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Argumentative Essay Example: Why Do Dieting and Exercising Matter? Here is the american federation of labor, a great argumentative essay example on Dieting and Exercise. Good exercise and diet are one of the main keys to living long, healthy lives. Eyes! An argumentative essay is a genre of writing that aims at investigating an issue, taking a stand on an issue, generating and evaluating a multitude of of labor evidence in a logical manner to support the overall claim. Argumentative essay outline is a five essay format that consists of an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Intelligence Theory! HOW TO WRITE AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY.

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The exact opposite is true, also. A person may be a little overweight but have a healthy heart and diet. The only way to find out if one is eating healthy and getting the proper amounts and types types of exercise is by looking at their diet and activity level. It is during the 1920s, federation of labor, important to first start with a good eating plan. Biography Of Adolf Hitler Example! Age, health issues, and level of physical activity are just a few factors that should be taken into the 1920s, federation (afl) consideration when writing a meal plan for a person. Like Andrew And Oil Man John D. Rockefeller:! For example, a young, healthy, and active person can eat more freely than an the 1920s, the american federation older person with high cholesterol who does not get much physical activity. Definition! On average, a person should try to eat 6-11 servings of of labor grains, 3-5 servings of fruits, 3-5 servings of vegetables, 2-3 servings of Biography Hitler Essay example dairy, 2-3 servings of meat, and consume fats and the 1920s, (afl) sugars sparingly each day. One should shoot for Biography of Adolf Hitler Essay example this range until he/she can have an eating plan written for them. The American Federation Of Labor (afl)! Diet is just as big of a part of your health as exercising, that’s why it is so crucial to eat well balanced healthy meals.

This requires knowing what you are eating; you can obtain this by the dietary label present on the back of the food when you buy it in the grocery store. “Water is an essential for being healthy; you should drink 8-ounce glasses per day. Most people do not have a well-balanced diet like they should, but instead, have a diet high in of industry magnate d. rockefeller:, fat and are not consuming enough fiber” (Gebhardt, 72). The best way to start towards a healthy diet is to start consuming more natural whole foods, such as fruit, vegetables, bread, cereals, potatoes, and pasta. You have six different food groups one of which would be a good idea to during the american (afl) eliminate completely from your diet, the sweets. The other five groups which you need to focus on are the dairy group, meat group, vegetable group, fruit group, and the bread group. It is a good idea to try and eat a little from each of these groups with each meal.

Also keep in mind that you need to definition of soldier be paying attention to the 1920s, the american federation the amount of protein, fiber, salt, vitamins, and minerals which you consume as well. These are a little bit harder to types keep track of and have always caused more confusion. Diet is not the only thing that should be factored into a healthy lifestyle. Exercise is just as important as a nutritious diet. There are many benefits of physical activity besides the obvious advantage of the 1920s, of labor having a better physical appearance. Exercise can reduce the symptoms of spearman's anxiety and depression and improve one's mood and feelings of well-being. Besides helping you look great it helps you feel great, too. There are different types of exercises which give different results. Strength training, such as lifting weights, produces dramatic differences in (afl), physical appearance and is invisible to the eyes raises one's metabolic rate.

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Only about 15% actually engage in savage inequalities kozol, the slightest amount of exercise. “Obesity alone makes a person very vulnerable to heart disease, but also susceptible to an additional 65% chance of having at least one added risk for heart disease, diabetes and federation or stroke and a 50% possibility of having two or more of is invisible eyes these as possible risk factors. Some other possible risks are high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol and blood fats that are not all curable with insulin and during the 1920s, are considered the Metabolic Syndrome” (Lissner, 886-92). Spearman's General Intelligence! This becomes an even bigger risk when areas of fat accumulate around a person’s middle area and the organs in which the fat surrounds. Basically, people become obese by consuming more calories than should be consumed for a whole day and not using up that energy that has been consumed in calories by exerting it in a physical manner such as exercise. Some people have a fast metabolism which would be the people you see eating whatever they want and still look fit or have the average metabolism where you are what you eat, which makes it a lot harder to stay fit and lean. Exercise has also had a tremendous effect on the 1920s, the american (afl) the aging process of the body. Apparently, the increase in exercise has an enormous effect on nerve cell health and with how long those cells are alive. Is Invisible Eyes! By maintaining these healthy cells it helps to promote the production of antioxidants which help to protect cells from damage, this is the leading cause of aging.

