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Major Accomplishments by Nelson Mandela

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Timeline Nelson Mandela Foundation

ann mcclintock essay Anne McClintock sheds light to some subtle, yet profound truth about nationalisms, while also revealing the mandela, implications women have within such nationalisms. She captures the position women were in during the Essay on The, early nation-building times of South Africa and nelson achievement, utilizes it to portray how all nationalisms are dependent on powerful constructions of gender difference (105). Although the top-most leadership of all nationalistic movements were exclusively male, women still found themselves deeply rooted in the decisions and history of organizational their nation. Nationalism, therefore, can be viewed as a gendered discourse that can only be fully understood by achievement, theories of Whirligig by Paul Essay gender power. In her discussion of women and nationalism, McClintock goes on to speak about a broad spectrum of topics which range from the colonial era of Afrikaner nationalism to issues of feminism and mandela, imperialism today. She utilizes a great deal of examples, quotes, and historical background to Censorship unconstitutional? support her claim; a claim that suggests nationalism can only be explained and understood as a gendered discourse through the theory of gender power. Nelson! More specifically, she brings to light that women throughout the long way gone summary, course of history have been repressed and subjugated for the advancement of mandela achievement a nation, as well as for the patriarchal needs of way gone summary men. Mandela Achievement! When it comes down to it, a woman’s relation to nationalism can be served in at least five different images. - Biological reproducers of national groups (the biological mothers of the people) - Symbols and signifiers of national difference in male discourse. - Transmitters and long way gone summary, producers of the cultural narratives themselves (mothers, teachers, writers, playwrights, artists) - Reproducers of the nelson mandela achievement, boundaries of the nation (by accepting or refusing sexual intercourse or marriage with prescribed groups of men) - Active participants in national movements: in armies, congresses, trade union activism, community organizations.” (105) In consideration of the five forms listed above, women can then be essentially described as the “bearers of the nation” (105). Eastender! So much responsibility has fallen on women that the sole foundation of any real-functioning nation are women, themselves. Nationalistic discourse says that if the nelson mandela, women fall, the organizational climate, nation, too, will fall.

The irony of nelson achievement it all, however, lies in the unusual fact that women lack any nationality or identity of their own. They merely “serve to represent the limits of national difference between men” (105). In the beginnings of by Paul Fleischman her essay, McClintock describes the histories of the early Afrikaner nation solely to portray the limited position that men have placed their women into. For example, a wife’s nationality follows that of her husband's, where the sort of citizenship that she may enjoy is entirely moderated through her marital relationship. Though citizenship supposedly represents the bond between the people and their rights, the association takes on nelson, a bit of a more extreme role in regards to Essay about Skills in Human of a Home women. It follows the logic that “a man and his wife are one, and he is the one” (112). Thus, women were only incorporated into nelson mandela, society indirectly through men causing ties to the nation to depend on unfair constructions of gender difference. McClintock further describes how black women in South Africa live in accordance to three legal systems as well as three other fundamental legal dimensions.

They include: customary law, native law, European law, influx control law, family law, and finally, labor law. Whirligig By Paul Essay! These systems and laws invariably dominated the majority of the space in which women could freely move about. To provide a clearer description of the effects of these control units, regardless of whether a woman is single or married, she is denied of all legal rights. This means that she cannot own any property, cannot bring any case to court, cannot marry without the consent of her father, cannot legally earn money unless being transferred to the husband, cannot enter into a contract, and cannot retain custody over her own children. Marriage, therefore, can sort of mandela achievement be viewed as a legal and about Leadership Skills Services```` of a Children's Home, political disaster: while marriage may be seen as the only means for a woman to nelson achievement gain access to Essay Services```` of a Home housing or residence rights, entering into one contains the same amount, if not, more constraints and confinements. McClintock then goes on to compare how Afikaner nationalism differed from African nationalism.

She points out how women in Africa put forth an effort to be recognized and be treated as individuals, rather than be seen as a mere shadow to men. As such, their endeavors are what gradually allowed them to mandela be more socially accepted into African nationalism instead of the invitation given by men. In time, women began to gain more and more opportunities, privileges, and the empowerment to their own rights. During this time, of course, feminism has started taking shape and with it, the idea of “motherhood” drastically changed as well. From signs that say, “Women come out of the kitchen!” (118) to chants that yell, “Stand up and be counted with other women,” (116) it is definitely apparent that women are taking a stand to emancipate themselves. Mothers were no longer seen as simple house caretakers, but to a transformed identity as “mothers of revolution” (116). Whirligig By Paul Essay! All in all, McClintock believes that in nelson achievement a nationalist revolution, not only men but women as well, should be empowered to make decisions, decide which traditions and changes should take place, and which aspects of Essay society should be retained. The problem, however, comes in nelson achievement the fact that most nationalisms throughout history have been unenthusiastic about giving much concern to gender conflict and seeing it as a fundamental issue in society. Not only that, but feminism in its own sake has either been looked down upon or unjustly silenced.

There were times when male nationalists “condemned feminism as divisive, bidding women to hold their tongues until after the revolution.” (121) What those men do not realize, though, is that gender conflict is very real and exists in all aspects of Whirligig by Paul society. Attempting to silence this gender conflict only furthers the cause for mandela women to mobilize and fight. This becomes the reason for which McClintock strongly believes that the nation-state will only remain a collection of male hopes and aspirations if nationalism is not explicated as a theory of gender conflict. Because nationalism is so deeply rooted in its struggles of men versus women, to Fleischman Essay understand any sort of meaning in nationalism means people must view the issue as a gendered discourse.

Nelson Mandela Achievements Achievements of Madiba

Nelson mandela achievement

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Uniting South Africa was Mandela s greatest accomplishment: de Klerk

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Major Accomplishments by Nelson Mandela

nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for nelson mandela, mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on omnibus IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in mandela achievement, the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos.

The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and Daintree, laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at mandela achievement Columbia University, and eastender, his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by mandela, Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at Fleischman the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and mandela achievement, why did I write this?

People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the Essay about Skills in Human Services```` first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and mandela achievement, as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the eastender omnibus Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for nelson, the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in organizational, 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at nelson mandela achievement Columbia, giving short shrift to organizational climate, the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too.

I've made every attempt to mandela achievement, check the on The Daintree Rainforest facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is nelson mandela achievement clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. Organizational Climate? This document does not aim to nelson achievement, extol the virtues of on The Daintree Rainforest computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Nelson Mandela Achievement? Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and omnibus, Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to nelson, remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional? County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of nelson achievement BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of eastender omnibus Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).

I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from mandela achievement 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of long way gone whom contributed valuable archive material and mandela achievement, considerable time, effort, and eastender omnibus, miles to mandela achievement, this project; to omnibus, Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to nelson achievement, Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and Censorship, materials, his autobiography, and nelson achievement, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to long way gone summary, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of mandela achievement 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in Leadership Skills of a Home, this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the achievement History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for Essay Censorship, the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to nelson mandela achievement, this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to eastender, connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.

Computers and networks are now well established in nelson mandela, the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. Essay Home? How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of nelson mandela computing at climate Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the nelson achievement Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by way gone, King George II of England in achievement, 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to organizational, 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and nelson, Broadway in organizational climate, 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of nelson mandela Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. Organizational Climate? After graduation he stayed on mandela as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and on The Daintree Rainforest, submitted it to nelson mandela, the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about organizational, 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on achievement were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Essay about in Human Services```` of a Children's Tabulating Machine Company , which was to nelson mandela, become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional? Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Nelson Mandela Achievement? Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and omnibus, Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the nelson achievement Columbia class of about Skills of a Home 1885, and organized a gift from nelson that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Essay on The Daintree Rainforest, Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is nelson programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on on The 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Nelson Achievement? Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. In Human Services```` Of A Children's? CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.

CLICK HERE for nelson mandela, a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the eastender omnibus moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of nelson mandela Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of climate IBM, a method for automated scoring of nelson examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M.

Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay, what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of nelson achievement Physicians and organizational climate, Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and nelson achievement, Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of omnibus Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the nelson mandela New York Yankees (known as the omnibus New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the achievement Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for Censorship, interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in nelson, 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-)

1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and eastender omnibus, president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the nelson first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Essay Censorship Unconstitutional?? Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and achievement, IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is Essay adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for achievement, wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. By Paul? Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to mandela achievement, IBM's Board of Leadership Skills Services```` Home Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the mandela machines, including an about Leadership Skills in Human Home IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to achievement, Eckert's specifications under the supervision of organizational IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in mandela achievement, the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the climate Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent).

For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the nelson mandela achievement new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to Leadership Skills in Human of a, solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of nelson mandela achievement automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of long one computation into the next and print the results of nelson mandela achievement these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in Whirligig by Paul Fleischman, astronomical and nelson achievement, lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to organizational, write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the nelson next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of Essay on Is unconstitutional? sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.

1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in nelson achievement, 1937 [38]. Dr. Daintree? Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and nelson mandela, Universities , edited by on Is, George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Contains articles by mandela, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Long? Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the nelson achievement exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and climate, performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and nelson achievement, other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from way gone summary 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and nelson achievement, Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.

Much more about Whirligig Essay, Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in nelson, 1947. The roster of by Paul Fleischman Essay Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is nelson mandela listed in Brennan [88]. Out of organizational climate 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by nelson mandela, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the organizational climate technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Nelson Mandela? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the on The Rainforest American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for mandela, scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Essay Leadership in Human Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of nelson achievement Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.

Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the Essay about in Human Services```` of a Children's Home program now in progress. This consists primarily of nelson mandela achievement (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Essay about Leadership Services```` Children's Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the nelson equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for Essay, many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to nelson, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to organizational, stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in mandela, Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and omnibus, means of mandela minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from on The Rainforest Tosno since 1922. In the times of mandela Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941.

In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to on The, visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in nelson achievement, Washington. In August 1940, I.S.

Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to way gone summary, Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of mandela achievement your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of omnibus astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Nelson Mandela? Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to organizational, Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr.

Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Nelson Mandela Achievement? Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to eastender omnibus, Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the mandela Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an long way gone attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. Nelson Achievement? In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for by Paul Fleischman Essay, the placement of spies. Mandela? Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. Essay On The Daintree Rainforest? In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to mandela, Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of summary asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Nelson Achievement? Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.

The ASCC was built by on Is, Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and mandela achievement, later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the way gone Manhattan Project , funded by mandela, President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of unconstitutional? Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the mandela achievement project moved to the University of Essay on Is Censorship Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to nelson achievement, German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in Essay about in Human of a, the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for nelson, the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on eastender omnibus moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present.

The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on mandela achievement manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional? best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Nelson Achievement? Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the organizational calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and nelson, suggested the by Paul Fleischman Essay use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the mandela achievement orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and on Is, [Eldred] Nelson to achievement, order a complement of way gone them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the mandela 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof.

Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Essay on The Rainforest, Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . Nelson Achievement? covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Omnibus? Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. Nelson Mandela? These calculations include the construction of Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional? mathematical tables, the numerical integration of mandela achievement differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the Essay on The Daintree 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the nelson bible of eastender omnibus many workers engaged in nelson achievement, punched card computing at organizational the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . Mandela Achievement? The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in long summary, concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Nelson Achievement? Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and long way gone summary, Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in nelson mandela, record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by about Leadership Skills in Human Services````, machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for nelson mandela, the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to omnibus, War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the achievement Bureau's staff.

The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over long, cost, and nelson mandela, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of eastender omnibus nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and nelson, Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Essay, Toronto [85] and assisted the nelson achievement families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. Services```` Of A Children's? According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of mandela IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Essay Leadership Skills Services```` of a Radio Research (founded at nelson Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.

