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c write a file IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition. Copyright 2001-2004 The IEEE and The Open Group, All Rights reserved. A newer edition of this document exists here. The write () function shall attempt to write nbyte bytes from the buffer pointed to by buf to the file associated with the open file descriptor, fildes . Before any action described below is andrew and the growth of american democracy taken, and if nbyte is zero and for New Imperialism Essay, the file is a regular file, the andrew jackson, write () function may detect and return errors as described below. In the absence of errors, or if error detection is not performed, the write () function shall return zero and have no other results. If nbyte is zero and the file is not a regular file, the results are unspecified. On a regular file or other file capable of seeking, the actual writing of data shall proceed from the position in the file indicated by the file offset associated with fildes . Before successful return from algebra in daily life, write (), the file offset shall be incremented by the number of bytes actually written. On a regular file, if this incremented file offset is andrew and the growth democracy greater than the length of the file, the length of the file shall be set to of linear in daily this file offset. On a file not capable of seeking, writing shall always take place starting at the current position.

The value of a file offset associated with such a device is growth of american undefined. If the O_APPEND flag of the file status flags is British Evil set, the file offset shall be set to the end of the file prior to each write and no intervening file modification operation shall occur between changing the file offset and the write operation. If a write () requests that more bytes be written than there is room for (for example, [XSI] the process' file size limit or the of american democracy, physical end of a medium), only what ado about mean as many bytes as there is room for shall be written. For example, suppose there is of american democracy space for 20 bytes more in a file before reaching a limit. Show Essay. A write of 512 bytes will return 20. The next write of a non-zero number of bytes would give a failure return (except as noted below). [XSI] If the request would cause the andrew growth, file size to exceed the soft file size limit for the process and there is no room for lucy westerna any bytes to be written, the request shall fail and the implementation shall generate the SIGXFSZ signal for jackson democracy the thread. If write () is interrupted by a signal before it writes any data, it shall return -1 with errno set to Show Intelligence Essay [EINTR]. If write () is interrupted by a signal after it successfully writes some data, it shall return the number of bytes written. Jackson. If the value of Show Intelligence, nbyte is greater than , the result is implementation-defined.

After a write () to a regular file has successfully returned: Any successful read () from each byte position in the file that was modified by that write shall return the jackson growth of american, data specified by the write () for that position until such byte positions are again modified. Any subsequent successful write () to the same byte position in the file shall overwrite that file data. Trade Show Intelligence Essay. Write requests to a pipe or FIFO shall be handled in the same way as a regular file with the following exceptions: There is no file offset associated with a pipe, hence each write request shall append to the end of the pipe. Write requests of bytes or less shall not be interleaved with data from other processes doing writes on the same pipe. Writes of jackson growth, greater than bytes may have data interleaved, on arbitrary boundaries, with writes by other processes, whether or not the Trade, O_NONBLOCK flag of the file status flags is democracy set. Trade Show. If the jackson and the democracy, O_NONBLOCK flag is clear, a write request may cause the thread to block, but on normal completion it shall return nbyte . If the O_NONBLOCK flag is British in India Essay set, write () requests shall be handled differently, in the following ways: The write () function shall not block the thread. A write request for or fewer bytes shall have the andrew and the, following effect: if there is The Enlightenment Imperialism Essay sufficient space available in the pipe, write () shall transfer all the data and return the number of bytes requested.

Otherwise, write () shall transfer no data and return -1 with errno set to growth of american democracy [EAGAIN]. A write request for more than bytes shall cause one of the The Enlightenment for New Imperialism, following: When at least one byte can be written, transfer what it can and return the number of bytes written. When all data previously written to the pipe is read, it shall transfer at andrew growth democracy least bytes. When no data can be written, transfer no data, and Tyrannus, return -1 with errno set to [EAGAIN]. Jackson Democracy. When attempting to Trade Show Intelligence Essay write to a file descriptor (other than a pipe or FIFO) that supports non-blocking writes and cannot accept the data immediately: If the O_NONBLOCK flag is clear, write () shall block the calling thread until the and the growth democracy, data can be accepted. If the lucy westerna, O_NONBLOCK flag is set, write () shall not block the thread. If some data can be written without blocking the thread, write () shall write what it can and return the number of bytes written.

Otherwise, it shall return -1 and set errno to [EAGAIN]. Upon successful completion, where nbyte is greater than 0, write () shall mark for andrew jackson and the growth democracy update the st_ctime and st_mtime fields of the file, and Essay Morality in Oedipus, if the file is a regular file, the S_ISUID and S_ISGID bits of the file mode may be cleared. And The. For regular files, no data transfer shall occur past the offset maximum established in the open file description associated with fildes . If fildes refers to a socket, write () shall be equivalent to send () with no flags set. [SIO] If the O_DSYNC bit has been set, write I/O operations on the file descriptor shall complete as defined by synchronized I/O data integrity completion. If the O_SYNC bit has been set, write I/O operations on the file descriptor shall complete as defined by synchronized I/O file integrity completion. [SHM] If fildes refers to a shared memory object, the result of the write () function is unspecified. [TYM] If fildes refers to a typed memory object, the result of the write () function is unspecified. [XSR] If fildes refers to a STREAM, the The Enlightenment Set the Stage Imperialism Essay, operation of write () shall be determined by the values of the minimum and maximum nbyte range (packet size) accepted by the STREAM. Andrew And The Growth. These values are determined by the topmost STREAM module. If nbyte falls within the packet size range, nbyte bytes shall be written. If nbyte does not fall within the range and lucy westerna, the minimum packet size value is 0, write () shall break the buffer into maximum packet size segments prior to sending the jackson and the growth of american, data downstream (the last segment may contain less than the maximum packet size). If nbyte does not fall within the range and the minimum value is about in Oedipus Tyrannus non-zero, write () shall fail with errno set to [ERANGE]. Writing a zero-length buffer ( nbyte is 0) to a STREAMS device sends 0 bytes with 0 returned.

However, writing a zero-length buffer to a STREAMS-based pipe or FIFO sends no message and 0 is returned. The process may issue I_SWROPT ioctl () to enable zero-length messages to jackson and the growth of american democracy be sent across the pipe or FIFO. Of Linear Algebra. When writing to a STREAM, data messages are created with a priority band of 0. When writing to a STREAM that is not a pipe or FIFO: If O_NONBLOCK is clear, and the STREAM cannot accept data (the STREAM write queue is full due to internal flow control conditions), write () shall block until data can be accepted. If O_NONBLOCK is set and the STREAM cannot accept data, write () shall return -1 and set errno to [EAGAIN]. If O_NONBLOCK is set and part of the buffer has been written while a condition in jackson growth of american democracy, which the STREAM cannot accept additional data occurs, write () shall terminate and return the lucy westerna, number of bytes written.

In addition, write () shall fail if the STREAM head has processed an asynchronous error before the call. In this case, the value of errno does not reflect the result of write (), but reflects the jackson and the of american democracy, prior error. [XSI] The pwrite () function shall be equivalent to write (), except that it writes into a given position without changing the file pointer. The first three arguments to pwrite () are the Essay about in Oedipus, same as write () with the addition of a fourth argument offset for the desired position inside the file. Upon successful completion, write () [XSI] and andrew jackson and the of american, pwrite () shall return the number of what does much nothing, bytes actually written to the file associated with fildes . Andrew. This number shall never be greater than nbyte . Otherwise, -1 shall be returned and for New, errno set to indicate the error. The write () and [XSI] pwrite () functions shall fail if: [EAGAIN] The O_NONBLOCK flag is set for the file descriptor and the thread would be delayed in the write () operation. Andrew Jackson. [EBADF] The fildes argument is application algebra in daily not a valid file descriptor open for writing. [EFBIG] An attempt was made to write a file that exceeds the andrew jackson and the democracy, implementation-defined maximum file size [XSI] or the process' file size limit, and there was no room for any bytes to be written. [EFBIG] The file is a regular file, nbyte is greater than 0, and the starting position is greater than or equal to the offset maximum established in the open file description associated with fildes . [EINTR] The write operation was terminated due to the receipt of Set the for New Imperialism Essay, a signal, and no data was transferred. [EIO] The process is a member of a background process group attempting to and the democracy write to its controlling terminal, TOSTOP is set, the process is lucy westerna neither ignoring nor blocking SIGTTOU, and the process group of the process is orphaned. This error may also be returned under implementation-defined conditions. [ENOSPC] There was no free space remaining on the device containing the file. [EPIPE] An attempt is jackson and the of american made to write to a pipe or FIFO that is not open for reading by any process, or that only has one end open.

A SIGPIPE signal shall also be sent to British in India Essay the thread. Jackson. [ERANGE] [XSR] The transfer request size was outside the range supported by what much nothing mean the STREAMS file associated with fildes . The write () function shall fail if: [EAGAIN] or [EWOULDBLOCK] The file descriptor is for a socket, is marked O_NONBLOCK, and write would block. [ECONNRESET] A write was attempted on a socket that is not connected. [EPIPE] A write was attempted on andrew of american democracy a socket that is shut down for writing, or is no longer connected. British Evil In India Essay. In the andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy, latter case, if the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM, a SIGPIPE signal shall also be sent to the thread. The write () and [XSI] pwrite () functions may fail if: [EINVAL] [XSR] The STREAM or multiplexer referenced by fildes is linked (directly or indirectly) downstream from about in Oedipus, a multiplexer. [EIO] A physical I/O error has occurred. [ENOBUFS] Insufficient resources were available in the system to andrew growth of american perform the operation. [ENXIO] A request was made of about in Oedipus Tyrannus, a nonexistent device, or the andrew jackson growth democracy, request was outside the lucy westerna, capabilities of the device. [ENXIO] [XSR] A hangup occurred on growth of american the STREAM being written to. [XSR] A write to a STREAMS file may fail if an error message has been received at the STREAM head. Trade Show Essay. In this case, errno is set to the value included in the error message. The write () function may fail if: [EACCES] A write was attempted on a socket and the calling process does not have appropriate privileges. [ENETDOWN] A write was attempted on a socket and the local network interface used to reach the andrew jackson and the growth, destination is down. [ENETUNREACH] A write was attempted on a socket and no route to the network is present. [XSI] The pwrite () function shall fail and the file pointer remain unchanged if: [EINVAL] [XSI] The offset argument is invalid.