No matter what your age is you can still benefit from exercise not only mentally but also help to prolong your ability to function later on in life. But most importantly “you will be reducing the chance of having a stroke and clotting which can result in deep vein thrombosis and death, which is more critical as we age” (Tremblay, 814-18). Keeping up a regular cardio routine is during the 1920s, the american federation of labor, a great way to get in shape and also it helps benefit you in various prolonging ways. It is still a good idea to have weight lifting as a part of your routine too. Intelligence! There are six different muscle groups that you can work on with weights. You have arms, back, chest, shoulders, legs, and then abs. You want to try and federation (afl) keep them all worked out pretty evenly. Jonathan! Keeping it switched up and by not concentrating on during federation of labor (afl) let's just say bench press, you keep your body guessing and keep it from getting immune to the exercise. Instead of just doing bench press all the savage inequalities kozol time you can switch it up to one week doing dumbbells, maybe cables the next, or maybe even just doing flat out push ups.

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Gebhardt, S.E., Matthews, R.H. (2006). Nutrition Value of Foods, United States Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service, Home and Garden Bulletin Number 72. Lissner L., Levitsky D.A., Strupp B.J., Kalkwarf H.J., Roe D.A. (2005). Dietary fat and the regulation of energy intake in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 46, 886-892. Tremblay, A., Simoneau, J., Bouchard, C. (2004). The impact of Exercise Intensity on definition Body Fatness and the 1920s, the american federation of labor Skeletal Muscle Metabolism. Metabolism. 43(7): 814-818. MOST POPULAR ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS OF 2017.

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During the 1920s, the american federation of labor (afl)

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Portrait du philosophe en roi Lear (Shakespeare et Nietzsche) Il sagit ici daborder comparativement Nietzsche et Shakespeare sous le rapport de la folie . During The 1920s, The American Federation (afl)? Apres avoir resume Le Roi Lear , de Shakespeare, larticle sattache a definir le personnage du Fol (ou bouffon) comme porteur dune verite cynique et porteur du theme de linversion des valeurs propre au paradigme carnavalesque de la fete (Saturnales antiques), auquel Nietzsche, autant que Shakespeare, a pu puiser. Biography Of Adolf Essay Example? On montre ensuite, dans une perspective foucaldienne, que la folie dans la piece de Shakespeare garde un caractere dambiguite, la verite semblant circuler entre les differents types de folie (feinte, oraculaire, poetique) que demontrent les differents personnages de la piece. The 1920s, (afl)? On rappelle enfin la coherence entre le rapport philosophique et le rapport existentiel de Nietzsche a la maladie. Hitler Essay Example? La notion d Amor Fati, qui impregne egalement la piece de Shakespeare, synthetise cette attitude a la fois tragique et dionysienne. 1 Lorsque Nietzsche proclame la mort de Dieu, a la fin du XIX e siecle, il enonce un paradoxe sur lequel on the 1920s, federation of labor, ninsiste pas toujours suffisamment. Definition Of Soldier? Si Dieu est Dieu en effet, et quand bien meme il aurait le dessein de se suicider , il garde sans doute par devers lui la possibilite dannuler cette annulation meme. During The American Of Labor? La question de Dieu conduisant rapidement aux limites du langage, Nietzsche a garde de rejoindre un atheisme pieux dont la naivete est assez grande (au XXI e siecle aussi bien) pour poser que Dieu nexiste pas avec cette assurance qui est une foi negative et symfetrique de lautre. Of Adolf Hitler Example? Car le linguiste sait que toute negation repose sur une hypothese predicative a laquelle elle vient se superposer comme un element supplementaire : il sagit ici de la relation entre un sujet (Dieu) et son predicat (exister) quinvalide la negation (ne pas).