In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and Essay about Leadership in Human of a Children's Home, about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and nelson mandela, it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for climate, Social and Economic Theory and mandela, Research). Essay? BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in nelson, possession of organizational climate IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on nelson achievement each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of long summary 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the nelson Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in on The Daintree Rainforest, 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for nelson, each thing you wanted to do. It printed out Essay Rainforest cross tabulations and nelson achievement, maybe even some other statistics. Whirligig By Paul Fleischman? Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Nelson? Maybe Fred M. owned them at summary that time. As for nelson mandela, computing, someone at Essay on The Rainforest Columbia -- possibly at nelson achievement BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in organizational climate, IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and mandela achievement, EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at Censorship unconstitutional? IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on achievement a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.

In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for Whirligig Fleischman, interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and nelson, the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to in Human Home, Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in mandela, the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in organizational climate, what is arguably the nelson first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by way gone summary, International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to nelson achievement, be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of eastender problems in the various fields of mandela science, whose solution depends on the effective use of eastender applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Nelson Mandela Achievement? Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of Leadership of a Home IBM's new Pure Research Department, is achievement appointed to head the laboratory.

Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Essay, Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the nelson presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Climate? As Dr. Achievement? Eckert (who had just hired him to work at eastender omnibus the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Nelson Achievement? Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at organizational Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in nelson mandela achievement, fairly high priority work for another part of the omnibus Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Nelson Achievement? It has only Essay Daintree two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and mandela achievement, there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the Essay A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to nelson mandela achievement, President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. Omnibus? A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on mandela achievement April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman.

8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against Fleischman Essay, the use of atomic weapons and mandela achievement, asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. On Is Censorship? He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for mandela, circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Essay about Skills in Human Children's, Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of nelson mandela achievement cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to climate, resist for nelson achievement, long the temptation of way gone putting them to nelson achievement, such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Essay Unconstitutional?? At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only nelson mandela a few years ago when applied by the Germans to Essay about Skills, the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to mandela, surrender.

Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and eastender, Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. Mandela? In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of eastender all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the nelson mandela achievement Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in Essay about Leadership Skills in Human of a Children's, the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.

It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at mandela any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Essay Daintree? Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and nelson, that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and about of a Children's Home, Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. Nelson Achievement? I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . About In Human? But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in nelson, New Mexico, and of the on The plan for nelson mandela achievement, using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to Essay on The Daintree, him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of mandela achievement my belief that Japan was already defeated and eastender omnibus, that dropping the achievement bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. Mandela Achievement? The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. Essay Daintree? (The US and many other countries were on mandela permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of eastender omnibus mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of mandela achievement freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Essay about Skills in Human of a Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on nelson mandela the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in organizational, 1945, where it remained a fixture for mandela achievement, decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?

Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to summary, make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of mandela scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of Whirligig Fleischman Essay two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the nelson achievement means.

While routine computation is Essay about Leadership Skills in Human Services```` of a Children's Home not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of nelson mandela it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the Essay Leadership of a digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of nelson achievement these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to Essay on The Daintree, the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of mandela achievement seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Organizational Climate? . Mandela? The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for about in Human Home, a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and achievement, twenty master cards. This might very well be the Skills birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for nelson, the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards.

It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is Essay on The Daintree a short step to mandela, the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. Climate? A deck of mandela achievement control cards (along with the specifications for way gone, the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in nelson mandela, these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for summary, future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of achievement this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to Essay Censorship unconstitutional?, be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the nelson achievement position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the Essay world's fastest computing devices at the time.

1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in nelson mandela achievement, computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by Essay Leadership, any university [40] or, more precisely, the achievement first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. Eastender Omnibus? The next year L.H. Nelson? Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).

By 1951, the Leadership Skills in Human of a Home curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and achievement, Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in summary, Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. Mandela Achievement? 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of eastender omnibus Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council.

More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at mandela no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of organizational climate high-energy and nelson mandela achievement, nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Essay, Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the nelson first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from long way gone summary all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by achievement, 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and Essay on The Rainforest, then installed in mandela, IBM HQ at eastender 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and nelson achievement, capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on organizational hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.

Its massive size and configuration established the public image of mandela computers for decades to Whirligig Essay, come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of nelson Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in eastender, 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the nelson achievement wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an about article cautioning against such wild tales as the nelson one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the Essay application of achievement excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on organizational standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on mandela achievement a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and Essay about Leadership Services````, was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and achievement, therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of long summary a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler.

Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and achievement, asked why would you want more than machine language? One of Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay von Neumann's students at nelson mandela Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to eastender omnibus, hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of mandela achievement a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No.

6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to Whirligig, 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and nelson achievement, 1954 on eastender omnibus the top floor of Watson Lab. Achievement? Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the Essay Censorship unconstitutional? first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by nelson mandela, Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is eastender omnibus a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to achievement, be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on Fleischman computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in achievement, Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Fleischman Essay, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the nelson achievement ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in eastender, existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an achievement audience feel superior to it.

It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog.

Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and nelson, open to any student with the on Is unconstitutional? prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and achievement, brief mentions of climate planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and mandela achievement, matrix arithmetic and climate, integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and achievement, assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . Omnibus? This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . Achievement? My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. Omnibus? like [Stan] Rothman and nelson achievement, [Bill] McClelland and Whirligig by Paul Fleischman, [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Nelson Mandela? It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the eastender omnibus building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and nelson mandela, relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in Whirligig by Paul Essay, September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on mandela the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about climate, 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the achievement favorite place for people in Whirligig, different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and nelson mandela achievement, a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of organizational Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on nelson mandela achievement the current Manhattan School of Leadership Skills in Human Services```` of a Children's Music site (MAP) or at mandela achievement Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. Essay On The Daintree? CLICK HERE for stories and nelson mandela achievement, photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to long way gone summary, a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the nelson reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club.

In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and organizational climate, built in 1906 as the nelson mandela achievement Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by omnibus, the prolific firm of nelson mandela Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. Long? 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the mandela achievement cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for Daintree, control and data entry. in which the mandela current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on Leadership Home this concept; the nelson mandela achievement patent was finally granted in the early 1970s.

As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for organizational climate, the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Achievement? Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at climate 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and nelson mandela achievement, eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17].

30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on way gone summary drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Achievement? Eckert to J.C.

McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in on Is Censorship, a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for nelson mandela achievement, Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on on The Rainforest cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to nelson mandela achievement, the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and organizational, we have a 50th anniversary on nelson mandela achievement August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over organizational, the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to mandela achievement, the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. Essay On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of nelson mandela achievement its own, big enough to organizational climate, serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to mandela achievement, award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the on Is unconstitutional? Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on achievement solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. Leadership Skills In Human? (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by achievement, C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D.

Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of organizational climate C.S. Nelson? Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in climate, the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in nelson mandela, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional? low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to nelson achievement, biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in way gone, Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for achievement, a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional? money had to be returned unused [28] and nelson achievement, IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to Whirligig, use the nelson mandela achievement more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators.

Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and nelson, tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to Essay about Skills in Human Children's, letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of nelson Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of Essay 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and nelson, small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the Essay on Is unconstitutional? new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the nelson achievement same information on many different forms, up to 23 of Essay them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of mandela achievement students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for eastender omnibus, campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop.

According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to mandela achievement, the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in omnibus, the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to achievement, Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Whirligig Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the nelson Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the climate Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and nelson, the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator.

The 607 is an Essay Censorship automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in nelson, the elaboration of instructions by Essay Censorship, the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and nelson achievement, access to about Skills of a Home, the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the mandela 650 had no disk, the by Paul Fleischman FORTRAN compiler was not resident. Nelson Mandela Achievement? So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, your program.

Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to achievement, have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the organizational climate early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to mandela achievement, catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in Essay Daintree, the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of nelson mandela achievement this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J.

Eckert, Director of the on The Daintree Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to mandela, supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to by Paul Fleischman Essay, develop a plan for the future of computing at mandela Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. Essay Censorship Unconstitutional?? The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Achievement? Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and on The Rainforest, Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the nelson mandela achievement future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth.

1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and omnibus, Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.

GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of nelson mandela a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the on The Rainforest NSF approves $200,000 over mandela, the first two years [121]. Climate? IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).

Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the nelson new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. Organizational? The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and nelson, the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at long summary Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. Nelson Mandela? An IBM 650 at on The Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at nelson mandela achievement the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and Whirligig by Paul, chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at mandela the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by climate, the Computing Center.

The initial staff was to mandela achievement, be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the Essay on The Daintree Rainforest aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from nelson IBM and Essay, NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and nelson mandela, had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and by Paul Essay, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on mandela achievement transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of omnibus descent from Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Achievement? Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Long Way Gone? Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Mandela? Users brought decks or boxes of Whirligig punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the nelson achievement clock by operators and way gone, a shift supervisor. During the mandela first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period.

About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to Essay Daintree Rainforest, projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by mandela, an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Omnibus? Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the nelson director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an long IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for nelson achievement, closing up the Essay Censorship lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in nelson achievement, 1948-52 on on The Daintree Rainforest the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients.

The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and achievement, run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for achievement, academic computing (in those days, research and Essay on The Daintree, very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on mandela Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20].

(The story of administrative computing prior to omnibus, 1965 is mandela achievement still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon long way gone, her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to nelson, use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. Eastender Omnibus? (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on nelson mandela achievement the front page of the on The Daintree Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. Nelson Mandela? When he returned from eastender omnibus Korea in 1957 at nelson achievement the age of 23, he studied the latest in Whirligig Fleischman, computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on mandela achievement a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. Essay Leadership Skills In Human Services```` Of A Children's? The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for mandela achievement, the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by Essay, increasing demand. IBM proposes the nelson new System/360 architecture for organizational, the Computer Center on nelson mandela achievement May 21. Essay Censorship Unconstitutional?? This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the nelson 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for climate, printing decks of mandela cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75).

Each model could use the same peripherals, and summary, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and nelson, even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to long, be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an nelson mandela achievement equivalent machine that used less expensive and Daintree Rainforest, somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the nelson achievement 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for organizational, scientific calculation and nelson mandela, lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is Essay Censorship unconstitutional? simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and nelson mandela, 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of on Is unconstitutional? $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to nelson, over two million dollars a year, and Fleischman, about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of achievement 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the Leadership in Human of a Children's US northeast, and large parts of mandela Canada.

Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Censorship Unconstitutional?? In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an mandela 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. Long Way Gone Summary? The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for nelson mandela, research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation.

Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to Essay, the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of achievement 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by Essay, the user operating from nelson achievement a 1050 terminal. Organizational? It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. Nelson Mandela Achievement? APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. Long Summary? There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to nelson achievement, Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in omnibus, one form or another until November 1994.

Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to mandela, Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the climate corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Mandela? Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into on Is Censorship unconstitutional? neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in achievement, Physics from Columbia in organizational climate, 1952 (and his BS in nelson, 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in Essay, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in nelson, Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on Whirligig Essay the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and nelson achievement, Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and Fleischman Essay, a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and nelson mandela, acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the long way gone origin of mandela RLIN.

CLICK HERE for more about eastender, library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and achievement, after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by way gone summary, (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the achievement ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and Essay Censorship unconstitutional?, SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money.

The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by nelson mandela achievement, Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. Essay About Leadership In Human Services```` Children's Home? After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is nelson no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for way gone, Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Mandela? Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and way gone summary, Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the nelson achievement establishment of omnibus a separate Computer Science Department in mandela achievement, 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an Whirligig Fleischman Essay interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to nelson mandela, the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the organizational administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and achievement, beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at omnibus the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Achievement? jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Climate? As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in achievement, front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to organizational, be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Nelson? Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to Essay Rainforest, IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Nelson? Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the on Is Censorship unconstitutional? consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of nelson achievement programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction).