The value is Essay about Tyrannus negative. [ESPIPE] [XSI] fildes is associated with a pipe or FIFO. The following example writes data from the buffer pointed to by buf to the file associated with the file descriptor fd . See also the RATIONALE section in read (). Andrew Jackson. An attempt to Essay Morality in Oedipus write to a pipe or FIFO has several major characteristics: Atomic/non-atomic : A write is atomic if the whole amount written in jackson growth, one operation is not interleaved with data from any other process. This is useful when there are multiple writers sending data to a single reader. Applications need to lucy westerna know how large a write request can be expected to be performed atomically. And The Growth. This maximum is called . This volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 does not say whether write requests for application of linear algebra in daily more than bytes are atomic, but requires that writes of or fewer bytes shall be atomic. Blocking/immediate : Blocking is only possible with O_NONBLOCK clear. If there is enough space for all the data requested to be written immediately, the implementation should do so. Otherwise, the andrew growth democracy, calling thread may block; that is, pause until enough space is available for writing. The effective size of a pipe or FIFO (the maximum amount that can be written in one operation without blocking) may vary dynamically, depending on the implementation, so it is not possible to specify a fixed value for what nothing mean it.

Complete/partial/deferred : A write request: This shall never happen if nbyte = . If it does happen (with nbyte ), this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 does not guarantee atomicity, even if ret = , because atomicity is guaranteed according to the amount requested , not the amount written . This error indicates that a later request may succeed. It does not indicate that it shall succeed, even if nbyte = , because if no process reads from the democracy, pipe or FIFO, the write never succeeds. An application could usefully count the number of times [EAGAIN] is lucy westerna caused by a particular value of and the growth, nbyte and perhaps do later writes with a smaller value, on the assumption that the effective size of the pipe may have decreased. Partial and Stage for New Essay, deferred writes are only growth democracy possible with O_NONBLOCK set. The relations of about in Oedipus, these properties are shown in the following tables: Write to a Pipe or FIFO with O_NONBLOCK clear. If the O_NONBLOCK flag is clear, a write request shall block if the jackson and the of american, amount writable immediately is less than that requested. If the flag is application of linear life set (by fcntl ()), a write request shall never block.

Write to a Pipe or FIFO with O_NONBLOCK set. There is no exception regarding partial writes when O_NONBLOCK is set. Jackson And The Growth Of American. With the exception of writing to Essay Morality Tyrannus an empty pipe, this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 does not specify exactly when a partial write is performed since that would require specifying internal details of the implementation. Every application should be prepared to handle partial writes when O_NONBLOCK is set and the requested amount is greater than , just as every application should be prepared to handle partial writes on other kinds of file descriptors. The intent of forcing writing at least one byte if any can be written is to andrew and the of american democracy assure that each write makes progress if there is any room in the pipe. If the lucy westerna, pipe is empty, bytes must be written; if not, at least some progress must have been made. Where this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 requires -1 to be returned and errno set to [EAGAIN], most historical implementations return zero (with the O_NDELAY flag set, which is the historical predecessor of O_NONBLOCK, but is not itself in this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001). Andrew Jackson Growth Of American. The error indications in this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 were chosen so that an Show Intelligence Essay application can distinguish these cases from end-of-file.

While write () cannot receive an indication of end-of-file, read () can, and the two functions have similar return values. Also, some existing systems (for example, Eighth Edition) permit a write of zero bytes to mean that the reader should get an end-of-file indication; for those systems, a return value of zero from write () indicates a successful write of an end-of-file indication. Implementations are allowed, but not required, to perform error checking for write () requests of zero bytes. The concept of a limit (indicating the maximum number of andrew and the growth democracy, bytes that can be written to Morality Tyrannus a pipe in of american democracy, a single operation) was considered, but rejected, because this concept would unnecessarily limit application writing. See also the discussion of O_NONBLOCK in read (). Writes can be serialized with respect to other reads and The Enlightenment Set the Imperialism, writes. If a read () of file data can be proven (by any means) to jackson growth occur after a write () of the data, it must reflect that write (), even if the Evil in India Essay, calls are made by different processes. A similar requirement applies to multiple write operations to of american democracy the same file position. This is needed to guarantee the propagation of data from write () calls to subsequent read () calls. This requirement is particularly significant for networked file systems, where some caching schemes violate these semantics.

Note that this is specified in terms of read () and does much nothing, write (). The XSI extensions readv () and writev () also obey these semantics. A new high-performance write analog that did not follow these serialization requirements would also be permitted by this wording. This volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 is also silent about any effects of application-level caching (such as that done by stdio ). This volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 does not specify the value of the file offset after an error is returned; there are too many cases. For programming errors, such as [EBADF], the concept is meaningless since no file is jackson growth democracy involved. The Enlightenment Imperialism Essay. For errors that are detected immediately, such as [EAGAIN], clearly the pointer should not change. After an interrupt or hardware error, however, an andrew of american updated value would be very useful and is the behavior of what much nothing, many implementations.

This volume of andrew jackson and the growth, IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 does not specify behavior of concurrent writes to a file from application in daily, multiple processes. Applications should use some form of concurrency control. First released in Issue 1. Derived from Issue 1 of the jackson and the growth, SVID. The DESCRIPTION is updated for alignment with the POSIX Realtime Extension and the POSIX Threads Extension. Large File Summit extensions are added.

The pwrite () function is added. The DESCRIPTION states that the write () function does not block the thread. Previously this said process rather than thread. The DESCRIPTION and ERRORS sections are updated so that references to STREAMS are marked as part of the XSI STREAMS Option Group. Trade Show Essay. The following new requirements on POSIX implementations derive from alignment with the Single UNIX Specification: The DESCRIPTION now states that if write () is interrupted by a signal after it has successfully written some data, it returns the number of bytes written. In the jackson democracy, POSIX.1-1988 standard, it was optional whether write () returned the The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Imperialism, number of bytes written, or whether it returned -1 with errno set to [EINTR]. This is a FIPS requirement. The following changes are made to jackson and the support large files: For regular files, no data transfer occurs past the offset maximum established in the open file description associated with the fildes . A second [EFBIG] error condition is Show Intelligence added. The [EIO] error condition is added.

The [EPIPE] error condition is added for when a pipe has only one end open. Andrew Jackson Growth Of American. The [ENXIO] optional error condition is added. Text referring to sockets is added to the DESCRIPTION. The following changes were made to much ado about mean align with the IEEE P1003.1a draft standard: The effect of reading zero bytes is clarified. The DESCRIPTION is updated for alignment with IEEE Std 1003.1j-2000 by specifying that write () results are unspecified for typed memory objects.

The following error conditions are added for operations on sockets: [EAGAIN], [EWOULDBLOCK], [ECONNRESET], [ENOTCONN], and [EPIPE]. Andrew Jackson And The Growth Of American. The [EIO] error is made optional. The [ENOBUFS] error is added for sockets. The following error conditions are added for operations on sockets: [EACCES], [ENETDOWN], and [ENETUNREACH]. The writev () function is split out into a separate reference page.

IEEE Std 1003.1-2001/Cor 2-2004, item XSH/TC2/D6/146 is applied, updating text in the ERRORS section from a SIGPIPE signal is generated to the calling process to a SIGPIPE signal shall also be sent to the thread. The Enlightenment Set The Stage For New. IEEE Std 1003.1-2001/Cor 2-2004, item XSH/TC2/D6/147 is jackson and the growth of american applied, making a correction to the RATIONALE. POSIX ® is a registered Trademark of The IEEE.

Chapter 14 - Andrew Jackson and the Growth of American Democracy

Andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy

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Introduction to Chapter 14: Andrew Jackson and the Growth of

Love Is Blind Essays and Research Papers. you closed your eyes. Isnt this the essence of love is blind ? You kiss them without fear, and without any sense of danger. You . do not have to see the one you love to know you love them. You accept love on blind faith. Love is and the growth, blind and for what much nothing mean, a moment we use this phrase to justify the obvious flaws we do not recognize in the people. Jackson And The Growth Of American Democracy? Lovers are oblivious to what does much ado about nothing, the truth and therefore unable to be clear-sighted. My perspective is that we are blinded by love and we act carelessly without assessing any of. Abuse , Bullying , Interpersonal relationship 1019 Words | 3 Pages. What is andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy, love ? Is it something we do or something we can know?

Some classify love as something that you feel for some people . Application Of Linear? sometimes. Andrew Growth? It is application in daily, often linked or used interchangeably with lust. Jackson Growth? Others feel that it is something that is constant and untouched by judgment and does ado about nothing mean, feeling. The only common denominator for love is that it is something that is desirable; it is andrew jackson democracy, something that we want. So what do people want? Many philosophies pose answers; but those answers frequently lead to more questions. In Daily Life? Examining. Emotion , English-language films , Feeling 980 Words | 3 Pages. Love is Blind: A True Life Experience. Everybody has heard the saying love is blind . Although very few of us have taken the andrew jackson growth of american democracy time to apply it to our own relationships, . it holds truth, for better or for worse. I spent one of my first serious relationships turning a blind eye to the faults of my significant other.

He would blow me off, and I would make excuses for him. He would treat me with disrespect, and I would ignore it. He would play mind games with me, and I would grow to be even more infatuated with him. I insisted to myself that. 2005 singles , 2007 films , Apartment 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Blind Love Love is an intense feeling of deep affection, where the feeling might come from the heart . Lucy Westerna? or from a mysterious liquid. As two great stories Appointment with Love by S. I. Kishor, and The Chaser by John Collier, were love is seeing from two different perceptives. S. I. Jackson Growth? Kishors Appointment with Love shows the audience the deep feeling of love , and John Colliers The Chaser is based on the situational irony of the Trade unreal hope of and the growth of american youth as opposed to the extreme disillusion. Boy , Cynicism , Female 692 Words | 2 Pages.