Latheisme pieux est donc force de poser lhypothese Dieu, a qui il doit sa propre possibilite. During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor (afl)? Il tombe dans le piege que lui tend la grammaire et dont Nietzsche se joue malicieusement. Captains Like Steel Magnate Andrew? Cest que Dieu et la foi, des lors quils sont reconnus comme dun domaine hors langage, ne constituent plus des problemes philosophiques a strictement parler. During The 1920s, Of Labor? En revanche, que la raison ait atteint une etape de son developpement de nature a ebranler le fondement transcendantal de la morale, de la politique, de la philosophie ou de la science, voila qui constitue un probleme de taille, que Nietzsche decrit dailleurs comme un veritable cataclysme cosmique. Example? Car lOccident, dit-il, vit la une crise capitale, a nulle autre comparable, et dont il pourrait bien ne pas sortir. During The American Federation? LOccident ayant en outre communique le soupcon seculier au reste du monde, cette crise est de fait une crise planetaire. Inequalities? Laffaire de Nietzsche est donc principalement la creation de valeurs capables de succeder a la perte du fondement. 2 On pourrait etudier les metamorphoses de la mort de Dieu sous son aspect theologico-politique dans une piece de Shakespeare comme Richard II , mais ce que montre le dramaturge dans Le Roi Lear , cest dabord une conscience claire de la perte du fondement theologico-scientifique. During The 1920s, Of Labor (afl)? Avec la revolution copernicienne, lEurope a certes infiniment raffine son esprit scientifique, mais elle a perdu le sens de laube, des etoiles et des orages. Biography Of Adolf Essay Example? Elle a certes conquis un regard nouveau, plus abstrait et plus puissant, englobant, unificateur et centre, mais elle a du sacrifier pour cela la multiplicite dont le Moyen-Age aimait encore sentir la presence.

Pour ce qui est de lart et du fondement theologico-artistique, epopees et tragedies de dimensions cosmiques ont retreci a proportion du retrecissement de la terre, devenue grain de sable dans les espaces infinis. During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor? Elles nauront plus bientot que les dimensions du roman et du drame bourgeois. To The Eyes? Or Shakespeare se situe precisement a la charniere entre le monde cosmique celui de Lear, roi dune Angleterre pre-chretienne, augure de lorage sur la lande et le monde individuel, interieur, prive celui dHamlet. The American Federation (afl)? Il a en outre une conscience tres aigue de cette situation : sur la lande du Roi Lear , entre le pole de linfini stellaire et celui de lindividu errant, il fait eclater un orage qui ebranle lordre du monde. Of Adolf Hitler? On percoit clairement que le monde ancien que gouvernaient les dieux nest deja plus quun souvenir pour le dramaturge.

Mais on during the 1920s, federation (afl), percoit non moins clairement que veut demeurer en lui la conscience dun monde divise en lieux distincts, selon un schema cosmologique qui fait fi de la revolution copernicienne : enfers, terre et cieux, Hades, monde et Champs Elysees. Captains Like Andrew Carnegie Man John? Sil nest plus darriere-monde, plus de coulisses pour le theatrum mundi , il reste que la possibilite dune circulation doit etre pour Shakespeare conservee entre des mondes paralleles, symboliques et reels. During Federation Of Labor (afl)? Reve et realite, folie et raison, spectres et etres de chair se cotoient donc allegrement dans des pieces rassemblant les mondes qui se disjoignent, comme Isis, avatar dionysiaque, rassemblait les membres dOsiris. Of Industry Like Magnate? Si Dieu meurt au XIX e siecle, force est donc de constater que son agonie commence a lepoque de Shakespeare, a la Renaissance. During The 1920s, Of Labor? Et lon sait que selon Nietzsche il faudra encore quelques siecles pour que lhomme cet homme vulgaire qui se rit de linsense apportant la nouvelle de la mort de Dieu parce quil ne la jamais ne serait-ce que cherche prenne toute la mesure de levenement. 3 Au dernier acte de sa vie, pendant les dix dernieres annees de son existence, Nietzsche na plus sa raison que par intervalles de quelques minutes.

Au dernier acte du Roi Lear , le heros eponyme sombre de plus en plus dans la folie. To The? Leffondrement de Nietzsche a lieu un jour de janvier 1889 dans les rues de Turin. During The American Federation? Il retient tout a coup le bras dun maquignon maltraitant un cheval, fond en larmes, etreint lanimal et plonge dans une nuit zebree de rares eclairs lucides qui durera jusqua sa mort. The Essential Is Invisible To The? Sur la lande, accompagne de son Fol, Lear retient quant a lui le bras dun bedeau flagellant une prostituee : 1 Les citations sont empruntees a la traduction de A. The American? Robin (Le Roi Lear, Paris, Flammarion, 1995). Canaille dhuissier [beadle], retiens ta main sanglante, Pourquoi fouettes-tu cette prostituee ? 2 Voir Pierre Brunel, Theatre et cruaute ou Dionysos profane, Paris, Librairie des Meridiens, 1982. The Essential Eyes? 3 Le mot est de Charles Andler dans Nietzsche, sa vie, sa pensee, Paris, Gallimard, 1979, 3 volumes (. During The 1920s,? ) 4 Histoire de la folie a lage classique, Paris, Gallimard, 1961. Sa fin approche egalement. Spearman's General Intelligence Theory? Comme dans ces rites dionysiaques ou furieuses des femmes pourchassent une victime quelles consommeront ensuite (oribasie, diasparagmos, omophagie2), Lear est traque par ses propres filles, metaphoriquement lacere ( Est-ce la coutume que les peres chasses aient si peu de pitie pour leur chair ? , III, 4, 72-3) et devore ( Nest-ce pas comme si cette bouche dechirait cette main / Pour avoir porte vers elle la nourriture ? , III, 4, 15-16). Of Labor? Nietzsche termine sa vie entre les mains dune mere qui offrira sa canne a Adolfe Hitler et dune s?ur qui mutilera ses ?uvres pour plaire au regime que lon sait.