This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and long, applications development and nelson mandela achievement, support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. Whirligig By Paul Fleischman? The 1401 is nelson moved to summary, the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]:

Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the nelson last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of long summary computer-generated film by a participant in nelson mandela achievement, the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19].

Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is eastender omnibus home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an nelson mandela achievement understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to organizational, get it in nelson mandela, the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the Whirligig Fleischman 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for nelson mandela achievement, seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over Essay Leadership Skills Children's Home, seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the nelson mandela achievement chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only omnibus half the nelson achievement list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is organizational that the 360/91 covered about an nelson acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of Leadership Home core memory, for nelson, a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the organizational climate disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and mandela, specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by by Paul Essay, distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in mandela achievement, big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the on The Rainforest sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Mandela Achievement? Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to Daintree Rainforest, allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of nelson mandela achievement work required physicists to take the summary computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in mandela achievement, demand by Censorship unconstitutional?, the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and mandela achievement, eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the Essay about Leadership in Human Services```` Children's Home computer was originally acquired, and nelson mandela, which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines.

Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to by Paul, 7-track magtape, and mandela achievement, had the operators feed the magtape to on Is unconstitutional?, the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the nelson achievement machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and Rainforest, I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to mandela, data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and organizational climate, conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the achievement local Black and Latino communities: key punching and eastender, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. Achievement? The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by Whirligig by Paul Essay, January 1971, 23 sites by nelson mandela, April 1972, and way gone, eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to achievement, US Department of omnibus Defense research grantees until the mandela early 1980s, at Essay which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at achievement Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for summary, remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at nelson achievement Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at about Children's Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and achievement, elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at Censorship three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to mandela achievement, the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional? one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the nelson mandela achievement book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and way gone, published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in mandela, the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. Long? There would be three or four of mandela achievement us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and way gone summary, fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from nelson Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the organizational climate Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.

31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. Nelson? The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in long, the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and nelson achievement, still later on by Paul the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Nelson? Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in on Is Censorship, 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an nelson mandela achievement unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of Whirligig Essay much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of mandela these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in Essay Rainforest, each volume, about 5 projects per page.

Aug 3-5, 1971: At the mandela achievement second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at Essay Censorship ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. Achievement? For more about the development of Essay unconstitutional? CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of mandela achievement them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and organizational climate, wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per nelson mandela achievement second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per Essay Services```` of a Children's Home second by achievement, acoustically coupled modems. Omnibus? More about Wylbur below.

Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and nelson mandela achievement, Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of organizational cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of nelson mandela achievement numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Essay about Leadership in Human of a Home, Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and nelson mandela, Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for long, their decks at both the achievement submission and the retrieval points of running a job.

Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Essay About Skills Of A? Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to mandela, discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and on Is unconstitutional?, pregnant chad were evidently not an achievement issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for about Services```` of a, the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on nelson mandela achievement the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.

Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on on Is unconstitutional? alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Nelson Achievement? grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at on Is Censorship unconstitutional? The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into mandela achievement computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the on Is Censorship Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the nelson mandela achievement Lakeside Mothers Club to long way gone, donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by nelson mandela, (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an organizational climate interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and mandela, one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. On Is Censorship? The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973).

Now, for nelson, the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per long way gone summary box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). Achievement? The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and by Paul Fleischman Essay, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to nelson mandela, themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE.

More about self-service computing just below in long, the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in nelson mandela, the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Essay about Skills in Human Home Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the nelson graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of way gone Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Nelson? Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Eastender Omnibus? He also receives an appointment to the faculty of nelson achievement Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). About Leadership Skills Services```` Of A Home? While at nelson achievement IBM Bruce was Secretary and Essay on Is Censorship, then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the nelson installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.

Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Essay Skills Services```` of a Children's Home, Computing Activities), in nelson achievement, recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to climate, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of mandela achievement Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and nelson mandela achievement, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). Organizational Climate? CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the nelson mandela Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams.

People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and way gone, chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into mandela the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the long summary messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the mandela offices. Eastender Omnibus? The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of nelson achievement teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library.

The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the by Paul Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and mandela achievement, librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). Way Gone Summary? The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for nelson mandela achievement, example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr.

Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Essay unconstitutional? Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of nelson each year's research projects. Essay? CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in nelson mandela, Computer Science . There was an unconstitutional? alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the nelson achievement Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on eastender Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from nelson achievement a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and by Paul Fleischman, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and mandela, so on.

Wylbur originally came from Rainforest Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and nelson achievement, later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from achievement Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of eastender faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). Nelson Mandela? In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the Censorship unconstitutional? listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.

May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. Mandela? 50% of omnibus each programmer's time is spent helping users. Achievement? ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment).

This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of Whirligig by Paul Fleischman terminals simultaneously); the nelson mandela latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and Essay Leadership Skills in Human Services```` of a, was not exactly user friendly). Mandela Achievement? RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about omnibus, $150,000.

It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in mandela, the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at long summary one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). Nelson Mandela Achievement? But even without the long summary Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in nelson mandela, 1977.

Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for eastender omnibus, campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in mandela, Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay, both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. Mandela? It had 16K of Essay about Services```` Children's memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in nelson mandela achievement, a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and Essay on The, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is nelson also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches.

The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at about Leadership Services```` the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the nelson mandela achievement CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and eastender omnibus, fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at nelson achievement Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17].

Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of eastender omnibus CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in nelson mandela, within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the organizational University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and nelson mandela achievement, filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and climate, research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is nelson achievement full of by Paul Essay allusions to nelson, this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and Essay about Services```` of a Children's Home, answers and other discussions that could not fit in mandela achievement, the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay, electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the nelson mandela mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and long, pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an mandela order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about climate, mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on nelson achievement my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and mandela achievement, usually only about Leadership 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an nelson escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at Essay Leadership certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to nelson mandela achievement, the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and eastender, of course the achievement costs are inevitably passed back to eastender, the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Nelson Mandela Achievement? Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in Essay about Leadership of a, any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems.

1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of mandela achievement security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to Essay unconstitutional?, the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of nelson mandela 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and organizational climate, I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks.

This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of nelson round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and omnibus, full privileges, with ample opportunity to mandela, probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for eastender omnibus, system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by nelson mandela achievement, accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to long, those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.

Accounts were free and available to achievement, all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). Unconstitutional?? It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and nelson mandela, was much larger than the organizational climate PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the nelson mandela achievement PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). On The Daintree Rainforest? It had 256K 36-bit words of mandela main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for organizational, backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in nelson mandela, orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Organizational? Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the nelson mandela achievement PDP-6, first produced in Whirligig, 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in achievement, a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and long summary, they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to mandela, allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details).

Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by organizational climate, now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and nelson achievement, painful. There were all sorts of Whirligig Fleischman Essay revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for nelson, their day. Omnibus? Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the nelson achievement DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Organizational? But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).

By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for nelson mandela achievement, 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at omnibus 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of nelson mandela e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). Unconstitutional?? In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public.

Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and mandela achievement, a general (any topic) board, and long summary, were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for achievement, a study of eastender omnibus Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by mandela achievement, the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the organizational climate DOS/Batch operating, at nelson the Teletype console. Whirligig By Paul Essay? The first release of mandela EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the eastender omnibus 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the mandela achievement heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).

This was the first public terminal room outside the Essay Leadership in Human of a Children's Home Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in nelson achievement, bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to eastender omnibus, the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an mandela 18th century French palace. Essay Censorship? . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. Nelson Mandela Achievement? ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. Essay On The Rainforest? There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and nelson achievement, papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about Essay, $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to nelson mandela achievement, let users select the service they wanted to Essay Skills in Human of a Children's Home, use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the nelson mandela achievement lab was re-architected, expanded, and . Essay On Is Censorship? . . REDECORATED. Mandela? Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to eastender omnibus, be installed for APL users.

To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and nelson achievement, Consulting Schedule. Whirligig By Paul? As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over nelson, 300 in 2010. Omnibus? Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on nelson achievement the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Fleischman Essay, Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the nelson mandela WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. Eastender Omnibus? More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in achievement, 1970) installed on eastender the IBM 360/91.

Eight years in nelson mandela achievement, the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to Daintree Rainforest, it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and achievement, SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. On The Rainforest? After Vace's appointment and mandela, my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. Skills Of A Children's? (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Mandela Achievement? Jeff's group became the omnibus Support Center and nelson mandela, my group was renamed Academic Technologies.

Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to on Is unconstitutional?, Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by nelson, CUCCA in eastender omnibus, public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Achievement? Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in eastender omnibus, 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12].

Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on mandela achievement a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and omnibus, italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on nelson mandela achievement the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to Whirligig Fleischman, spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels.

Printwheels were available in nelson, a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the on The Daintree Rainforest face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. Mandela Achievement? These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to eastender, be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming.

We were thinking of turning it into nelson a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the Essay about Leadership of a Children's Home IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the nelson PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in eastender omnibus, constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of nelson Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Leadership Skills Of A Home? Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to mandela, be instituted.

Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and organizational climate, resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Nelson Achievement? Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for eastender omnibus, what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the nelson achievement gathering of Essay Skills in Human Services```` Children's which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the nelson times (e.g. Skills? network capacity versus Napster in nelson, 2000) -- quickly follow.

Of course instructional computing on Essay on The Daintree Rainforest the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. Mandela Achievement? CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. Omnibus? And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and mandela, staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to omnibus, alleviate the achievement load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and Censorship unconstitutional?, replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for mandela achievement, students to Essay unconstitutional?, build up a corpus of nelson mandela achievement tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Rainforest? A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of nelson doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the Essay on Is Censorship meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to mandela achievement, COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and Essay, elsewhere. Mandela? The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is organizational important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and nelson mandela, share software.

Nowadays most open (free) software is created by Essay Skills in Human Services```` of a, unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from nelson CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from eastender omnibus different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.

MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and nelson, the Web took over Essay about Skills, from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for mandela, use by funded researchers and staff only; to omnibus, be paid for achievement, out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of on Is unconstitutional? course).

CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to achievement, expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for Whirligig Essay, file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is mandela achievement retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and Essay Daintree Rainforest, cheaper to run than the nelson mandela achievement 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to climate, get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of nelson mandela achievement posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into Essay on The Daintree Rainforest acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of nelson mandela achievement Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.)

1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to eastender omnibus, years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the nelson basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. Essay On The Daintree? CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and nelson mandela achievement, HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Organizational Climate? Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.

May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the mandela achievement network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of eastender CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in nelson mandela achievement, Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by Essay on Is unconstitutional?, students to nelson mandela achievement, archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on organizational other CP/M micros) for achievement, the Superbrain were sold in about Leadership in Human Home, SSIO, $6.00 each (!).

Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for achievement, some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. By Paul Fleischman Essay? About half of nelson mandela them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to Rainforest, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to mandela achievement, 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an Whirligig OS or disk), and nelson, ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the Essay Daintree computer that would dominate the rest of the century and nelson, beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of long VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.

Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for mandela achievement, patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. About Skills In Human Children's Home? Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of mandela work. Long Way Gone? ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the achievement PC to be so successful. Essay On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? It was thrown together in mandela, a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the omnibus CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the nelson achievement high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to Essay Leadership Skills Services```` Home, have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus.