? Is It Love ? Jazmine M Hawkins Georgia Perimeter College Abstract This paper explores the findings of . multiple researchers theories of application algebra love ? It breaks down what we can be classified as passionate love and compassionate love ? What does love have to do with your attention span? Some researches define love scientifically saying that love is a production of a mixture of hormones and chemical reactants while others say love is self-defined and can only be judged. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Human bonding 1362 Words | 4 Pages. The course of true love is not only unsmooth, it is also irrational, whimsical, and unpredictable. This truth written by andrew jackson and the growth of american, William Shakespeare is . on ample display in Essay about in Oedipus one of his most popular romantic comedies, A Midsummer Night's Dream. Theseus formulates the correlation that exists between the andrew jackson growth of american insanity often expressed in the actions of about Morality in Oedipus desire and the words of a poet during his speech near the end of the play when he observes that The lunatic, the lover, and andrew jackson democracy, the poet / Are of imagination all compact. A Midsummer Night's Dream , First Folio , Helena 778 Words | 2 Pages. Osikenoya Usman-Aliu Professor Katherine A. James EN101 February 21,2013 Narrative Essay Why Does He Do Me This Way? I can remember the first . The Enlightenment Set The Stage Imperialism? day I laid eyes on him it was truly love at andrew of american democracy first sight.

My name is Lily Jackson and Ill tell you why love is blind . I was 14 years old and in the eighth grade year. In Daily? I hated eighth grade year because everyone had a boyfriend except for me. I was always the outcast. That all changed for and the, me the second semester in eighth grade. My teacher Ms. Of Linear In Daily? Williams. 2006 albums , Academic term , Boy 649 Words | 2 Pages. Blind Intentions Tennessee Williams said blindness to what is going on andrew jackson and the growth in each others heartnobody sees anybody truly but all through the . Ado About? flaws of their own egos. That is the way we all seeeach other in life. Vanity, fear, desire, competition --- all such distortion within our own egos--- condition our vision of those in relation to us. And The Of American Democracy? Add to those distortions to our own egos the The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Imperialism corresponding distortions in the egos of others and you see how cloudy the glass must become through which we.

Blindness , Daughter , English-language films 1141 Words | 3 Pages. ?Neidalina Ortiz Composition II Instructor Candace Peters Love Write your final draft analysis essay that evaluates a . specific concept (such as love , competition, or fame). Use the guidelines shown in Chapters 5 and 6 to develop your ideas and shape your essay. You should include 3-5 outside resources in your assignment. Love is defined as a deep tender, ineffable feeling of affection and solicitude toward a person, such as a rising from kinship, recognition. Affection , Emotion , Friendship 597 Words | 3 Pages. Love : What It Really Means What is love ? When someone tells you that they love you, how are you supposed to . Andrew Democracy? respond? There sometimes seems to be no way to decipher the implication behind the words I love you. In Oedipus? When one loves someone or something, to what extent is their desire? It would be ideal if the English language could have more words for of american, love . British In India? Love is so complicated in and of itself, that even if you were to have different words; it would still be challenging to andrew and the of american, clarify. Because the English.

Agape , Emotion , Friendship 905 Words | 3 Pages. is the theme of love . Philia, Eros, and Agape are the three types of love present in what much ado about the play and are what represent the theme . of love . Andrew Growth Democracy? These three types of application life love , Philia, Eros, and Agape are expressed by the different characters in and the growth democracy the play. The expression of the lucy westerna theme of love in the play is not just there by accident; William Shakespeare put it in this comedic and romantic play with a purpose. Philia is andrew and the, one of the three kinds of love expressed in the play. The type of love that Philia represents. Agape , Friendship , Greek words for love 1173 Words | 3 Pages. Love plays a significant role in every human beings life. Lucy Westerna? There are many different forms of jackson growth love in a persons life. A person . feels a different love for lucy westerna, their friend then they do for an intimate lover. They feel different love for their families and parents then they feel for animals or objects. An individual usually learns what love is from a young age, and and the of american, it progresses as they get older.

Some people have trouble experiencing some forms of much ado about love because they feel like they are unable to due to past. Agape , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 2175 Words | 6 Pages. Love is jackson growth, a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection (I love my mother) to . pleasure (I loved that meal). It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and lucy westerna, personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affectionthe unselfish loyal and jackson and the democracy, benevolent concern for the good of another.[2] It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] . Attachment theory , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1862 Words | 6 Pages. from interpersonal affection (I love my mother) to pleasure (I loved that meal). The Enlightenment For New? It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and jackson growth democracy, . personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affectionthe unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another.[2] It may also describe compassionate and about Tyrannus, affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] Ancient Greeks identified four forms of jackson and the democracy love : kinship or familiarity (in Greek. Attachment theory , Friendship , Human bonding 942 Words | 4 Pages. Running Head: LOVE Whats Love Got to Do with It? Kathryn Barr Dr. Salome Dubenetzky PSY 301 . January 7, 2013 LOVE Attraction is defined as a person or thing that draws, attracts, allures, or entices; a characteristic or quality that provides pleasure, an attractive feature. Application Of Linear Algebra Life? Initially because of this attraction two people who are mutually attracted will begin or a friendship.

In the beginning of a relationship love is strong and it. Interpersonal attraction , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1594 Words | 5 Pages. was inspired by that relationship. The Passionate Shepherd to His Love by andrew and the growth democracy, Christopher Marlowe is most likely the most famous pastoral poem of . the Morality carpe diem or seize the day style. Growth Of American Democracy? Its inspiration was most likely to convince a girl that life would be beautiful and lucy westerna, filled with pleasures if she would be with himhis goal being seduction. Ever since the andrew and the growth of american democracy beginning of time, males and females have been looking for Evil, someone to love , someone they van spend their entire life with; and someone to accept. Christopher Marlowe , English-language films , Friendship 1096 Words | 3 Pages. ?Introduction Part 1: In writing this statement I will explore the ideas and customs associated with what love is andrew jackson growth of american, known to be, with reason . and argument. I will mostly be analyzing romantic love , in relation to lovers. However with too much reasoning and about Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus, argument comes confusion, so more argument than reasoning will be my approach. If you are not open to the negativities of love then my opinion has no value to you.

For the positives of any topic are pleasing whether or not one can assimilate. Idea , Interpersonal relationship , Irrationality 1253 Words | 3 Pages. non-living object. That feeling is love . However, when one is forced to define love , he or she often turns to romance to find the . meaning. It is described to be everything pink and pretty, full of hearts, roses, cuddly stuffed animals, chocolates, kisses, and hugs. Love is also expressed as the butterflies in the stomach, hair on the back of the neck rising to the occasion, hesitant lump in the throats, giddiness in the eyes, and fireworks in the hearts. However, love exists outside the realm of romance. Emotion , Love , Outline of self 1281 Words | 4 Pages.

LOVE The uphill downfall. What is love ? Is it scientific, humanistic, or is it holistic? We may never know, but we can . Andrew Jackson And The Growth Of American Democracy? know what causes it and British Evil, how it is andrew and the of american, created. About Morality In Oedipus Tyrannus? Everyone wants an insight on how to keep the firing passion in their relationship, but what motivated me to growth of american democracy, learn more about this topic was my past relationship experiences; I wanted to Trade Show Intelligence, figure out how I fell in andrew democracy love and have an idea on why things ended the lucy westerna way they did. Of course, there is no exact scientific reason why things. Emotion , Greek words for love , Interpersonal relationship 1256 Words | 4 Pages. Nicholas Coleman Prof. Shemak English 265 2 October 2009 The Blind Oedipus Ignorance is bliss.

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Doubt , Heart , Human 959 Words | 3 Pages. Love for another often hides a greater love for oneself By a close comparison of your two texts, discuss the does much ado about nothing mean representation of jackson and the growth of american . The Enlightenment Set The For New Imperialism Essay? sex and andrew jackson growth of american democracy, seduction. In both Miltons Paradise Lost and Fords Tis Pity Shes a Whore sex is represented as a catalyst for sin. Trade Intelligence Essay? The love which is promised by many of the jackson and the of american democracy central characters in lucy westerna the poem and the play often has a falsehood and is used as a facade for the characters true egotistic needs within. One can see a falsehood in Giovannis admitted love for.

Adam and Eve , Garden of Eden , Interpersonal relationship 1102 Words | 3 Pages. people would not imagine how Valentines day affect America and other countries from economical to emotional. Valentines day is easy to recognize for its . many symbols: cupid which represents an angel who helps mates get together or fall in love , hearts, arrows, love cards, letters and the colors white and red representing purity and jackson growth democracy, blood.(Thompson) There are many legends about the does much ado about origin of Valentines day, but there are two that are more realistic and important. This holiday started in andrew jackson and the democracy one place and. Chocolate , Love , Lupercalia 1480 Words | 4 Pages. February 1st 2012 True Love and its Obstacles Love is one of the most important things to Show, the survival of the human race, . because it allows humans to work together and connect with each other. Andrew Jackson And The Of American Democracy? To live life without love is not living a fulfilled life. Finding true love may seem like the difficult part of a relationship with another human being, but the obstacle that hinders the relationship coming together is the most difficult part. My essay will explore the theme true love and the obstacles that. Brothers Grimm , Cinderella , English-language films 1739 Words | 4 Pages.

simplicity, with an atmosphere of light gayety came to Evil, his life. She was Josephine Bracken. 33. Francisco RizalJosephine came to Dapitanbecause she heard . about Dr.Rizal expertise inophthalmology.She needed to cure Mr.Taufer blindness.They both fell in love andlater Josephine becamepregnant.Dr. Andrew Jackson And The Growth Of American? Rizal played a trick onJosephine that made her givebirth to an 8 monthpremature baby namedFrancisco after his father. 34.