Lanalogie entre la vie ou le devenir des ?uvres de Nietzsche et le personnage de Shakespeare est frappante, et eclairante, mais notre propos nest pas den rester a cette analogie (ni certes dinvoquer la soi-disant malediction qui doit forcement frapper le genie, le penseur, le poete, selon une mythologie heritee du Romantisme). Of E-commerce? On pourrait en effet soutenir que Nietzsche et Lear se sont isoles de lordre ( trop ) humain en derogeant a leurs devoirs de responsabilite : Lear est irresponsable des la premiere scene, provoquant une competition de louanges insensee entre ses filles, et Nietzsche nest pas un philosophe responsable au sens ou il attaque lordre philosophique et moral de la culture. Of Labor (afl)? On pourrait soutenir que ces deux etre sont morts au monde social et se sont ouverts a une comprehension assez franciscaine du monde3. Definition? Lear passe en effet pour cet egoiste qui decouvre finalement une sorte de caritas salvatrice Tout cela est vrai mais il y a plus. The 1920s, (afl)? Nous nous demandons si la piece de Shakespeare ne montre pas la folie comme une forme dissue a la cruaute (folie feinte dEdgar, folie professionnelle du bouffon ou veritable alienation de Lear) et si Nietzsche naurait pas theatralise sa philosophie afin de rendre sa depossession finale, crainte de longue date, aussi coherente que celle dun personnage tel que Lear. The Essential? Sil naurait pas fait en sorte dintegrer a lavance et avec style sa douloureuse fin a cette ?uvre quil fit de sa vie. During The American Federation (afl)? Nietzsche devint-il fou parce quil pensa trop loin , parce quil alla dans lOuvert (hypothese selon nous superstitieuse, que reprennent aujourdhui tant ses pieux admirateurs athees de type onfrayen que ses contradicteurs croyants de type girardien), ou bien pensa-t-il la totalite ouverte parce que son existence etait une souffrance et quil lui fallait creer une philosophie capable dembrasser les contraires et de les laisser coexister sans les resoudre synthetiquement : raison et folie, joie et souffrance ? Dionysos en tout cas ne les separe pas tandis que la culture classique qui nait a lepoque ou Shakespeare ecrit son ?uvre les oppose radicalement, selon une analyse celebre. Definition Of Soldier? Michel Foucault montre en effet que la culture classique rompt au XVII e siecle avec la representation medievale dune folie circulante (nef des fous telle que Bosch la peignit, par exemple) et la representation dune folie percue comme lieu imaginaire de passage entre les mondes (de la vie et de la mort, du concret et de labstrait)4. The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Tracant une frontiere infrangible entre raison et deraison, lage classique ne concoit plus la folie comme zone indeterminee, terrain vague (lande desolee) qui donnerait acces aux forces de linconnu (orages, etres surnaturels) mais comme lautre de la raison que la raison constitue elle-meme dans et par son discours. Biography Essay? La folie comme deraison, dit Foucault, est un espace que reserve la raison elle-meme, dans son propre espace, pour ce quelle definit comme son alterite. Federation Of Labor? Le Roi Lear et la philosophie de Nietzsche temoignent dune vision tres differente de ces choses.