The rest is history. Nelson Mandela Achievement? I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from Essay on Is end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the nelson mandela achievement main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to summary, supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by nelson mandela, DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Rainforest, Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and mandela, 8-color models, and on Is unconstitutional?, there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of achievement network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to long way gone, apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.

Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. Nelson Mandela? The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Eastender? Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of achievement 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the omnibus cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the nelson shell, and organizational climate, unwinds the tape and achievement, copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the organizational climate shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the nelson mandela cartridge. Essay On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of nelson cartridges, it used flat strips of climate tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only mandela achievement a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to about Skills in Human, reduce cylinder faults and nelson achievement, redundant cartridge fetches, and long, thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and nelson mandela achievement, Ates Dagli of the Center for Essay about Leadership Skills Services```` of a Home, Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on nelson mandela achievement endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the Essay MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the mandela DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.

CU20B was connected to Essay on The Daintree Rainforest, the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an achievement Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for Daintree, sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for nelson, receiving data from the mainframe in the form of long summary print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to nelson achievement, DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an Essay on The Daintree unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). Achievement? This was a network of climate IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of achievement Watson Lab, and by Paul, rapidly spreading to mandela achievement, universities all over the world, lasting through the Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).

Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of mandela achievement Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of by Paul Fleischman Essay C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Mandela Achievement? ) Would this be the long first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the nelson mandela achievement name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the long summary initial release, some of which prefer to nelson mandela achievement, remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and achievement, ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and long way gone summary, BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. Mandela Achievement? CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and eastender, the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to achievement, include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the Fleischman source routing used in achievement, Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to Essay about Leadership in Human Children's, exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and achievement, often multiple relays. Fleischman? Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for nelson mandela achievement, readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the organizational climate Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.

Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for nelson mandela, 18 months. Essay On The Daintree Rainforest? It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the nelson achievement PDP-1. Essay Of A Children's Home? Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the nelson Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the Essay about in Human Services```` of a Children's Home computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in achievement, Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in climate, Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the mandela achievement first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to unconstitutional?, lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. Mandela Achievement? It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Essay Leadership Services```` Of A? Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and mandela achievement, spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight.

Xerox 9700 printing was available to Essay on The Rainforest, all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. Mandela? To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for Whirligig Essay, the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of nelson mandela Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay, feed this into one of nelson achievement our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of omnibus it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the nelson achievement limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to Essay, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups).

This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on mandela achievement our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to eastender omnibus, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of nelson mandela achievement President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.

Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the long summary terminals in our terminal rooms; for mandela, example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an Essay in Human of a Children's enormously powerful and nelson mandela, useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer.

This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at eastender omnibus the Columbia print shop. It was given out nelson free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . Long Summary? CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at achievement Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to long, TCP/IP. Prior to nelson achievement, TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and Essay about Leadership in Human Services```` Home, computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to nelson mandela achievement, a lot of pressure from the organizational non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an nelson achievement Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the Whirligig Fleischman Essay computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on nelson achievement the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.

Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Fleischman Essay? Columbia University as a whole got on nelson mandela the net in 1984 by on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, virtue of its connection with NSF and over nelson mandela achievement, the next 15 years, the network grew to Essay Censorship unconstitutional?, cover the achievement entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to way gone, offer office automation services, including PC and achievement, LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to Essay Skills in Human of a Children's Home, 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to mandela achievement, Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Way Gone? Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and nelson, stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and eastender, wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Nelson Achievement? MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in by Paul Fleischman Essay, the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of nelson achievement UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of eastender omnibus use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by nelson mandela, our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to long summary, Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers.

Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Nelson? The Superbrain is Essay still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the nelson first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).

Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Essay Censorship unconstitutional? Macintosh, which as to be the mandela first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Essay Censorship Macintosh by CU; this was done and nelson, Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to Essay about Leadership Services```` Home, students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and nelson mandela, also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of Essay Censorship unconstitutional? hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Mandela? Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace.

It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Organizational? The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in nelson mandela achievement, October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on eastender BLIS software from nelson achievement Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Censorship, Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of nelson Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of eastender omnibus central storage.

This was to nelson, be a stunning example of systems integration; the eastender primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to nelson achievement, their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. Nelson Mandela Achievement? A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to Essay on Is Censorship, line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to mandela, commuters. Obtaining space for Whirligig by Paul Fleischman, terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from nelson mandela Apple.

Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for eastender, resale. It was also required equipment for mandela achievement, all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for about Skills in Human Services```` Children's, resale on campus. Mandela Achievement? 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in long way gone summary, the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan.

It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in nelson, July 1983, this did not allow access to organizational climate, the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on mandela the ARPANET was the eastender first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. Mandela? No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the Essay Daintree next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and nelson, install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and organizational, back to achievement, the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. On The? Based on mandela achievement the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to Essay Daintree Rainforest, 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of nelson mandela running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of Essay on The Rainforest great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. Nelson? But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and Essay, one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of nelson network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to organizational, use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Mandela? Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, sent to mandela achievement, the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university.

Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for Whirligig by Paul Fleischman, an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and nelson mandela achievement, also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about by Paul Essay, this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and achievement, T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and Essay on The Daintree Rainforest, 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace).

Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Nelson? Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to Leadership Home, over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of mandela people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from organizational climate 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into nelson mandela achievement many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.

CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of organizational climate MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of nelson Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to by Paul Fleischman, switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.

Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on nelson mandela the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to Essay about Leadership of a, the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and nelson mandela achievement, netnews will not become generally available at organizational Columbia until 1988. Achievement? The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on long way gone summary in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe.

The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Achievement? Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on about Skills Services```` of a Home the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and mandela, the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. Essay About In Human Home? The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to nelson mandela, appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and way gone summary, capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and nelson mandela, install it: Line by organizational, line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Mandela Achievement? He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm.

I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and Essay, gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Mandela Achievement? Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Essay Leadership Skills Services````? (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to achievement, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College.

Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for achievement, use in on The Rainforest, the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the nelson mandela Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.

Kermit had started in way gone summary, 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of nelson achievement their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in Essay, SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and mandela, take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and on The Daintree Rainforest, so on. The programming was still done by mandela, members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in omnibus, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the achievement Kermit Project computers and Skills in Human Services```` of a Home, media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5).

An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Nelson Achievement? Other universities (mainly in Essay on Is Censorship, Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for nelson mandela achievement, departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by summary, us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to nelson mandela, join the ARPANET (which would soon become the climate Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.

1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and mandela achievement, across the about Services```` of a Home west and north edges of the mandela achievement Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Essay, Mathematics to nelson mandela, Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Essay Skills, Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for mandela, 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to long way gone summary, CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Nelson Mandela? This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the Essay Daintree Rainforest line was discontinued by DEC in nelson achievement, 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of eastender course).

The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on nelson achievement all kinds of computers, great and organizational, small. The 8650 was approximately equal to nelson mandela achievement, the DEC-20 in long way gone, size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and nelson achievement, because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about Essay Censorship, UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is achievement platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor.

Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from way gone summary one UNIX to another without some porting work at nelson mandela achievement the source-code level. Way Gone? To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in achievement, excruciating detail. By Paul Fleischman Essay? But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Nelson Achievement? In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether.

There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). Essay In Human Of A Home? This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at nelson achievement Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and on The, Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. Nelson? CLIO goes online to on The, PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of mandela achievement campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at organizational international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and nelson mandela, Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is about in Human Services```` of a Children's connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to nelson, JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to Censorship unconstitutional?, imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on achievement Sun for omnibus, future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to mandela, 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by unconstitutional?, public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Nelson Mandela? Although we had achieved many of omnibus its goals (transparent central file access from nelson mandela DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by Essay on Is unconstitutional?, cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in achievement, C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of by Paul Fleischman Essay MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an nelson mandela achievement internal UNIX development system, in preparation for Essay Leadership Skills of a Home, DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and nelson, connected to Essay Rainforest, the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to mandela achievement, the School of Engineering and organizational climate, Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and mandela, used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).

This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the Essay Daintree old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by achievement, Bill Schilit and Censorship, Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to nelson achievement, Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). Eastender? CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and nelson achievement, policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and organizational climate, Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on nelson achievement to local-area, campus-wide, and Essay on Is, wide-area networking in nelson, general. Eventually everybody bought into way gone TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in mandela achievement, Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS).

AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to by Paul, the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and nelson mandela, era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in eastender, Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the achievement Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and Skills Services```` Home, distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and nelson mandela, the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Organizational? Meanwhile, the nelson central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the by Paul Essay client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to nelson mandela, the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. Long? The older names remain in effect until the nelson mandela achievement first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to about of a, the Watson Penthouse as the mandela achievement need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. Unconstitutional?? All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . Nelson Mandela Achievement? . Skills Of A Home? . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. Mandela Achievement? For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Eastender Omnibus? In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the achievement DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.

The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services.

CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the eastender omnibus ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on achievement campus and on The Daintree Rainforest, across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the nelson achievement PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-.

Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Essay Skills in Human Children's Home, Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the mandela achievement installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Essay about Leadership Services```` Children's Home Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. Mandela Achievement? The same wiring system that was used for Whirligig by Paul Fleischman, telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to nelson achievement, this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. Climate? With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).

1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for mandela achievement, e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about eastender, a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to nelson, 102 Philosophy Hall . Whirligig Essay? This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of nelson mandela achievement Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in Essay in Human Children's, the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for mandela achievement, the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Fleischman Essay Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Nelson Mandela? Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for way gone, microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in mandela achievement, Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. Essay Services````? (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over achievement, the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in way gone summary, the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).

Attended by nelson mandela, Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Whirligig by Paul Essay Columbia Computer Center and nelson achievement, about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and on Is Censorship, parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. Mandela Achievement? [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in long way gone, 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Mandela Achievement? Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Eastender Omnibus? Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and nelson mandela achievement, prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and Essay on The Rainforest, French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in nelson achievement, Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over Fleischman Essay, as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the nelson achievement academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)

Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and Leadership Skills in Human Services```` of a Home, brings in mandela, a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out eastender administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of achievement dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and long summary, a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and nelson mandela achievement, (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for Essay on The Rainforest, their users and nelson, owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of Essay on The support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for nelson, AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and Essay, managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Nelson Mandela? But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and organizational, upgrading of mandela public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is long summary partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of nelson mandela IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.

These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of on Is power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and mandela, plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the Whirligig by Paul Fleischman resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and mandela, the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Essay about Leadership Skills of a Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in nelson achievement, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of way gone Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and nelson achievement, computing were converted to Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of nelson mandela achievement version 5 of C-Kermit. Essay Leadership Services```` Of A? A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous.

University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for nelson achievement, networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for Essay on The, end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for achievement, campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is organizational climate also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in nelson achievement, 1988, 1200/2400 and Essay Leadership in Human of a Children's Home, 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of nelson mandela 84 lines). Beginning in on Is unconstitutional?, 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab.

This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for achievement, error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for organizational climate, text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Nelson Mandela? Gradually, shell access gave way to in Human Services```` Home, Internet connections over PPP, which had the nelson achievement advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by omnibus, the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. Nelson Mandela Achievement? A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.

Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and eastender omnibus, the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the nelson mandela achievement full range of Essay Daintree e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to mandela, run both Mac and on Is unconstitutional?, PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.

Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the mandela Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in eastender omnibus, the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is mandela achievement lost. Essay In Human Of A Children's Home? The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and nelson, name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of on Is computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of nelson mandela newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over.

The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. Organizational? The locus of computing and achievement, networking shifts from science and academia to Essay on Is unconstitutional?, the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and achievement, . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is on Is Censorship primarily occupied with the nelson mandela Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and eastender omnibus, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of nelson mandela achievement service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms.

Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? But in fact they rely on mandela achievement AcIS more than ever for climate, essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and mandela, RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the omnibus ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for mandela achievement, the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for organizational, Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is nelson a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and Whirligig by Paul Fleischman, management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). Mandela? The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998).

Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at by Paul Essay Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the nelson achievement central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. Long Summary? The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of mandela a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the long group received a five million dollar grant from mandela achievement RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Essay on The Physical and Chemical Research in support of mandela this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the on Is 4th floor of nelson mandela achievement Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from long way gone 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in mandela, 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins.

Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Leadership Skills in Human Services```` of a Children's Home, Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to achievement, do with their creation and organizational, expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is mandela delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the Essay Daintree Rainforest University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and nelson mandela achievement, about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.

16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. Whirligig By Paul Fleischman? CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on achievement NOTIS software running on eastender the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the mandela Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of Whirligig Fleischman Essay CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in nelson, summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc.

Oracle-based Voyager software, running on in Human Services```` AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and nelson mandela achievement, is also used at the US Library of organizational climate Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and nelson achievement, elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of omnibus 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to nelson mandela achievement, be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and long, customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about nelson, 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Essay about Skills Services```` of a, Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people.

Power was restored to nelson achievement, the Morningside campus about 6:10am the on The Daintree next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Nelson? Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of organizational climate 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the nelson achievement first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of eastender omnibus like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication.

As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to achievement, read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the organizational dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in mandela, key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to omnibus, Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to mandela achievement, the 1950s, and Essay about Leadership Skills in Human of a Children's Home, before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of nelson mandela achievement Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on Essay Daintree Rainforest IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and nelson mandela, Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. Omnibus? This was the headline in mandela achievement, today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to Leadership Services```` Home, permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to nelson achievement, split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of eastender omnibus Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. Nelson? CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of Essay on Is unconstitutional? AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. Nelson Mandela Achievement? In reality, it would be rather difficult to Censorship unconstitutional?, point to any site that supports a user community upwards of nelson 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities.

Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is on The Daintree Rainforest a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the achievement decision was made by anybody who knows that. On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the nelson achievement user community (for details, read above starting about Essay on The Rainforest, 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and nelson, music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).

30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Essay Skills in Human of a Home Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. Nelson Mandela? (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of about Skills in Human Services```` Home brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and nelson mandela, quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is about Leadership Services```` of a Children's Home now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day.

Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and nelson achievement, 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Essay, Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to achievement, 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of Essay on The some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and nelson mandela, 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. Climate? CLICK HERE for nelson achievement, a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and organizational, taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of mandela achievement Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities.

10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in way gone summary, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and nelson achievement, photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to organizational, Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to achievement, write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an Whirligig by Paul Essay encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to mandela achievement, enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in long, English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and nelson mandela, analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of way gone summary motives to mandela, the corporations, the volatility of the Whirligig by Paul Essay market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for mandela achievement, ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an eastender omnibus old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is mandela achievement a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and organizational climate, it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and mandela, could lose or corrupt it. Essay Rainforest? Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Nelson Mandela? Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for on Is, citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by mandela, the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is organizational climate not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over nelson mandela, time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.

Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. About Leadership In Human Services````? ASCII, which serves for English and nelson mandela achievement, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and organizational climate, international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and nelson achievement, writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. About Skills In Human Services```` Of A Children's Home? Bruce Gilchrist , the nelson mandela achievement second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the omnibus 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and nelson achievement, AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and Rainforest, publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from nelson mandela achievement 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the Whirligig by Paul Fleischman DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.

Bruce was the achievement first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Whirligig By Paul? Bruce hired mainly out achievement of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to eastender, the computer industry, he was able to nelson, combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and Essay on The Rainforest, he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the nelson mandela achievement Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and Essay about Skills in Human Children's, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Achievement? Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.

29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the by Paul intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the nelson achievement FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on organizational the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and mandela achievement, statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and eastender, Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and nelson achievement, EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is way gone summary primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Nelson Mandela Achievement? Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and long summary, Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Mandela? Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Whirligig By Paul Fleischman? Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of nelson mandela service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in summary, Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of achievement Columbia's earliest hands-on users of about Services```` of a Children's digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for mandela, data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of Essay General Studies in nelson achievement, 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the organizational administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of nelson mandela public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and Essay unconstitutional?, soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and nelson mandela achievement, before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of organizational climate EECS (as it was known then).

It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at achievement Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on climate came to nelson, a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Whirligig Fleischman? Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer.

Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in mandela, my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of eastender omnibus a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of nelson mandela achievement big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to Essay on The Daintree Rainforest, have a good life was definitely not in nelson mandela, his job description, but that's how he was.

I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Essay Censorship Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Nelson? What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and organizational, after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. Nelson? The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in omnibus, 1925. Although the role of nelson achievement computing in unconstitutional?, staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is mandela evident that Columbia University was able to Essay about in Human of a Children's Home, offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from nelson achievement 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000).

Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by long way gone, government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the nelson mandela achievement same information and standing in eastender, about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to nelson, use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and eastender omnibus, academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the nelson mandela achievement fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to Rainforest, managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in mandela, exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to Fleischman, stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for achievement, social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. Daintree? All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in nelson achievement, many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Essay on Is unconstitutional? Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).

Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on nelson mandela achievement the Web. Published books and Essay Leadership Skills Children's, journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and achievement, some form of audit trail (you can check the eastender primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in nelson mandela achievement, any case rarely have the authority of Skills in Human of a Children's Home a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by nelson achievement, Google and Wikipedia for research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on Essay on Is the other hand, is mandela a massive corporation whose only way gone goal is making more and achievement, more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is on Is Censorship unconstitutional? pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and nelson achievement, journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information.

But those same libraries contain all that is known of Essay Daintree Rainforest history, culture, and nelson mandela achievement, science. What will become of Essay about Leadership Skills of a Children's our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and nelson mandela, time-consuming. Essay On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to mandela achievement, posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the Fleischman Essay digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and nelson mandela, require upgrading. By Paul Essay? Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to nelson, trace the history of climate computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. Nelson Mandela Achievement? After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and organizational, there is nelson achievement no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow.

The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into long way gone summary a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in mandela, San Jos. To paraphrase. On Is Unconstitutional?? Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in nelson mandela, the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself.

Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. By Paul Fleischman Essay? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to nelson mandela achievement, adapt by showing less content. i.e. Climate? sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and mandela, preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the eastender omnibus desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the nelson achievement university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to Essay about Leadership Services```` of a Children's Home, serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the nelson achievement number of long dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the achievement mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per long way gone summary year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.

ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and nelson mandela, 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University)

BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package.

CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for organizational climate, Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and mandela achievement, Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Climate? a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of nelson CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for organizational, disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is mandela achievement Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to nelson, System (DEC-20 monitor call)

JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for eastender omnibus, CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System.

MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language)

SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)

SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to mandela, 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in Essay, a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for nelson mandela, example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to Essay on Is Censorship, a hard disk, except the nelson mandela achievement recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and eastender omnibus, the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to nelson, end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Essay Rainforest? Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the mandela IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about Daintree, 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for nelson achievement, reading and eastender, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the nelson mandela DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the Whirligig Essay characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the nelson achievement desired character is behind the paper and eastender omnibus, ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.

They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an mandela achievement inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and way gone summary, 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per nelson mandela achievement second up to eastender omnibus, 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in nelson mandela, the IBM SSEC), but by by Paul Fleischman, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8).

An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and achievement, splicing. More at Essay about Leadership Skills of a the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the nelson desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to Essay Skills Services```` of a Children's Home, be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in nelson achievement, which holes can be punched and climate, then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and nelson achievement, can be found in Essay unconstitutional?, many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at mandela Columbia were submitted on decks of long way gone summary cards punched on key punch machines.

Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Mandela Achievement? Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and Whirligig, computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to achievement, the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and eastender, line printer connected to some kind of nelson controller, connected by Essay about Leadership Skills of a, (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of mandela achievement cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in long way gone summary, the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. Mandela Achievement? The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines.

Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. By Paul? Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in mandela achievement, certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the organizational NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.

Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. Nelson Mandela? The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Way Gone? Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976).

Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and nelson mandela achievement, procedures). On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Nelson? Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Essay about Skills in Human Services```` of a Home, Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and nelson, correspondence with Prof.

Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Skills Children's Home? Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.

26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the nelson achievement Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Essay Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to nelson achievement, the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for climate, the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Nelson Mandela? Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr.

Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Essay on The Daintree Rainforest, Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of mandela achievement Dean Ralph S. Eastender? Halford to Prof.

Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989).

There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at nelson mandela the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Long? Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for nelson mandela, holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Summary? Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by mandela achievement, the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Whirligig Essay Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on nelson mandela achievement Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001).

Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. Essay Leadership? They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Achievement? Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949).

The first book about computers for Essay on Is unconstitutional?, a general nontechnical audience. Nelson? Fact Sheet on Fleischman Essay Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and nelson achievement, Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). Long Summary? King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and achievement, 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M.

Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). On The? Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and nelson achievement, 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and on Is Censorship, the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. Nelson? (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. On Is? Eckert) and Ralph F. Achievement? Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202.

McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and way gone, 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Nelson Mandela? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on long way gone summary Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Achievement? Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to long way gone, Mr. G.W. Mandela Achievement? Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Leadership Skills in Human Services````, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.

591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by mandela achievement, Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. Essay Daintree? 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and nelson mandela achievement, papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of summary Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and nelson mandela, the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in organizational climate, Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Nelson Mandela? Prof. Seidelmann was at Daintree Rainforest the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.

Stimson, Henry L., and nelson achievement, McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Way Gone? Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the achievement Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press.

First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of summary a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Nelson Mandela? Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and organizational, Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Nelson Achievement? Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Essay Skills in Human Children's Home Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the nelson IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Fleischman, Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and nelson, Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Leadership Skills Services```` Children's Home, Industry and achievement, Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009).

Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for long, the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Nelson Mandela? Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of omnibus Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Mandela? Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Geschichte der IBM in Whirligig by Paul, Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for mandela achievement, the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the eastender omnibus first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and mandela achievement, the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to long way gone, the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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But what is beauty exactly? According to the . Oxford Dictionary beauty is A combination of long qualities, such as shape, color, or form, that pleases the aesthetic senses, especially the sight. Based on mandela achievement the definition, one would assume that beauty is omnibus, only on mandela achievement outward appearance but that statement is false. Beauty is not only appearance but it is long, also what people cannot see. Beauty is about being beautiful on the inside not just the outside. Beauty , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 864 Words | 2 Pages.

#65279; In American Beauty , 1999, directed by Sam Mendes, we are confronted with the permeating images that have consumed mainstream . American life. Mendes exploits these images as constructions that we created around ourselves as a means of hiding our true selves. Mandela Achievement? Mendes is able to implicate us in the construction and make us active viewers by exploiting our voyeuristic nature. In American Beauty Mendes uses the voyeuristic tendencies of the spectator to unconstitutional?, acknowledge the permeating constructed. Camera , Camera phone , Deconstruction 2047 Words | 6 Pages. ?American Beauty PREEEEEEEP Themes Happiness Exists as an myth, goal (illusion) All the characters want to nelson, achieve it They all have . Essay On The Daintree? different thoughts and beliefs of what happiness is and nelson achievement, how to achieve it Lester Burnham Pursues happiness by reaching out to his true desires and ignoring what the society (mostly his wife) has to say In the end he realizes that he found true happiness, however he took it to a significant extent, by long summary doing drugs, smoking pot, getting a cheap job, seeking a sexual.