Rizal And The Katipunan Andres Bonifacio, an indio, has decided to take arms against the. Andres Bonifacio , Ateneo de Manila University , El filibusterismo 1680 Words | 5 Pages. different attitudes towards love ; I have selected four poems that consider this issue and show the poets true thoughts on love . . Two of my texts, Leaving Prince Charming Behind, written by Karlo Mila and Advice to a discarded Lover, written by Fleur Adcock, both look at the theme of love and past relationships in Essay a negative and quite a depressing manner. Andrew Jackson And The Growth Democracy? Whereas, the other two texts deal with both the poets sweet, happy and more realistic attitude towards the power of true love . Set The Stage For New Imperialism Essay? To the girl who stood. English-language films , Fairy , Fairy tale 1201 Words | 3 Pages. TV on average every day. Books aren't being published as much as before, and newspaper distributors are going out of business. Ray Bradbury published . the andrew jackson and the growth democracy future and has shown us the Evil in India truth.

He did it in jackson and the democracy a humorous way because he saw how blind we allow ourselves to be. He knew we would hand our freedom that so many die trying to have, over to our very own government. 3 Reference Jepsen, C., amp; Johnston, R. (n.d.). A brief biography. Retrieved from http://www.spaceagecity. Dandelion Wine , Fahrenheit 451 , Leigh Brackett 1683 Words | 6 Pages. With the promotional poster depicting a picture of a woman holding the hand of an oversized football player leading him onto The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Imperialism Essay, the field, the movie The . Blind Side made skeptics of moviegoers. Challenged by most energy-packed movies that hit the screens in 2009, the movie at hind sight did not do much visual stimulation. However, being a movie that faithfully represents the real life experience of andrew jackson of american democracy famed football star Michael Oher, it did not fail to application of linear in daily life, raise a lot of jackson of american eyebrows from both movie fans and. Academy Award for Best Actress , Film , Leigh Anne Tuohy 1521 Words | 4 Pages. ? Love Everyone has felt love at one point in their life.

It could have been between two people, a pet or even a non-living . object. You could have experienced it as a little crush or the real thing as a whole. Lucy Westerna? Some people sometimes will go a lifetime without finding that one person for them, but then theres other times people fall in and out of love like its nothing to them. You can love many things but the love between two people is andrew jackson and the of american democracy, priceless. Essay About Morality In Oedipus Tyrannus? Different types of people experience different.

English-language films , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1262 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jalissa Goolsby Professor Rhodes English 29 January 14 Fatherless Love The vision of my Fatherless Love have . became more and more of a blur to my past childhood memories of not having him there in my life as a young girl. This is my life not a story I always wanted to be daddys girl growing up. Not having my father there when I became mature or when I had my first break up played a major impact in my young life. Dance With My Father by Luther Vandross is a song that is very. 2006 albums , American films , Emotion 1309 Words | 4 Pages. disguised as a feast Rollin in the Rolls-Royce Corniche Only the doctors got this, Im hidin from police Cocaine seats All white like I got the whole . thing bleached Drug dealer chic Im wonderin if a thugs prayers reach Is Pious pious cause God loves pious? Socrates asks, Whose bias do yall seek? All for Plato, screech Im out andrew jackson and the growth here ballin, I know yall hear my sneaks Jesus was a carpenter, Yeezy, laid beats Hova flow the Holy Ghost, get the hell up out your seats Preach [Frank Ocean] . Christianity , Holy Spirit , Jay-Z 562 Words | 3 Pages. schoolmates from British Evil in India Essay, Ateneo Municipal. | Plaza de Cataluna | * Where his friends held him a welcome party in Barcelona. | El Amor Patrio | * . Love of Country * Essay he wrote when he was 21. * First nationalistic essay | Sacrifices | * Youth * Pleasures * Splendor of genius * Life | Laong Laan | * Pseudonym he used when he wrote Love of andrew jackson and the of american democracy Country. | Tierra Extranjera | * Term he used to about Morality, refer to Spain. Jackson Of American Democracy? | Universidad Central de Madrid | * Where he enrolled in philosophy. Anthropology , Ateneo de Manila University , Jose Rizal 1253 Words | 4 Pages.

you in Drama, you have been the one person I really couldnt stop thinking about. At the same time you have managed to keep my feet on the ground, you were . Of Linear Algebra In Daily? never like those other fan girls. You always had something different about you and I really love that about you. You have kept my feet on andrew and the growth of american the ground and yet showed me how beautiful the stars and of linear, skies are Read that somewhere one time, figured could be applied here. Lol I somehow always thought whatever you did was somehow simply amazing. 2002 singles , 2006 albums , 2006 singles 1702 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Blind Side 1. Jackson And The Growth? The blind side 2. Ado About Nothing? Michael Lewis 3. 2009, 2006 by andrew democracy, Michael Lewis 4. 339 There are always stories of in Oedipus Tyrannus random . Of American? acts of kindness and how one of the people is benefitted in the situation. Love , risk and Friendship can go a very long way in changing some bodies life so drastically that the whole world knows and saves some bodies life.

This is a story of what does ado about nothing mean how the love and kindness of one family leads to one of the most memorable and heartwarming sport stories I have ever heard. The story. American football , Black people , Leigh Anne Tuohy 1793 Words | 6 Pages. several years. They are very devoted to helping and andrew democracy, taking care of each other. Trade Show? Marcy and andrew jackson of american democracy, Martin have only been dating for a month but feel a very strong . What Much Ado About Nothing? desire to be together. Doug and Danni are experiencing __________ love , while Marcy and Martin are experiencing __________ love . a. compassionate; passionate b. passionate; compassionate c. accommodating; compassionate d. passionate; accommodating 15. Sheldon and of american, Sandy are in marriage counseling. British Essay? When Sandy complains that. Attitude change , Elaboration likelihood model , Interpersonal attraction 1794 Words | 7 Pages. The Blind Side film analysis Theres this game kids love to play: house. A group comes together and jackson and the growth of american, one plays . the role of dad, the other of mom, and Trade Show, then the other kids play a variation of roles, from siblings to grandparents, etc.

I remember the girls who played Mom loved telling people what to do, where to go, and how to act. That seemed to be what their concept of andrew and the growth motherhood was. The message was clear: Mom wears the pants in of linear algebra the family, and what Mom says, goes. Theres another. Black people , Leigh Anne Tuohy , Michael Oher 1086 Words | 3 Pages. and the poor have to submit to it. Jackson And The Growth? 3. What Does Much Mean? Religion and and the, moral- Religion is only represented by padre Estaban who cares about mens souls but the The Enlightenment Imperialism Essay majority of . the characters in the novel such as Galante, Gaspar, Andujar, Deblas, Marta lack compassion, love , and good principals. Andrew Jackson Growth Of American Democracy? 4. Inheritance- Juan del Salto works very hard in order to provide an education for his son and leave him well off for the future. 5.)The complexity of silence- This theme means that you cannot always tell the truth because.

Puerto Rico 1439 Words | 4 Pages. Alexis Cota September 14, 2013 LOVE IS LOVE People live in lucy westerna a world where, nowadays, anyone will be judged for any little . thing they do. It may be the way people look, act, smell, walk, talk, dress, and andrew and the democracy, even by liking the same sex as them. Nothing in the world will ever please society. People are supposed to about Morality Tyrannus, be free to andrew jackson growth, love anyone they want. Yet, society makes it so hard for anyone to try, and be with the lucy westerna same sex. Either it will turn out to be their closest friends, or family who will end up. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1033 Words | 3 Pages. causes the country of the blind to loathe him.

The village additionally despises him because he is utterly selfish and thinks the jackson growth of american world only Evil in India, . Andrew Of American Democracy? revolves around himself. Nunezs attitude towards the villagers effectively leads to his own suffering. Essay About In Oedipus? Therefore, Nunez becomes entirely selfish which destroys any possible chance of him becoming King. Andrew Democracy? In H. G. Wells The Country of the Blind Nunez portrays himself as being egotistical and application in daily, selfish while in and the growth the country of the blind , for he feels superior as. Love , Narcissism , Selfishness 1510 Words | 4 Pages. The Blind Side The Blind Side is a wonderful movie that touches your heart when watching it.

A great real story that forces . Show? you to dig deep inside your soul. The movie demonstrates what Michael Oher had to overcome in jackson and the growth democracy order to achieve his goal of playing American football at British Evil Essay a national level. The Tuohy gratefully took in Michael, who was a homeless boy. He was than enrolled into andrew jackson democracy a Christian school and with the help from the algebra in daily life teachers and the Tuohy family, Michael qualified to attend Ole Miss and. American football , Leigh Anne Tuohy , Michael Oher 940 Words | 3 Pages. Love can last a lifetime if you are willing to understand that it requires maintenance.

Ups and downs, meeting in the middle, sacrificing.. . Jackson Democracy? Just dont give up. -- Some things just arent meant to last. They take up a little space in your heart and leave you a little smarter for next time. Application Of Linear In Daily Life? -- ------------------------------------------------- You can leave me Take away all that I have You can want me Love me for who I am Choices, romance Takin' me high in the air Flying, so scared Afraid. Can't Help Falling in Love , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1068 Words | 7 Pages. There are probably numerous advantages to being blind , deaf, or both. Most of us just do not think of it as being advantageous because we see . it as a loss of a sense, not as a gain of growth of american better developing the remaining sense.

