mary monster, develop and maintain a national database of information on civil court events and cases. 1984? The survey is intended to be a census of all civil court activity in alt history, Canada. It collects microdata on court events at both the superior and provincial and territorial court levels. Appeal courts, federal courts (e.g. , Tax Court of Canada) and the Supreme Court of Canada are out of scope for 1984 essay, this survey. In 2009/2010, seven provinces and books territories (Nova Scotia, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut) reported to the Civil Court Survey. The collection of data is from administrative records stored in the civil court automated information systems. Given that the data are derived from essay, records originally kept for non-statistical purposes, complete survey information is not always available. Of note for mary shelley’s monster, this article is the fact that information related to corollary issues, such as custody, access and child support may be under-reported.

The degree of under-reporting is unknown and findings are limited to family cases where the information is available. Given that the data collection methodology requires the existence of 1984 essay, detailed operational information systems that have not yet been developed in all jurisdictions, it will take time for the survey to achieve full coverage. The reference period is the 12-month fiscal period between April 1 st and March 31 st . Data are collected quarterly in alt history, the month following the essay end of the quarter (July, October, January and April). Beaupre , Pascale and Pass the Salt, Essay Elisabeth Cloutier. 2007. 1984? Navigating Family Transitions: Evidence from the General Social Survey. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. Alt History? 89-625-XWE.

Ottawa, Ontario. (accessed November23, 2010). Department of Justice Canada. 2005. Canada's Court System. Catalogue no. J2-128/2005. (accessed November23, 2010).