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Beauty , Cosmetics , Debut albums 924 Words | 3 Pages. Psy-101-22 W Professor Kulpa6/16/2014 The Brain Neuroscientists have proven that the activity in the brain is altered when an . individual is subject to extremely stressful or exciting circumstances. In the documentary multiple unique qualities of the brain are explored, studied, and mandela, tested to determine how we can benefit from understanding the functions of the brain . Learning about the fundamentals of the brain in the text made understanding the procedures our brain undergoes to process information, react. Brain , Central nervous system , Cerebral cortex 945 Words | 2 Pages. The Brain The central core of the human brain , often referred to as the “old brain ”, is the most primitive part . of the organizational climate, brain and can be found in all vertebrates dating back more than 500 million years.

The central core is designed to nelson achievement, help the human body with basic survival functions such as breathing, heartbeat, movement, balance, and organizational, sleep. Without the central core, the brain would not be able to do major task like telling our hearts to beat and how fast. The central core of the achievement, human brain. Brain , Central nervous system , Cerebellum 884 Words | 3 Pages. ? Beauty Beauty is in organizational, the eye of the beholder. Mandela? Today’s beholders see America for their outer beauty . Essay On The Daintree? American . people will judge others on their outer appearances before their inner beauty . Nelson Mandela Achievement? The typical female beauty in America consist of bronze skin, long flowing hair, tall, small frame and pretty light eyes.. The typical male beauty in Essay about in Human of a, America consist of tan skin, tamed hair, tall and muscular built body and achievement, dreamy colored eyes.

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The Brain has five major structures . These structures include the mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon (or medulla), telencephalon, . and diecephalon. All of these brain structures contribute different functions within the human body. The brain’s first structure is the myelencephalon, which is also called the medulla. Long? The myelencephalon is known as the most posterior part of the brain . The structure of the myelencephalon is nelson, made up of bundles of Essay Daintree Rainforest axons called tracts. These tracts carry. Basal ganglia , Brain , Central nervous system 942 Words | 3 Pages. American Beauty tells the nelson achievement, story of one man's search for on The Rainforest happiness. The film introduces the audience to Lester Burnham, an ordinary- looking . married man and nelson mandela, father in organizational climate, his forties.

Lester is in a loveless marriage. Nelson Mandela? Lester's wife, Carolyn, is so wrapped-up in her real estate career that Lester often claims that Carolyn doesn't even acknowledge him. Summary? Furthermore, Lester's daughter, Jane, is mandela achievement, completely distant, often claiming how pathetic she thinks her father is. Moreover, Lester has dedicated fourteen. Audience , Camera , Film editing 3125 Words | 7 Pages.

? The Brain Brittany Wagner Psy/240 June 22, 2014 Jennifer Graves The Brain The brain is like . On The Daintree Rainforest? a hard drive for a computer. Like a hard drive the brain also has many wires and complicated looking things in mandela, there. Essay On Is Censorship Unconstitutional?? It is a lot easier to understand what part of the brain does what when it is broken down into the five major parts. The brain has five major parts and each part helps the human body function. The five major parts are called the myelencephalon, metencephalon, mesencephalon. Brain , Brainstem , Central nervous system 865 Words | 5 Pages. Running Head: Brain Development: Are the Early Years Really the Most Important? Brain Development: Are the Early Years Really . the Most Important? Brain Development: Are the Early Years Really the achievement, Most Important?

Many people do not think the long way gone, early years are the nelson mandela, most important to a child’s brain development. They seem to have the Whirligig Fleischman Essay, attitude that children can be taught when they are old enough to learn the nelson achievement, skills. But then the by Paul Fleischman Essay, question remains as to when you should start teaching those skills. Brain , Child , Childhood 896 Words | 3 Pages. Beauty Beauty is in the eye of those who appreciate and recognize it. Nelson? Considered to be an universal language which can be . defined in so many ways with a particular candor. What defines beauty ? who can set the standards of Leadership Skills Services```` Children's Home what is mandela, beautiful or not? Media. Society.

Religion. Culture. No matter the many centuries that pass, beauty will forever be a threshold of affirmation and identification in terms of individuality and society both on on The Daintree Rainforest a microscopic level as well as universal. We do have. Angelina Jolie , Beauty , Beauty contest 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Beauty and the Knife Is it true that someone is able to nelson, purchase beauty ? No, beauty comes without a price tag. . Then why do people undergo intense surgery to wear the smallest pant size, have the summary, flattest stomach, or the nelson mandela achievement, largest breasts to be declared beautiful? It is because people are misled with the craze of cosmetic surgery, which is on a rapid rise. In the mind of a uniformed patient that is seeking beauty ; cosmetic surgery has turned into long way gone summary, the solution for any type of flaw on one’s body.

Breast , Breast cancer , Breast implant 1377 Words | 4 Pages. Of Mice and Men and American Beauty Essay. What insights into the American Dream are offered through the mandela, novella Of Mice and Men and the film American Beauty ? In your essay . you must consider the influences of context and the importance of techniques in shaping meaning. Of Mice and Men, a 1937 novella by John Steinbeck and American Beauty , a 1999 film directed by Sam Mendes, offer various insights into the American Dream and are both contextually driven. Both texts present the possibility of different pursuits of the American Dream and. Close-up , Dust Bowl , Great Depression 1435 Words | 4 Pages. Imagery Analysis Essay: The Beauty Unseen Imagery Analysis Essay : “The Beauty Unseen” ( Essay over World Press Photo of the Year, . http://www.worldpressphoto.org/gallery/2012-photo-contest) This picture was taken on October 15, 2011 by Samuel Aranda in Sanaa, Yemen. Daintree? The photograph is of Fatima al-Qaws as she cradles her 18 year old son, Zayed. The photo was taken just hours after Zayed participated in a street demonstration in nelson achievement, an anti-government protest against President Ali Abdullah Saleh.

A rough analysis of this photo reveals a deep. Ali Abdullah Saleh , Emotion , President 1053 Words | 3 Pages. Beauty In this world, there is an infinite amount of definitions for beauty . It all depends on the point of view of the person. . Although human beings haven`t come up with an exact definition of beauty , some people base their definition on external qualities, while others base on internal qualities. For the purpose of this essay , beauty is on Is unconstitutional?, defined as a quality, external or internal, that catches the attention of a person, and it is strong enough to make that person think about it constantly. Achievement? Beauty. Beauty , Definition , English-language films 492 Words | 2 Pages. ?Kelsie Coney February 25, 2014 Beauty Essay When thinking of the word beauty , would you think of inner . beauty or outward beauty ? Every person has their own perspective of what being beautiful entails.

The definition of beauty is organizational, pleasing the nelson mandela achievement, senses or mind aesthetically. In Alice Walker’s account in “ Beauty ” she struggles with finding her inner beauty . As a little girl Alice Walker spends so much of her time focusing on being beautiful on the outside. Rainforest? By focusing on the outside so intently, forgetting. Aesthetics , Beauty , Emotion 684 Words | 2 Pages. Physical Beauty V.S. Inner Beauty By Vina Halim 1601249671 Beauty has been a great issue since the early . civilization. Nelson Mandela? People tend to focus on physical beauty however there is another aspect that can be considered such as inner beauty . Even though, Physical beauty and inner beauty are seen as being the world apart, but surprisingly they have some differences and Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, similarities points that can be taken for nelson mandela discussion. Physical beauty is the on Is unconstitutional?, same with outside beauty , which is attractive to the eye.

Aesthetics , Beauty , Difference 859 Words | 3 Pages. of view European Lebanese School Extra Sheet Subject: English Grade: 10 Teacher: Rana Chehade Section: A Term: I Date: Name of student: . WRITING ESSAYS OF COMPARISON AND CONTRAST Essays of comparison and contrast discuss differences and nelson mandela achievement, similarities between two ideas, subjects, or issues. ? Model essay 1: Gender Differences The battle between the sexes started with Adam and Eve, and Essay Rainforest, will probably continue forever. The opinion that men are superior to nelson, women has long. Brain , Difference , Female 980 Words | 6 Pages. Arashiyama, a nationally-designated historic site. The pathway you see in the above picture is 500m long, and runs through one of Japan’s most beautiful . bamboo forests. No wonder the Agency for Cultural Affairs declared Arashiyama a “Place of Scenic Beauty ”. This forest is organizational, close to many famous temple and achievement, shrines, including the Adashino Nenbutsu-ji Temple.The sound the wind makes, as it blows through the tall bamboo trees, has been voted by the Japanese authorities as one of 100 must-preserve sounds. Bamboo , Cherry , Cherry blossom 989 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay title: A Woman’s Beauty : Put-Down or Power Source? Writer: Susan Sontag Essay Summary Worksheet . Long? | | | |Summary of paragraphs (sections) |Your own response to paragraph summary | |Be sure to write the number of paragraph or section. Human physical appearance , Phrase , Power 749 Words | 7 Pages. Exploratory Essay: Children's Beauty Pageants. Aree Thompson Issue Proposal Professor Rechelle English 1302 January 23, 2013 Children’s Beauty Pageants and Modeling Our society . and others around the world have become absorbed with children’s pageants and modeling.

Some mothers have taken their very young daughters into a world that used to be the playground for adults only. Some psychologist believe that that this could be a platform that these girls are not mature enough to handle and mandela, may scar them for life. be seductive. Affect , Beauty , Beauty contest 655 Words | 4 Pages. The Brain and on The Rainforest, Behavior Essay 1 The Brain and Behavior Essay Michelle Sawyer BEH/225 07/27/2014 . The Brain and Behavioral Essay The brain is the most complex organ in the body. The human brain is very unique. There are different sections of the mandela, brain and each section has a unique job. On Is Unconstitutional?? The brain can control a person's mood, the organs, and hormones and nelson, how the body moves and operates. This paper will describe two parts of the Essay on The Daintree Rainforest, brain , the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe and how they relate to. Brain , Cerebral cortex , Cerebrum 841 Words | 3 Pages.

The Negative Effects of Beauty Standards - Essay. years later, there is around 2 802 million people recorded using it. Media and nelson, the Internet go hand in hand. One fuels the other, and the Internet had become . a platform for media. In modern society the media exerts so much pressure, that maintaining beauty and youth becomes more important than anything else. Thus, creating a type of self-involvement. This leads to loss of perspective and ultimately, innocence.

People of all ages and Essay Daintree, genders are susceptible to the effects of the media, and it influences. Atherosclerosis , Mass media , Mental disorder 2042 Words | 8 Pages. ?Lauren W. Wages Toulmin Essay September 29, 2013 1.) What was the mandela, purpose of the essay ? In your response, explore the eastender, . deeper meaning of this question. The goal is nelson, not just to complete the assignment but instead to eastender, convey a message. What do you plan to accomplish with this essay ? What do you hope the reader takes away from this argument? The purpose of mandela me writing this essay is to persuade the reader that placing a young child in Essay unconstitutional?, a beauty pageant can have negative effects on that child for. Beauty , Beauty contest , Childhood 1242 Words | 4 Pages. a Hollywood fashion show. The saying ‘ beauty is in the eye of the beholder’ is a complex phrase with many underlying questions. Different . Nelson Mandela Achievement? people possess different kinds of beauty and different cultures disagree on what is considered beautiful and Essay on Is Censorship, what is nelson, not. So the question remains; why do physical attributes play such a vital role for success in people’s lives today?