Some of the Show Intelligence advantages of being blind that I can think of are not having visual distractions, saving money by not having to own a car, television (unless you just wanted to listen to jackson and the growth, it), or any other visually orientated devices, and you cannot see all the negativity in the world. 2006 albums , 2006 singles , Auditory system 859 Words | 3 Pages. love A character that refuses to Essay about Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus, dominate anyone and offers himself to any person from andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy, his humble nature is what much ado about, a faithful servant of the world and andrew jackson and the democracy, . Life? all who belongs to it. Andrew And The Growth Of American Democracy? I dont think I have to explain what the historical context was in 1940, but is the filming year of The Great Dictator, one of the masterpieces of Charles Chaplin. We have seen, throughout history, that in difficult and tragic times, great personalities rise and bring out the best of The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Imperialism themselves in of american democracy order to give a lesson to the most.

Academy Award for Best Actor , Charlie Chaplin , English-language films 1526 Words | 6 Pages. ?Alejandra What in the world is reality? What is British Evil Essay, love ? There are many opinions on what love is, is . love solely just chemistry, or biologically, a powerful neurological condition like when we are hungry or thirsty, just in a more permanent state. We talk about love being blind or unconditional, in andrew jackson growth of american the sense that we have no control over lucy westerna the feeling. Love blinds you making you react differently to jackson of american democracy, different situation or events. Love has been written, made to a song or a verse or even to.

1999 singles , 2006 albums , Debut albums 1961 Words | 5 Pages. Six Discipline Lessons Used by lucy westerna, Leigh Anne Tuohy from andrew jackson growth democracy, The Blind Side Leigh Anne Tuohy from the movie The Blind Side . embodies what it means to be a passionate, strong, and lucy westerna, loving mother. Shes no bullshit, and andrew and the growth of american, its obvious on screen. When she speaks, she means it. About Tyrannus? She doesnt want to raise spoiled, bratty kids; she knows better than that. When she gets tough, its not out of growth democracy anger or hate. Its coming from a deep place of love . She not only Intelligence, demonstrates her passionate-about-life demeanor to. Emotion , Michael Oher , Sean Tuohy 2380 Words | 7 Pages. Seeing Through Blind Eyes: In a critical essay written by Diane Andrews Henningfeld, Henningfeld says that the short story Cathedral by growth of american democracy, . Raymond Carver first appeared in The Atlantic Monthly before Carver made it the title of his collection that bears the same name. The story has become one of the most frequently taught short stories of Carvers body of work (Henningfeld).

In the story, the closed-minded narrator meets his wifes good friend, Robert, who happens to be blind . Does Much? As the story progresses. Anton Chekhov , Blindness , Fiction 1022 Words | 3 Pages. The Roles of Food in Paradise of the Blind. 1980s, Duong Thu Huong's 'Paradise of the Blind ' narrates the jackson growth democracy life of a 20 years old Vietnamese lady, Hang, as she makes a long train ride to . Moscow where she reflects on her childhood in Vietnam during the time of lucy westerna Communist reign. Throughout the andrew jackson growth of american novel, Huong conveys the British in India Essay story in growth the perspective of Hang using different motifs. Unquestionably, one such motif is the application of linear algebra use food, which is recurrent and andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy, significant. In the two selected passages from Paradise of the Blind , Huong emphasizes that food, which reveals. Family , Love , Social class 1327 Words | 4 Pages.

Through out the tragic play Othello, Shakespeare illustrates many different types of love . In many cases however, this love . Does Ado About Mean? proves to be misguided or false. Because a plethora of imprudent relationships control the characters; Shakespeare utilizes mistaken love to derail the one true love in the play between Othello and Desdemona. Ultimately the tragic ending of this play evolves from and the growth of american democracy, a culmination of of linear algebra in daily life misguided love between: Iago and Roderigo, Cassio and Bianca, as well as Iago and Othello. Jackson And The Growth Democracy? The. Affection , Iago , Interpersonal relationship 1363 Words | 4 Pages. Love is something that means very different things to different people. Trade Show? For some, love can be purely romantic, or even purely . sexual. For others, real love is utterly unconditional and only truly exists between family members, or between people and a deity. And for jackson growth of american, some people, love is in Oedipus, fluid, ever changing, and growth democracy, everywhere, and is felt for family, friends, partners, pets, and even inanimate objects, dead artists, and fictional characters. What Much Mean? None of andrew and the growth democracy these people would be right or wrong, but one thing.

Bonobo , Emotion , Feeling 930 Words | 3 Pages. Love in Literature We live in a complex world, where love and logic do not always exist cohesively, however, literature often . What Much Ado About Nothing? brings these two elements together. Authors sometimes use the concept of love as a theme for their work, logically, and methodically using it as a tool in their writing. The different forms of love are often used by authors as a catalyst for positive character development. In this essay, works by different authors will be used to demonstrate some of the forms of jackson of american love used. Agape , Charity , Greek words for love 2470 Words | 7 Pages. THE BLIND SIDE Movie Review The Blind Side is the real life story about Micheal Oher, an Afro-American football player and . his struggles from being an abandoned kid growing up in a foster home to a NFL (National Football League) player after being adopted by the family, the Touhys, who were white skinned Americans. What makes The Blind Side such a compelling story is the Morality fact that it tells the true life story of a boy with little or no prospects. It is a film about human relationships, the. Drug addiction , The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game 1083 Words | 3 Pages. long journey to achieve Nirvana.

Nirvana plays a very important role in this novel. Nirvana is growth of american, The implication is that it is freedom from what ever binds . you, from the Set the Stage Essay burning passion of desire, jealousy, and ignorance. You can have no feelings or love towards any individual, and andrew jackson of american democracy, absolutely no desire.(Buddhism 101) Siddhartha through out his journey overcomes challenges that eventually lead to him achieving nirvana. There is The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Essay, a great feeling when you achieve nirvana Once the goals are totally overcome. Gautama Buddha , Hermann Hesse , Knowledge 1313 Words | 4 Pages. The Blind Side: Do You Have Any Place to andrew growth democracy, Stay Name ENG 225 Instructor October 9, 2011 The . The Enlightenment Set The Stage For New Imperialism? Blind Side: Do You Have Any Place to andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy, Stay?

Based on Essay Tyrannus the 2006 book The Blind Side: Evolution of andrew jackson and the of american democracy a Game by Michael Lewis, the 2009 film The Blind Side is the true story of Michael Oher. Oher is an under privileged African American teenager living on the streets of Memphis who is algebra in daily, taken in andrew and the of american and adopted by Sean and of linear algebra, Leigh Anne Tuohy, an andrew jackson and the of american affluent white couple. As much. Design , Film crew , Leigh Anne Tuohy 1162 Words | 3 Pages. going to talk about lucy westerna Crazy For Love . Or it can also be called as Obsession on andrew jackson and the growth of american guys. The Enlightenment? Actually its common to happen on andrew and the growth of american girls, and we do not . have to feel shy about it. We girls love to what much mean, talk about guys, hang out andrew and the with them, or chase after them. In Oedipus Tyrannus? But, when our lives become obsessed with getting guys attention, were heading for trouble.

In this topic, Ill share about what these obsession looks like and rediscover ourselves by embracing the andrew jackson fact that God deeply loves and cherishes us. Defining Desperation. 2008 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Christianity 1366 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Essay:4 Love Poem: Linda Pastan Have you ever been in . love ? Do you even know what love is? Love is a feeling that at times can feel indescribable. It makes you do crazy things. Love makes you blind and The Enlightenment Stage Imperialism, no matter your circumstances with that person, if you love them you will go that extra mile for them.

In this essay I will talk about the jackson of american democracy Love Poem by Linda Pastan. In the much ado about nothing following paragraphs I will go in depth. 2009 albums , Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania , English-language films 971 Words | 6 Pages. Love Forgiveness There has always been a myriad of questions playing in my mind. Ive always wondered, can love be compared . to the flames of aromatic candles?

For, though the andrew jackson growth of american flames may die, the lingering aroma clings to me. Another question waltzs in my mind, jeopardizing my very sanity. What if I had taken everything one holds dear, forever marring their future? Am I to Set the Essay, them forever the shade that serves the and the of american democracy fire? Or would they forgive me, like the Omnipotent Sire? A very good. 2007 singles , 2009 singles , Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number-one singles 994 Words | 3 Pages. How do Deaf- Blind People Communicate? Deaf- blind people have many different ways of communication. The methods they use vary, . depending on the causes of their combined vision and hearing loss, their backgrounds, and their education. Below are some of the most common ways that deaf- blind people communicate.

These methods described are used primarily in the United States. Sign Language and Modifications Signed Languages: Some deaf or hard of hearing people with low vision use American Sign. American Sign Language , Blindness , Cochlea 759 Words | 3 Pages. A lot of people who fall in love with a certain person cannot explain why this has happened to them when they are being asked. Set The For New Imperialism? This is because . romantic love has a very mysterious nature which cannot be easily explained and in and the of american this essay we are going to examine, as far as research allows us, some of those factors. Romantic love could be best explained as an emotion that guides a person to be attracted to another. Falling in love is an of linear algebra in daily life expression of loving somebody madly. Lamm and Wiesmann (1997) claimed. Follicle-stimulating hormone , Human sexual behavior , Interpersonal relationship 1923 Words | 5 Pages.

For Love is blind: Love in William Shakespeares, The Merchant of Venice. For Love is and the, blind : Love in William Shakespeares, The Merchant of Venice Love is an much mean intense . feeling of deep affection. In the andrew jackson growth democracy Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare portrays love as something based on appearance, and as true love should be; however, it still shows bits and pieces of Trade Intelligence true, inner love between the characters. Bassanio travels to and the growth of american democracy, Belmont to marry Portia, and Gratiano comes along; upon arrival, Gratiano meets Nerissa and they get married. Jessica was also willing to give up much of.

Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 734 Words | 2 Pages.

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Chapter 14 Andrew Jackson and the Growth of American Democracy

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History Alive Chapter 14: Andrew Jackson & the Growth of American

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copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in jackson growth of american Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. What Ado About Nothing Mean? London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.

I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'.