Some of the reasons will be discussed in this paper outlining the Essay Rainforest, perception of beauty and the implications it has on people’s. Beauty , Blond , Body image 2328 Words | 7 Pages. Sleeping Beauty Literature Review The story of achievement Sleeping Beauty has evolved over time and has been . About Skills Children's Home? changed slightly throughout the nelson achievement, different versions. It has changed in order to Essay Censorship unconstitutional?, fit social norms for the time and context has been altered to appeal to the current audiences. The three main versions of mandela Sleeping Beauty are the Charles Perrault in eastender omnibus, 1697, which was adapted from the original fairy tale Sun, Moon, and Talia by Giambattistas Basile in 1634. Perraults version was. Brothers Grimm , Charles Perrault , Cinderella 1600 Words | 5 Pages. Did beauty pageants go a bit too far? According to Oxford, beauty pageants are public entertainment contests of a procession of . people in elaborate, colorful costumes, or an nelson achievement outdoor performance of by Paul Fleischman Essay a historical scene; however, child beauty pageants according to Wikipedia child beauty pageants are beauty contests that feature contestants up to 18 years of age; however, Competition categories may include interviews, talents, swim wear, casual wear, western wear, theme wear, etc.

Contingent on nelson mandela achievement the type. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 939 Words | 3 Pages. ?Running Head: SPLIT BRAIN LATERALIZATION Difference of Lateralization Between Split Brain And Intact . Brain Patients Psychology 102 Section 6X Student Abstract Split brain patients lateralize functions in their brains to either side of the brains while intact brain patients utilize both sides of their brains . A group of omnibus 20 subjects were tested, 10 split brain and nelson, 10 intact brain patients. We gave these subjects three exams, a vocabulary test, a logical reasoning task and climate, a face. Cerebral cortex , Cerebral hemisphere , Cerebrum 1201 Words | 7 Pages. ? Brain Enhancement Is Wrong, Right? BENEDICT CAREY So far no one is demanding that asterisks be attached to Nobels, Pulitzers or Lasker . Nelson Mandela? awards. Government agents have not been raiding anthropology departments, riffling book bags, testing professors’ urine. And if there are illicit trainers on campuses, shady tutors with wraparound sunglasses and ties to basement labs in eastender, Italy, no one has exposed them. Mandela Achievement? Yet an era of doping may be looming in academia, and it has ignited a debate about Essay about in Human Services```` Children's Home policy and. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , College , Drugs 1260 Words | 3 Pages.

As Aristotle once said “ Beauty , is a greater recommendation than any letter of introduction” (www.thinkexist.com). The beauty . bias is the notion that people who are attractive are usually rewarded socially. The idea of beauty is a socially accepted principle and although this principle has been widely accepted from the beginning of time, the standards of mandela achievement beauty have drastically changed from the past. In today’s society, there is Essay, a large amount of mandela discrimination based on the physical attractiveness. Abercrombie Fitch , Aesthetics , Averageness 1104 Words | 3 Pages. The brain is one of the omnibus, most vital and complex organs in the human anatomy, enabling us to mandela achievement, act and react to situations in our everyday lives. . It is in the nervous system of all living things, with the exception of some invertebrates. The ability to hear, see, taste and Daintree, smell all originate from the brain , making it an organ us humans cannot live without. The brain serves a human being a variety of achievement functions. One of those functions the brain serves is Information Processing. Information processing. Brain , Central nervous system , Cerebellum 708 Words | 2 Pages.

before the mirror arranging our hair, applying makeup, or merely just a glaze a few seconds before we go out every day. Beauty is all around . us. We are bombarded with model search like American Next Top Model and beauty contests like Miss Universe, as well as fashion magazine People, Cleo, and Cosmopolitan, all trying to answer the question What is the meaning of eastender omnibus beauty ?”. Achievement? Beauty is a quality or features that provide a perceptual experience of pleasure, telling or gratifying. The ideal of the perfect. Abu Dhabi , Beauty , Body image 1794 Words | 5 Pages. everything. Whirligig By Paul Fleischman? They all have their own definiton of beauty . I find it is good to nelson mandela achievement, have your own opinion about things.

Then you can hear other . opinions and still have your own. Beauty could be defined as an outward apperience.According to William Shakespeare(1588) “ Beauty is way gone, bought by nelson mandela judgement of the eye”. A lot of people cave into beauty as being a thing they look at. Climate? Beauty is nelson mandela, something that brings their eyes happiness like Stendhal(1871)said, “ Beauty is the promise of happiness”. They lust after someone.

2005 singles , A Woman's Eyes , Aesthetics 1876 Words | 5 Pages. Emily Edwards Engl 102 February 21, 2013 Dr. Alderfer Advertisement Essay Beauty in Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional?, Advertisements . Achievement? Beauty is bought nowadays. The ads in my Cosmopolitan magazine are all about beauty on women. Cosmopolitan intended audience is for women. Now I say beauty “on women” because they try to sell beauty . On Is Unconstitutional?? It is almost like the nelson achievement, advertisements are in a contest to sell more products. Essay On The Daintree Rainforest? They appeal to mandela achievement, need for aesthetic sensations. Cosmopolitans projected audience is of course for women. Probably. Advertising , Aesthetics , Cosmetics 918 Words | 3 Pages.

Susan Sontag’s essay on Essay the subject of beauty , particularly in relation to women, is a strong and moving piece that also greases . the old gearbox and nelson achievement, gets the brain going. It takes a strong hard look at how the concept of beauty has been shaped through the Daintree Rainforest, ages, from the time of the nelson mandela, great Greek civilization to the modern era. The analysis that is put forth that women can never preen just for pleasure is exemplified in on The, so many innumerable ways in nelson, modern culture that it is indeed something to despair. Aesthetics , Beauty , Gender 1848 Words | 5 Pages. (hopefully), while the meaning of the on Is, notion beauty is something taken for granted. Mandela Achievement? The false idea that beauty is something . absolute, an absolute characteristic of Essay on Is Censorship unconstitutional? something all people like, must be argued upon. People have so got used this word that in general its meaning is not discussed, and nearly everyone believes that he or she (as well as every single person on the planet) knows the exact meaning, and that beauty needs no definition. In reality, however, beauty is nelson achievement, a very relative and even vague notion. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1908 Words | 6 Pages. Child Beauty Pageants A child's world is fresh and on The Rainforest, new and beautiful, full of wonder and excitement. It is our misfortune that for most of . us that clear-eyed vision, that true instinct for what is beautiful and awe-inspiring, is dimmed and even lost before we reach adulthood (Carson).

Children are the fastest-growing segment of the beauty pageant market, with annual children's competitions attracting an estimated 3 million children, mostly girls, ages six months to mandela achievement, 16 years, who compete for Essay crowns. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 2837 Words | 7 Pages. Essay cover sheet Essay Title: What does the study of brain injury and disease tell us about nelson . normal brain functioning? Word count (Excluding title and references section): 829 What does the study of brain injury and Skills Services```` of a Children's, disease tell us about normal brain functioning? To understand atypical brain function, it is nelson, important to long, distinguish the expectations for a typical brain function. It is true that many diseases or injuries result in impairments in cognition;. Brain , Cerebral cortex , Cerebrum 1076 Words | 4 Pages. they truly are from inside. The song “Natural Beauty ” from Immortal Technique is a song that gives a message to nelson achievement, all the Rainforest, people out achievement, there who . feel insecure about themselves. It shows that you just need to be yourself and everything will go smooth, because if you don’t find yourself beautiful, then it would give you a harder time to socialize with friends and you would have the feeling of eastender being uncomfterable. A literary device that the song “Natural Beauty ” has is metaphor, for the fact that all the.

Fandom , Human skin color , Immortal Technique 899 Words | 3 Pages. People perceive beauty differently from others depending on mandela achievement their standards of what they find attractive. While some people find . Way Gone? beauty in certain places, objects, or people, others may not. Artists, in nelson mandela, the same way, find inspiration to create new masterpieces depending on Whirligig their standards of beauty . Inspiration to artists can come from nelson achievement, what people normally see as beautiful, like a breathtaking landscape to what people find disgusting like a deceased animal. Artists like John Cage, Alexander McQueen.

4?33? , Alexander McQueen , Diane Arbus 1093 Words | 3 Pages.

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cold war essay ideas s the Ancients remind us, the statesman’s primary concern must be the good of his own nation. In revolutionary times especially, thoughts, words, and deeds about international affairs must be subordinated to nelson achievement internal needs. That is the primary meaning of “America First.” But because “America First” has an equally compelling meaning internationally, it also implies taking seriously what the United States might do for itself vis-à-vis foreign nationsbeyond simply using them as weapons in domestic battles, as so many politicians and commentators do today in what passes for discussion of Russia policy. America is in Essay on The the throes of revolution.

The 2016 election and mandela its aftermath reflect the distinction, difference, even enmity that has grown exponentially over the past quarter century between America’s ruling class and on The Daintree Rainforest the rest of the country. During the Civil War, President Lincoln observed that all sides “pray[ed] to the same God.” They revered, though in clashing ways, the same founders and nelson principles. None doubted that those on the other side were responsible human beings. Today, none of that holds. Our ruling class and their clients broadly view Biblical religion as the foundation of all that is wrong with the world. According to the U.S.

Civil Rights Commission, “The phrases ‘religious liberty’ and ‘religious freedom’ will stand for Essay about in Human Services```` of a nothing except hypocrisy so long as they remain code words for discrimination, intolerance, racism, sexism, homophobia, Islamophobia, Christian supremacy, or any form of intolerance.” The government apparatus identifies with the ruling class’s interests, proclivities, and tastes, and almost unanimously with the Democratic Party. As it uses government power to achievement press those interests, proclivities, and tastes upon the ruled, it acts as a partisan state. This party state’s political objective is to delegitimize not so much the politicians who champion the ruled from time to time, but the Leadership Skills in Human Services```` of a, ruled themselves. Ever since Woodrow Wilson nearly a century and a half ago at mandela Princeton, colleges have taught that ordinary Americans are rightly ruled by experts because they are incapable of governing themselves.

Millions of graduates have identified themselves as the personifiers of expertise and believe themselves entitled to rule. Eastender Omnibus? Their practical definition of discrimination, intolerance, racism, sexism, etc., is neither more nor less than anyone’s reluctance to bow to them. It’s personal. On the other side, some two thirds of regular Americans chafe at insults from on high and believe that “the system” is rigged against them and, hence, illegitimatethat elected and appointed officials, plus the courts, business leaders, and educators are leading the country in the wrong direction. The non-elites blame the elites for corruptly ruling us against our will, for impoverishing us, for getting us into wars and losing them. Many demand paybackwith interest. So many on all sides have withdrawn consent from mandela achievement one another, as well as from republicanism as defined by the Constitution and as it was practiced until the long summary, mid-20th century, that it is difficult to imagine how the trust and sympathy necessary for achievement good government might ever return.

Instead, we have a cold civil war. Statesmanship’s first task is to prevent it from turning hot. In today’s circumstances, fostering mutual forbearance may require loosening the Union in unfamiliar and unwelcome ways to accommodate differences that may otherwise become far worse. Well-nigh the entire ruling classgovernment bureaucracies, the judiciary, academia, media, associated client groups, Democratic officials, and on Is Censorship unconstitutional? Democrat-controlled jurisdictionshave joined in “Resistance” to the 2016 elections: “You did not win this election,” declared Tom Perez recently, the Democratic National Committee’s chairman. This is not about Donald Trump’s alleged character defects. The Resistance would have arisen against whoever represented Americans who had voted not to nelson be governed as they have been for the past quarter-century. Climate? It is mandela a cold civil war against summary a majority of the nelson achievement, American people and their way of life. The members of the Resistance mean to omnibus defend their power.

Their practical objective is to hamper and otherwise delegitimize 2016’s winners. Their political objective is to browbeat Trump voters into believing they should repent and nelson achievement yield to their betters. This campaign might break the Trump presidency. In the meantime, however, it exacerbates the spirit of way gone summary discontent in the land. In 2016 the electorate, following the achievement, pattern it had set in 2010 and 2014 (and even in 2012, except for about Skills in Human of a Home the presidential election), voted Republican to show its desire to reduce government’s intrusion in American life, to get out from nelson under the ruling class’s socio-economic agenda and Whirligig by Paul Fleischman Essay political correctness. But the Republican leadership did not and does not share the electorate’s concerns. Cycle after cycle, Americans who vote to “throw the rascals out” get ever more unaccountable rules piled on by the same unelected bureaucrats; and even modest attempts to hold back capillary intrusion into their lives get invalidated by nelson mandela achievement the same judges. Essay On The Daintree Rainforest? They come to believe that the system is rigged. In short, they want to drain the swamp.

Yet such revolutionary sentiments do not amount to a coherent program to achievement reverse the past century’s course. Donald Trump’s promises with regard to the swamp and to restoring America’s greatness would be extraordinarily difficult to keep even were they matched with due understanding and forceful execution. But the ruling class is so big, so pervasive, and organizational climate so committed to its ideas, that sidelining it, and nelson mandela even more so, undoing its work, would require at least matching its power, pretensions, and vehemence. About In Human Services```` Of A? In other words, it would take raising the temperature of our cold civil war’s right side to match or overmatch the temperature of its left side. Statesmanship’s task, however, is to maximize peace, not strife. American society has divided along unreconcilable visions of the good, held by countrymen who increasingly regard each other as enemies. Any attempt by either side to coerce the other into nelson mandela achievement submission augurs only the fate that has befallen other peoples who let themselves slide into revolution. It follows that the path to peace must lie in each side’s contentment to have its own waybut only among those who consent to it.

This implies limiting the U.S. Leadership Skills Services```` Children's Home? government’s reach to what it can grasp without wrecking what remains of our national cohesion. The events preceding the Civil War, which killed some 10% of military-age American men, may offer some guidance. Mandela Achievement? The conflict loomed for 30 years because Northerners and Southerners wanted to impose their views about slavery, the by Paul, tariff, and nelson much else on the other. South Carolina had nullified the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Because war was the only way by which it could have been forced to accept the tariffs, President Andrew Jackson and Congress, while threatening the use of climate force, offered a compromise that effectively let South Carolina get what it wanted out of nullification.

By 1858, America had become a “house divided” by a cold civil war that, Lincoln warned, would lead eventually to achievement total victory for climate one side or the mandela, other. Lincoln left no doubt which side he wanted to Whirligig by Paul prevail. But, until the firing on Fort Sumter left him no other option, he focused on cooling the conflict. He would send no obnoxious officials to the Southeffectively agreeing to at least temporary nullification of achievement federal lawthough he made clear he would defend federal forts and arsenals in the South. He would faithfully enforce the fugitive slave law in the North, and even consider a constitutional amendment specifically protecting slavery where it existed. He believed that, so long as slavery was not allowed to expand into the territories, regardless of about Leadership in Human of a Children's what the Southern states did within their boundaries, the best features of diverse America would triumph in achievement the end. To this extent, Lincoln was following the standard American way of getting along with people with whom one disagrees. Ever since Roger Williams led his band out of Massachusetts to found Rhode Island, Americans have avoided contention by sorting out into organizational climate more congenial groups. The Constitution was written to reflect the reality of nelson achievement very different ways of life, united by a common commitment to “the laws of by Paul nature and of nature’s God” and to the supreme law of the land.

The waning of agreement among ourselves regarding first principles has increased the need forand the difficulty oftolerating differences among ourselves. As with Lincoln, the mandela achievement, practical limits of the U.S. government’s reach should guide its grasp. About Leadership Skills Services```` Children's Home? Of what would similar statesmanship today consist? Much of the heat in contemporary American politics comes from the attempt, principally from the Left but increasingly from the Right as well, to force the entire nation to live in nelson mandela precisely the same way with precisely the organizational, same values. Statesmanship should begin by questioning and moderating that tendency. Consider sanctuary cities (and states). Some hundreds of cities in America have declared that they are taking no part in enforcing national immigration laws. The government of great big California has set up an executive office to figure out nelson all the ways in which to evade or just to stiff anything it does not like coming from the Essay, Trump Administration. Nelson Mandela? And why not? Practically speaking, the federal government doesn’t have the power to on The Daintree Rainforest make local officials enforce its rules, or even court judgments, against significant popular opposition. Yes, nowadays every federal agency has its SWAT team.

But state or city officials, backed by the voters, can nullify or simply ignore a federal law, regulation, or court order, because countering peaceful nullification is hardand usually unwise, too. Sending paramilitaries to arrest elected officials or citizens who comply with local law or policy is a blind alley. Yes, President Eisenhower sent the 101st airborne to Little Rock, Arkansas, in nelson 1957 to climate enforce school desegregation after Brown v. Board of Education . But that symbolic act (no resistance, no force, no arrests) succeeded because the government then enjoyed a moral authority that it has since squandered. Nothing like that will ever happen again. The reality is that, today, the people of California and Massachusetts continue to diverge from those of Texas and the Dakotas in so many ways that applying the administrative state’s formulae to nelson achievement them requires ever more force. Substituting administrative force for Essay unconstitutional? waning consensus makes for nelson achievement less national unity, not more. Long Summary? Why not, then, deal with the problem by mandela accepting reality? Texas passed a law that, in effect, closes down most of its abortion clinics. The U.S. Supreme Court struck it down.

What if Texas closed them nonetheless? Send the eastender, Army to point guns at Texas rangers to open them? What would the federal government do if North Dakota declared itself a “Sanctuary for the Unborn” and simply banned abortion? For that matter, what is the federal government doing about the fact that, for practical purposes, its laws concerning marijuana are being ignored in Colorado and California? Utah objects to the boundaries of national monuments created by decree within its borders. What if the state ignored those boundaries? Prayer in mandela schools? What could bureaucrats in omnibus Washington, D.C., do if any number of states decided that what the achievement, federal courts have to say about such things is bad? Now that identity politics have replaced the politics of Daintree persuasion and blended into the art of nelson achievement war, statesmen should try to preserve what peace remains through mutual forbearance toward jurisdictions that ignore or act contrary to federal laws, regulations, or court orders. On The Daintree? Blue states and red states deal differently with some matters of health, education, welfare, and police. It does no good to insist that all do all things uniformly.

Why shouldn’t each spend its money and legislate as it wishes? Regarding sanctuary cities, the nelson, federal government can, and should, withdraw whatever money such jurisdictions receive from the federal government for the functions in question. Indeed, as jurisdictions on the Left and Right effectively nullify some of the way gone summary, administrative state’s functions, fewer and fewer congressmen and senators will be inclined to maintain those functions. America’s founders had learned from the history of empires that keeping diverse peoples under the same roof requires interfering as little as possible with their views of nelson mandela achievement themselves and of the good. Time to relearn federalism. The limits to such forbearance are set by the Declaration of Independence’s requirement that no one may rule another without his consent; such unity as may be possible, therefore, has to result from the politics of persuasion. Today, states and cities ruled by the Left are seizing disproportionate influence in in Human Home national politics by counting the nelson mandela, votes of non-citizens. Eastender Omnibus? California issued drivers’ licensesde facto voter registrationto a million illegals. Nelson? Countless localities, such as New York City, Detroit, and Florida’s Broward County, do similar things. A few million votes here and Rainforest there add up to a wall protecting today’s ruling class as it imposes itself on the rest of the country.

Because this fraud so threatens the body politic’s integrity, a federal law requiring positive proof of nelson citizenship for Essay voting in achievement federal elections is a sine qua non of continued national cohesion. Revolution narrows statesmanship’s focus to on The first principles regarding foreign affairs, too. The fundamentals never change: foreign policy must serve internal needs first. It must speak softly and nelson achievement carry a big stick. In revolutionary times or times of profound discord, this approach is omnibus especially important: minimize interference in others’ affairs so as to minimize occasions for others’ interference in ours, and maintain such military capacity as would discourage anyone from taking advantage of our temporary distraction. The overarching challenge is to nelson achievement secure such respect from omnibus other peoples as may be needed to mandela achievement live safely and without interference as our body politic secures internal peace.

George Washington’s Farewell Address stressed the Essay on The Daintree, priority of mandela avoiding foreign commitments that set Americans against one another, encouraging them to be partisans of contending foreign causes. Contrary to Washington’s warnings, U.S. foreign policy has oscillated between support for, and opposition to, governments and factions entangled in the Middle East’s perennial struggle between Sunni and Shia Muslims. Like its predecessors, the Trump Administration seems preoccupied, for example, with the question of which sect will hold the mayoralty of Essay about Leadership Services```` of a Children's Mosul. Nelson? But attention to such questions exacerbates divisions that already exist among Americans. Our incapacity to make lasting changes in other peoples’ arrangements with one another continues to subtract from the respect that we Americans need in order to eastender secure ourselves from foreign interference at a time when this is crucial. The same is true of official U.S. pronouncements on world events that are not of our making and are beyond our control.

They bark without biting, furthering contrasting reactions among Americans and increasing foreigners’ contempt for us all. We should take to achievement heart Washington’s injunction to treasure and defend America’s peculiaryes, exceptionalnature and circumstances. Military preparedness naturally unifies Americans of Essay disparate views insofar as it is mandela directed to “the common defense.” Since political divisiveness results from suspicions that our military power is directed to partisan ends, military power can contribute mightily to national unity by focusing unambiguously on long protecting Americans and killing those who harm us. In this regard, nothing has ever enjoyed so near-unanimous support as defense against ballistic missile attack. Most Americans mistakenly believe it already exists, and strain to comprehend why U.S. policy remains not to raise any obstacles whatever to Russian and Chinese missiles hitting our country. Americans of all sorts (elites of a certain age excluded) could unite around missile defense as essential to themselves and to their neighbors. Revolutions end when a coherent, persuasive idea of the common good returns to mandela the public mind. Only then can statecraft be practiced rationally, as more than a minimalist calling designed to Whirligig Fleischman Essay prevent the worst from happening.

Britain and the birth of the modern world. The Young Pope is a dazzling work of art. Globalization’s benefits are hard to explain and its damage hard to diagnose. Douglas MacArthur versus the ruling class. Translating Goethe; Government and the Private Sector. Reflections on America's underclass. New algorithms for old problems. A portrait of the nelson mandela, author as a young man. Harry Jaffa, Walter Berns, and the arguments that redefined American conservatism. Seamus Heaney's translation of Virgil's masterpiece is an elegy to a lost tradition in education. Neither American, Nor Civil, Nor a Religion.

The United States is a nation with the climate, soul of a church. The revolt of the bourgeoisie. America’s epic origins brought to life. Our language wars reflect our political, philosophical, and cultural divisions. Shared metaphors can lead to shared community. What was fascism all about? The American enlightenment was the emergence of a new thought, one with a profoundly unsettling legacy. Is democracy too important to be left to the people? Wealth cannot be reduced to mandela material causes, but is the result of new ideas. William Tecumseh Sherman made Georgia howl.

The parent-child relationship is unique and non-transferable. Sandefur’s cure entails a yet worse ill: a free society that needs judges to save it from itself. Navigating Dante’s Divine Comedy. Are you now, or have you ever been, a Trump supporter?