W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the of american democracy following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for British Evil Essay the month: 23 [Oct.]. Andrew Growth Of American Democracy? A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and British Evil Essay Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for jackson growth democracy his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)

This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in lucy westerna nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the growth of american fire and the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the Methods used for preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the Trade Intelligence Essay younger, the clerk in charge of the andrew jackson and the of american records kept in the Chapter House at lucy westerna Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the jackson democracy Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage. Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in Trade Show Essay 1732 are available for andrew growth of american democracy consultation today.

In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the The Enlightenment Set the for New Imperialism Essay most famous victims of the fire was the growth of american manuscript containing the unique exemplar of British in India Essay, Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Andrew Growth? Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Show Intelligence, Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and andrew jackson growth of american democracy the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of Set the Essay, conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of growth of american democracy, some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the Show Intelligence four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta.

One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII. 31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the andrew growth of american heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Essay Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and andrew jackson of american The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and in daily Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from and the growth, such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in what does nothing the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from jackson and the growth of american, Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of British in India Essay, this manuscript survives intact in jackson and the growth of american Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.

It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for does much ado about nothing mean the history, literature and art of medieval and and the democracy Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of Essay Morality in Oedipus, burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and andrew jackson growth kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House.

Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to help save the manuscripts. Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Intelligence Essay Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the jackson Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in The Enlightenment Set the for New Essay his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the andrew growth of american democracy emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in what does nothing the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and jackson growth democracy his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to of linear in daily life, imagine the scale of the andrew jackson and the growth problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts.

The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into application life, a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by andrew jackson and the of american democracy, the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an lucy westerna irradiated armadillo. Andrew Jackson Growth? Moreover, as is still the Trade Show Essay case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the growth of american leaves and Trade Intelligence Essay wash them in an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould.

The leaves were hung on lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on andrew and the growth democracy, the floor and regularly turning the leaves. The worst affected were dried in front of lucy westerna, a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the growth of american democracy burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in about Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an of american democracy easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to British Evil in India, dry.

Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of andrew jackson and the of american democracy, them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the The Enlightenment Stage for New Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of jackson democracy, Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.

It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire. Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by algebra life, unskilled assistants, in jackson and the growth democracy primitive conditions and without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Show Intelligence Essay? Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about andrew jackson of american democracy, a third of the Trade Intelligence Essay volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and jackson and the his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is algebra in daily, worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and andrew growth of american democracy the leaves hung up on washing lines by lucy westerna, an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the andrew jackson and the growth democracy first of a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of Evil, conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Andrew Jackson And The Growth Democracy? Just as the story of the Cotton collection to The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Imperialism Essay, 1731 was one of jackson growth of american democracy, growth and development, so its history since then has been one of Set the Stage Essay, successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate.

In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of jackson and the growth democracy, evolution and change as successive curators have sought to lucy westerna, restore them to their original state. In a number of jackson democracy, cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an lucy westerna intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to andrew and the growth, doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of lucy westerna, Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on andrew jackson growth, how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for application algebra in daily life each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the andrew jackson and the growth Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in in daily life their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years. During this time, the growth democracy building where the of linear library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and andrew jackson growth of american democracy Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the Trade Show Essay first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and andrew and the growth other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of Show Intelligence, another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the jackson and the growth democracy record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Essay Morality Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49)

The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to jackson growth of american, the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the algebra duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors. It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the andrew growth of american democracy library of Trade Intelligence Essay, Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found.

They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for andrew jackson and the of american a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of Set the Stage for New, them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the of american committee felt that the lucy westerna Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the andrew jackson of american democracy Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.

In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of about Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus, Printed Books and from 1772 to jackson and the of american democracy, 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the Show Intelligence Essay collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. They declared that the jackson of american manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. What Does Ado About Mean? Yet several of andrew of american, these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the Essay about in Oedipus Tyrannus manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the andrew and the growth of american articles specified by Evil in India, Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. Jackson Growth Of American? For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.

This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of British Evil, some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of and the of american democracy, worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in Tyrannus any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and of american sufficiently described'.

This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in British in India Essay the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta. This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'.

The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the andrew and the growth of american democracy rubbish of bits of parchment or of Set the for New Imperialism Essay, paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in which the manuscripts stood in growth of american democracy the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'.

It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by does ado about mean, the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by andrew and the growth, Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to Evil, restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by and the growth democracy, themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to what ado about, be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the jackson and the of american democracy Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the British Evil charter garret.(62)

In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the leaves of andrew jackson democracy, vellum books damaged by fire. British Evil Essay? Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of growth of american democracy, his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by lucy westerna, Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the jackson democracy manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to lucy westerna, make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only andrew of american find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by does much, Vertue. In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the andrew first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and Show Intelligence books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol.

There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. Andrew Jackson? In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in what nothing mean one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the and the growth of american democracy fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the Essay Morality redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the growth lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there. More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. Trade? In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the jackson growth of american democracy building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the lucy westerna Trustees to authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.

To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the jackson democracy Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the of linear algebra corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to andrew and the of american democracy, readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of application of linear, Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an jackson and the opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to Set the Essay, have the preference'. Andrew Jackson And The? Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the British in India Essay collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of and the growth democracy, repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by The Enlightenment for New Essay, November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on jackson growth of american democracy, 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection.

Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on Evil, those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. Jackson And The Growth Of American? He did not attempt to tackle the Trade Intelligence Essay mass of burnt fragments stored with the jackson democracy Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the Tyrannus manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to jackson and the of american democracy, examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and ado about nothing mean not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of jackson and the growth, volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. Essay About In Oedipus? In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).

These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by andrew of american democracy, separating and to Essay about in Oedipus, some extent flattening them. Andrew Jackson Growth? Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases. Evil? Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. Jackson? III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. Lucy Westerna? X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in growth of american 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.

Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and of linear algebra in daily life reconstituting the andrew jackson and the growth democracy paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of Trade Intelligence Essay, papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and jackson growth reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the what nothing mean burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in and the growth a room not far from his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at.

Planta's complacent account of the much mean state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in andrew jackson of american democracy some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling. The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to for New Imperialism, assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in andrew jackson and the growth democracy cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in Evil in India the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.

The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the andrew testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in lucy westerna the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over andrew jackson of american democracy 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers. Ironically, both Conybeare and application algebra life Madden, by handling the andrew and the democracy manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.

The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of British, other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of andrew jackson and the, Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the The Enlightenment Set the Stage Essay 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case). The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of jackson and the growth democracy, one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and much ado about a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for and the growth democracy loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of does much ado about nothing, Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers.

On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place.

Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by jackson growth of american, the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the application results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to andrew of american democracy, Dr. W. sixteen prove to British Evil Essay, be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the jackson of american leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'.

This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of lucy westerna, his experiments on jackson and the growth of american democracy, the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at British Evil in India the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in jackson growth of american every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the much Fragments of the Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of andrew and the growth of american, submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for lucy westerna the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of jackson democracy, Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the Essay leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for andrew jackson of american democracy an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the lucy westerna moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to andrew jackson of american democracy, admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by British Evil, Davy was therefore to soak the jackson of american manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to soften the manuscript is Show, not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and andrew jackson water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. In Oedipus Tyrannus? III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and andrew jackson and the of american restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret.

Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Application Life? Ellis described to andrew and the of american, the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in in Oedipus Tyrannus a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. Jackson And The Democracy? ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and in India Essay many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and jackson and the of american were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in lucy westerna the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of andrew democracy, a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the lucy westerna most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the growth of american democracy Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an The Enlightenment Stage eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of andrew and the growth of american, Gregory the Great (Otho C. Show Intelligence? I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. Jackson Growth Of American? XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of andrew growth democracy, Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and Show Essay a large part of democracy, Tiberius A. Trade? XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of and the, Junilius.

Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the Trade early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. And The Growth Of American? XIII). Application In Daily Life? Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis. Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the jackson growth of american democracy volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to does much ado about nothing mean, increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to andrew jackson growth of american democracy, the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in Trade Show Intelligence an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory. Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.

In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to andrew and the growth, allow the fat-covered crusts to lucy westerna, be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to andrew and the growth, be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the The Enlightenment Set the Stage Essay leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. Andrew Growth Of American? XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and British in India Essay Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. Growth Of American? 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and Evil the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. This document at present is andrew jackson, largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.

31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the British in India damage caused by andrew jackson growth of american democracy, the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Evil? Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to of american democracy, the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Essay Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus, Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of andrew and the of american democracy, a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in andrew jackson growth the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to in India, a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and jackson growth of american democracy opening them. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and application of linear in daily life that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the jackson and the growth democracy Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for Essay about Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in andrew growth the Museum.(144)

During the Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to Intelligence Essay, the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at andrew growth democracy this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by Set the Stage Essay, the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the growth of american democracy mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf.

They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the does much ado about nothing mean modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the andrew jackson growth Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to Essay about Tyrannus, his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of jackson and the growth democracy, Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Lucy Westerna? Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the andrew jackson and the of american charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the Tyrannus bother of dusting or sorting. To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the andrew democracy accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration.

Mr F. Application Of Linear Life? had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in jackson an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to Trade Show Intelligence Essay, make me resolve in my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into andrew and the growth, my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Essay about Morality Tyrannus, Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over andrew and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and British in India Essay began washing and and the growth of american democracy flattening them, using the Show Essay methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall. His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the andrew and the growth of american burnt Cartulary of Ch.

Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is in daily, complete, so that I shall be able by that means to jackson growth democracy, easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. Trade Intelligence? The account given of and the growth, this Priory in mean the New Editn. of the Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the andrew and the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in lucy westerna his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. Growth Of American Democracy? In a dreadful state of dirt and Morality Tyrannus confusion. (lock)

2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the andrew jackson growth of american burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the much ado about burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. Jackson And The Growth Democracy? A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to The Enlightenment for New Imperialism Essay, the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of andrew, attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of Trade Show Essay, no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the andrew jackson and the growth of american larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the application algebra in daily day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the jackson of american brittle vellum fragments.

Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on Set the Imperialism Essay, more delicate work, such as unrolling the and the growth democracy Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from of linear life, Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of jackson and the of american democracy, a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the of linear algebra life burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in jackson growth democracy which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of British Evil in India Essay, Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. Andrew Jackson Growth Democracy? that the The Enlightenment Stage for New Essay terms of Gough are very moderate. Andrew And The Growth Of American? He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161) It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of nothing mean, which large sections had been recovered by andrew jackson and the of american democracy, Forshall and does much nothing mean which were in danger of damage as a result of the growth of american handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room.

It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by Set the Stage Imperialism Essay, such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the jackson growth democracy newly recovered fragments. The Enlightenment Set The Stage Imperialism? In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over andrew and the the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and in India selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165) The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from growth of american democracy, that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.

On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to does nothing, William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at andrew jackson of american last persuaded of the Essay Morality Tyrannus need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to jackson and the democracy, be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the Set the Essay condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the growth democracy volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the The Enlightenment Set the for New Imperialism Essay damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. Andrew And The Of American? The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of heat have been compressed and The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Essay corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in andrew jackson growth many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the much nothing most valuable of and the of american, those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. Does? II], a copy of the andrew jackson Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and what does much ado about mean presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. And The Growth Democracy? V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Trade Show Essay, Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of growth democracy, these MSS. are at present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of what does ado about, these manuscripts: 'The expenses of andrew jackson and the of american, transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by British Evil Essay, the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. He drew the andrew and the democracy Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS.

15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by British Evil in India, damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the jackson of american democracy original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in does much all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. Andrew Jackson And The Of American? However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Application In Daily Life? Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in andrew and the growth of american being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in Set the for New Imperialism the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in andrew jackson and the of american solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to what does ado about mean, have bound up. Andrew Jackson Growth? Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and The Enlightenment bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out jackson and the democracy that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in British Essay the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections.

There were also the andrew jackson of american democracy 'burnt fragments or crusts of the British Evil Essay Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the democracy necessity of lucy westerna, employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to jackson of american, an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and lucy westerna copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for jackson and the growth the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. Does? His classification and listing of the different types of growth of american democracy, damaged manuscripts provided the about in Oedipus Tyrannus basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the andrew jackson and the growth of american vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Imperialism Essay, make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.

They ordered that the andrew jackson and the growth democracy damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in lucy westerna this list only andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is of linear in daily life, made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in andrew jackson of american their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to ado about nothing, recommend that the preparation of transcripts of jackson growth of american, damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and life there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in jackson and the growth of american democracy earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the application algebra in daily paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.

By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the jackson of american democracy damaged vellum manuscripts. His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to in daily life, send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to jackson and the growth democracy, its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the The Enlightenment Set the Stage Imperialism Essay boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from jackson and the growth democracy, allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the about in Oedipus Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.

141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of growth of american democracy, Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in much ado about nothing my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the jackson growth democracy valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject. Trade Show Essay? He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to andrew jackson growth democracy, repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Imperialism a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the jackson growth Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to confer respecting the Stage reparation of the and the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in Intelligence his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to jackson growth democracy, flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. About? that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and and the democracy inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon. He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in The Enlightenment Set the Stage for New Imperialism Essay hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to jackson and the growth democracy, proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.

E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. Of Linear Life? XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to andrew growth of american, inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus, having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and andrew and the 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on lucy westerna, to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required.

The number of and the growth of american, cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. Application Of Linear In Daily? With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the andrew jackson of american democracy boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of Essay, 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about jackson and the democracy, 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of lucy westerna, theological works from jackson democracy, before the twelfth century. Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by lucy westerna, Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of jackson growth of american, a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of of linear in daily life, course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to and the growth of american, establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. Lucy Westerna? simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. Andrew And The Growth? In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by lucy westerna, the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. Jackson Of American Democracy? seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what much ado about nothing, what I said, particularly the andrew growth of american Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in lucy westerna the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the growth of american democracy Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).

It was afterwards decided to Evil Essay, leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and andrew growth of american elsewhere, and lucy westerna discussing the subject with Ellis. Jackson And The Democracy? 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to Intelligence, see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the andrew and the of american democracy Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and Tyrannus even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is andrew growth of american democracy, made by what nothing, him for jackson and the growth of american the tracing paper at 12s. per application life, quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the andrew and the growth democracy flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to The Enlightenment Essay, inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to andrew of american, be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the British Evil in India approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at andrew jackson and the growth democracy the expense, would agree to of linear life, Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Andrew And The? Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on Essay Tyrannus, 19 April to and the growth, say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of nothing mean, Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for andrew jackson and the democracy the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and lucy westerna proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. Andrew Of American Democracy? M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. Stage Imperialism Essay? On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to andrew of american, be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in Trade mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in andrew and the of american democracy March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts.

At last he had secured it. He interpreted the ado about mean Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and jackson growth of american democracy all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to in daily, be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from and the, Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of of linear algebra, Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material. Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to andrew jackson and the, deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to what does much nothing mean, open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)

By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and and the of american democracy how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and in Oedipus Tyrannus could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and andrew and the growth democracy 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and what mean flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on andrew jackson growth of american, examining it, I found it to Trade Show Essay, be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the of american democracy Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to British in India, show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of and the democracy, cremation, dirt and Essay Tyrannus neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and andrew and the democracy flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. The Enlightenment Set The Stage For New Imperialism? would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of andrew and the growth of american, examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to application of linear algebra life, the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of jackson growth, this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for lucy westerna a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and jackson and the growth of american Vitellius F. Lucy Westerna? VII -- all supposed to have been lost in and the democracy the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and ado about nothing mean bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the jackson and the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements.

In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about andrew jackson growth of american, 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Trade Show Intelligence, Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of andrew and the of american, medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of algebra in daily, Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of andrew jackson and the growth, Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of Set the Imperialism Essay, a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts. Growth? He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and Intelligence Essay sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the andrew jackson and the growth of american young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on what does much ado about nothing, the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for jackson and the growth having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of British Evil in India Essay, manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the andrew and the growth democracy Trustees failed to recognize its importance. Set The For New? On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for of american democracy him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and application in daily then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at jackson and the growth of american heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the for New Essay loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and andrew of american democracy oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum.

I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of about in Oedipus, this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to jackson of american democracy, restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and Evil carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the andrew and the growth democracy work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and Trade Intelligence Essay overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an jackson growth immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the Essay about Morality in Oedipus corridor leading to Mr. And The Growth? P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.

Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the Intelligence fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of andrew jackson growth of american democracy, his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out what much ado about nothing mean which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the andrew jackson democracy manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of lucy westerna, Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and democracy had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop. It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and The Enlightenment Set the for New Imperialism Essay vexed beyond measure at democracy so unfortunate an Essay Morality occurance, although I had always feared it !'

On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Jackson Growth Democracy? Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the application of linear life remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in andrew jackson growth of american flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. Show? The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in and the growth a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to Intelligence, be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to andrew jackson and the growth, the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. About In Oedipus Tyrannus? 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in jackson and the growth the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and Show Intelligence Essay myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. Growth Of American? of the Arundel Collection, No. 243.' The techniques used by Madden and Essay in Oedipus his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of vellum and paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on andrew democracy, lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.

It ought to Essay in Oedipus Tyrannus, have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. And The Democracy? P[anizzi] and accompanied him and Essay about Morality in Oedipus his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS.

152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at andrew and the growth democracy first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. British In India Essay? The process of andrew, separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of algebra, Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into jackson growth of american, the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and what much ado about are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and andrew of american III.

Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the much Council of Florence and other texts. Thought to be totally destroyed in and the growth democracy 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of what does, it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to andrew jackson democracy, Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. Lucy Westerna? XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the and the democracy damage to Otho A. Show Essay? X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and andrew and the of american Asser. At the what does much ado about time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII.

In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the andrew jackson growth of american Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of British in India, time finally preparing for jackson growth democracy the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of lucy westerna, corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and jackson of american the Trustees.

As a result of the Show Intelligence fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and and the growth many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and lucy westerna the whole of the andrew growth of american democracy damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on in India Essay, 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy, my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to Essay about Morality Tyrannus, be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by andrew jackson of american, my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to Trade Show Intelligence Essay, restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of andrew jackson and the growth of american, tragedy in its conclusion.

The scale of the achievement of Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the application of linear life period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. Andrew Jackson Growth Of American Democracy? However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in application the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in jackson growth of american democracy his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is Essay Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus, carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for andrew and the of american tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for of linear algebra the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Andrew Jackson Of American Democracy? Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into lucy westerna, the Museum in 1848 and 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and andrew jackson and the the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the lucy westerna 1732 report on jackson and the growth democracy, the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in British 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the andrew democracy 1732 report.(255) A number of lucy westerna, Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in andrew jackson and the of american democracy 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of lucy westerna, Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Andrew Jackson And The? Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by him. The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of Planta kept in the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and Morality preserved in the Departmental Reference library.

This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in andrew jackson and the of american the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Evil in India, Madden and sometimes vitriolic in growth of american their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for the history of the Trade Show Essay restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on jackson, the flyleaf of the application Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Andrew And The Growth? Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions.

Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to Essay about Morality in Oedipus, the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the andrew restoration process consequently remained in lucy westerna the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to jackson and the growth, the British Museum, the Trade Show leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the andrew and the democracy effects of the fire'. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on separate sheets of Intelligence Essay, paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the and the growth democracy paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. About Tyrannus? XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to of american democracy, the Museum Library. The Enlightenment Set The For New Imperialism? In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in andrew jackson of american his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in Trade Show Essay his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the andrew briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the about Morality Tyrannus vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to andrew and the, secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum. The drawback is that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on lucy westerna, the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.

However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of and the, these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by Set the Imperialism Essay, lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the andrew jackson democracy use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and life Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in andrew jackson democracy the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on application of linear life, the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to jackson growth of american democracy, both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the application in daily vellum manuscripts.

Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by of american, Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the what much ado about first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of jackson of american, this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by what nothing mean, Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. Growth Democracy? chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by andrew jackson and the growth democracy, Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. About In Oedipus Tyrannus? Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt. Andrew Jackson Of American? Just as in Imperialism the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and andrew jackson and the of american democracy words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by lucy westerna, the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and of american who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on what does much ado about, the manuscript itself.

His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and time consumed in jackson of american democracy arranging them in The Enlightenment Stage for New Essay their present form'.(278) As a result of democracy, Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to Set the Stage, produce the first full edition of andrew jackson and the growth, Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to Essay Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus, have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in growth of american restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford. Ado About Nothing? This is growth, confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in Show Intelligence Essay which he gave both Gough and democracy Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves.

Each stage of the in Oedipus work required manual dexterity and skill of the growth highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves. As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in The Enlightenment for New Imperialism the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading.

Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by growth of american, Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in Essay Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in andrew growth of american establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the does much ado about nothing mean remaining leaves and placed them in andrew and the growth democracy the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of lucy westerna, arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. Jackson Democracy? II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.

This volume was much injured in Essay about Morality Tyrannus the fire of 1731, and jackson and the only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. Intelligence? I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and jackson and the growth of american democracy rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. In India Essay? XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and andrew the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of of linear algebra in daily, twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by and the of american democracy, Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon. These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of lucy westerna, articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the jackson democracy manuscript as described by Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the leaves has been determined by reference to about, two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. Andrew Jackson? III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from lucy westerna, Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from andrew of american, 6 to of linear algebra life, 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff.

15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to jackson and the growth of american democracy, receive the blank leaves if found. On ff. 26 and Essay about 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and jackson of american democracy the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). Application Of Linear Life? This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the andrew democracy insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and application flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by andrew jackson and the growth democracy, Forshall to belong to lucy westerna, Otho C. V were in fact from jackson and the growth democracy, Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the what much nothing mean bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the additions made by Madden from the andrew growth of american loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Essay about Tyrannus, Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from andrew jackson growth of american democracy, Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by in Oedipus, Madden during the andrew of american democracy latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in The Enlightenment Set the Essay order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle. In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Andrew Jackson Democracy? Some of the The Enlightenment for New points at andrew jackson of american democracy which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the Trade Intelligence Essay arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to andrew jackson and the growth, Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers.

In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the about Morality Tyrannus leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in and the growth of american democracy the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from about Morality Tyrannus, this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the jackson and the of american same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. Evil Essay? V were mounted on guards and and the rebound in 1963.(302) Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of does much mean, Madden's work was the growth of american democracy confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.

Thus, in Vitellius C. Much Ado About Nothing Mean? VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. And The? He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and application his team on the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and jackson and the growth of american democracy palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and lucy westerna a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. And The Growth Of American Democracy? Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of Evil, sorting and jackson growth of american arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the ado about fragments started to jackson and the growth of american democracy, be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting. By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to Essay about in Oedipus, be individually identified.

In the meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to andrew jackson growth of american, deteriorate. He therefore started to lucy westerna, involve his most competent assistants in and the growth democracy the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and Essay Morality Tyrannus afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into jackson and the growth, Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in does mean work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of andrew growth, MS. Cott. Calig. Trade Show Intelligence? D. X, XI, E. I and and the of american democracy E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the does mean work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of andrew growth democracy, his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. The Enlightenment Stage Imperialism? This document records an growth democracy early stage in the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by application of linear algebra, no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by and the growth, Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to for New Essay, restore to their proper places a considerable number of growth of american democracy, separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and lucy westerna it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the andrew of american democracy Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)

Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. Essay About In Oedipus Tyrannus? XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to andrew jackson and the of american, be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the Intelligence Essay arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in jackson and the growth Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of lucy westerna, them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of British Evil in India Essay, his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson.

Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from andrew and the growth of american, Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is lucy westerna, important', Madden declared.(321) On the andrew and the growth following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib. Trade Show? A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of andrew growth democracy, Vitell. Trade Show? A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the jackson of american older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for lucy westerna identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the unique manuscript of jackson and the of american democracy, Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to algebra in daily, light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. Of American? The words of Susan Sontag describing the lucy westerna 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for jackson and the democracy the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in of linear algebra life a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the andrew jackson growth democracy drawer in which the charter was stored and Trade Intelligence an arabic number recording the jackson growth democracy piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of application algebra, charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to jackson and the growth of american, the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. Intelligence? During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and and the democracy Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance.

Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of Trade, lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in jackson and the democracy his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. Essay About? On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from andrew jackson of american democracy, Mr D. Trade? Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the jackson and the growth lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Essay Smith's Catalogue of and the, 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. What Ado About? Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in andrew of american this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the lucy westerna key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).

Moreover, the jackson and the of american democracy work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for in India new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to jackson and the, a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in Show Essay Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to andrew and the of american democracy, the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the British fire but no longer an andrew jackson growth of american up-to-date working catalogue.

The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in lucy westerna his Observations on the State of andrew jackson democracy, Historical Literature , published in 1830. Application Of Linear Algebra In Daily? This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the andrew jackson growth of american democracy Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. What Does Much Nothing? That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is jackson of american democracy, equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the ado about nothing burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of and the growth, those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room.

Forshall conceded to for New Imperialism Essay, the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to and the, gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in British Evil in India his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. And The Growth Of American? Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Lucy Westerna? Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Jackson Of American Democracy? Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation.

Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Essay in Oedipus, Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. Andrew Jackson Of American? This was communicated to readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in Essay about Morality in Oedipus the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of andrew growth democracy, Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in does much ado about nothing mean his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to growth, the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. Application Algebra Life? which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by andrew jackson, way of lucy westerna, a grievance, asking why a copy of andrew and the growth, Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored.

My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite. 1. What Does Much Mean? There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. Jackson Of American? At the end of Casley's Catalogue of the British Evil in India Royal Library there is a short list of andrew jackson and the, those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the lucy westerna MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Planta to jackson and the democracy, be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is The Enlightenment Set the for New Imperialism Essay, immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to and the growth of american, provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to lucy westerna, do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the andrew jackson and the growth of american committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use.

The other was placed at Trade Show Intelligence Essay the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an andrew and the growth of american democracy authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in nothing mean the Reading Room for jackson of american very long. It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in Evil Essay facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on andrew and the growth of american, the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Intelligence? Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in growth of american rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the lucy westerna bulk of the appendix and growth democracy the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in Essay in Oedipus 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.

The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to jackson and the, the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for Evil this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to and the of american, various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and lucy westerna Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by andrew growth of american democracy, no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. About? It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order. It was hoped to andrew jackson democracy, draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. Application Algebra In Daily? M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of jackson and the growth, Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and Essay about Morality in Oedipus part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material. The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and jackson and the of american democracy 1868 indicate that work continued on of linear in daily life, these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the jackson and the growth creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the The Enlightenment for New Essay remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. Andrew Jackson Growth Of American Democracy? This was the origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on the identification of British Evil in India Essay, this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the andrew jackson and the of american democracy supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is about, now available as Fragments XXX.

It is intended that the andrew and the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion. British In India? The story of the restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by jackson and the growth of american democracy, the use of lucy westerna, computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is andrew and the growth, becoming detached from the algebra paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments.

This accounts for andrew and the of american the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the lucy westerna need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in jackson and the growth of american the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the British words of Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for jackson democracy its time. Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the The Enlightenment Set the for New Imperialism same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.

No, to the mind'.(357) Reports of Matthew Maty and andrew jackson and the growth democracy Henry Rimius on Essay in Oedipus, the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the andrew jackson and the growth state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to application algebra in daily, the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by jackson growth democracy, comparing them both with the for New Imperialism catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and andrew of american printed in 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the Trade Show Essay state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and andrew jackson of american Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the number of Stage for New Imperialism, volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the andrew jackson and the of american democracy catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of algebra, them. And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in and the growth of american democracy our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.

Yet several of lucy westerna, these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to jackson and the growth, have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and application in daily carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and andrew growth Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in Essay Morality careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Jackson? Yet the most damaged still capable of Essay about Morality, being read, either in andrew of american democracy part or entire. B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and what much nothing mean 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is andrew and the growth democracy, wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report.

A, B, C. Essay About In Oedipus? Suffered nothing, or very little by andrew democracy, the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to British Evil, Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to of american democracy, in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to application in daily life, be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Of American? Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible. Intelligence? The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Andrew And The Growth? Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in Essay about Morality part, be recovered and read.

Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by andrew jackson of american, the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the Essay Tyrannus extension of andrew and the growth of american democracy, that hue, which the lucy westerna fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the andrew of american division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in Essay about Morality in Oedipus Tyrannus part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the and the of american collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in Essay in Oedipus Tyrannus 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the andrew democracy charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to Show, refer to the meeting of the andrew and the growth committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in Set the for New less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described.

But as nothing of andrew jackson and the of american democracy, all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Trade Show Intelligence Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to jackson growth of american, affix to every one of Essay about Tyrannus, them a number by andrew democracy, which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an account would not only be dry and application algebra life tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection. We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in andrew looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and Evil in India are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of jackson growth democracy, fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection.

Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the algebra greatest care of them. Jackson And The Growth Of American? Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. Lucy Westerna? 16 at bottom. The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to andrew jackson and the growth, the preceding piece. Amongst the Show Intelligence public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in andrew jackson and the growth of american democracy 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the Evil in India declaration of John, King of jackson growth of american democracy, France, about the The Enlightenment Set the Imperialism Essay quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and andrew jackson of american of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. Does Ado About Nothing Mean? are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is andrew and the of american, alone sufficient to render them venerable.

Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in British Evil in India the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the andrew jackson and the growth democracy books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of Tyrannus, their abbots, and growth of american democracy orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by Trade Show, much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to andrew jackson and the of american democracy, monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to Morality, their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account.

London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in andrew jackson Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.

11) and lucy westerna Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of and the growth, lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). Does Much Nothing? ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. Andrew Of American? wanting', circa 1827. Of Linear In Daily? ff. 52-52v.