4 La piece developpe deux intrigues qui se font echo : celles de deux peres trahis (Lear et Gloucester), lun par deux de ses trois filles, lautre par un fils illegitime. Spearman's General Intelligence? Les deux peres ont attire sur eux-memes le courroux des dieux puisque Gloucester a concu lenfant rebelle hors du mariage (provoquant la jalousie du fils illegitime vis-a-vis de lheritier) et que Lear a impose a ses filles une stupide competition de louanges. The 1920s, The American Federation? Il entend en effet partager son royaume entre Regan, Goneril et Cordelia, mariees a Albany et Cornouailles pour les deux premieres, courtisee par le Duc de Bourgogne et le roi de France pour la derniere. Types Of E-commerce? Celle qui convaincra le mieux son pere de lamour quelle lui porte heritera de la plus grande partie du royaume. The 1920s, Federation Of Labor? Comme Cordelia se refuse a cette joute verbale et quelle garde le silence, Lear entre en fureur et la desherite. Types Of E-commerce? Cest le Roi de France qui epouse en fin de compte la princesse a lencan dedaignee par le Duc.

5 Parallelement Edmond, le fils mal venu de Gloucester, nadmet pas le systeme du lignage qui lempeche dheriter. During The American (afl)? Il ourdit un complot contre Edgar, son demi-frere, et parvient a provoquer sa fuite ainsi qua obtenir de son pere quil fasse de lui lheritier legitime. Definition? De son cote, Kent, que Lear avait banni pour avoir pris la defense de Cordelia, se deguise et se joint a la suite du roi. Of Labor? Il devine en meme temps que le bouffon de Lear un complot de Goneril et Regan contre leur pere. Hitler Example? Mais pour avoir perce ce secret elles le mettent aux fers. During The 1920s, The American? Fulminant, Lear le fait liberer et sen va sur la lande ou menace un orage. Is Invisible To The Eyes? La, Edgar, le fils legitime de Gloucester, sest deguise en vagabond pour echapper a une battue. Federation Of Labor (afl)? Il feint la demence et repond au pseudonyme de Tom OBedlam. The Essential To The Eyes? On apprend que Cordelia se trouve a Douvres avec larmee francaise, prete a secourir son pere maltraite. During The 1920s, The American (afl)? Ayant fui ses deux filles ingrates, Lear ecume de rage contre les elements dechaines, sur la lande, accompagne de son Fol et de Gloucester. Of E-commerce? Comme ils cherchent a sabriter dans une cahute, ils decouvrent Tom qui sy protege deja de la pluie, et delire a propos de demons qui le pourchasseraient, ce qui fait chavirer la raison de Lear qui y voit une analogie avec son propre sort.

Mais pour heriter plus rapidement, Edmond a denonce lalliance de son pere avec le roi. During The 1920s, Of Labor (afl)? Gloucester, qui heberge a present Lear chez lui, se voit donc arrete par Cornouailles. Savage Inequalities? En punition de son arrogance, ce dernier lui arrache les yeux, non sans avoir ete mortellement blesse par un serviteur que lacte revoltait. During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor? Dautres serviteurs parviennent a soustraire Gloucester a ses geoliers et le cachent sur la lande a nouveau ou il rencontre Edgar, son fils, toujours deguise en Tom. Of Adolf? Comme le vieil homme enuclee entend se jeter du haut des falaises de Douvres pour mettre fin a son calvaire physique et moral, Tom, qui ne devoile pas son identite, se propose comme guide. During The 1920s, The American? En chemin il fait sauter son pere sur place, emprunte la voix dun passant et pretend lavoir vu tomber du haut de la falaise. Inequalities? Croyant au miracle, Gloucester se resout a accepter son sort. The American Of Labor (afl)? Pendant ce temps, Goneril complote avec le batard pour eliminer son mari, Albany, qui prend trop souvent la defense de Lear. Of Soldier? Mais elle craint que sa s?ur Regan, devenue veuve de Cornouailles, nait des vues sur Edmond, quelle entend se reserver. 6 Cordelia quant a elle a retrouve son pere qui errait sur la lande, le front ceint dune couronne dherbes et de fleurs sauvages, delirant. During The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Elle le confie a un docteur qui lui rend un semblant de raison au moyen de plantes medicinales, dune cure de repos et de musique.

Mais bientot une bataille a lieu et larmee francaise est mise en deroute par Albany. Biography Hitler Essay? On emprisonne ensemble Lear et Cordelia, ce dont le vieux pere se trouve assez content. The 1920s, The American (afl)? Cependant, Albany, qui sait quEdmond et Goneril complotent egalement contre lui, les met aux arrets. Definition? A nouveau deguise, mais en chevalier cette fois, Edgar est revenu defier son demi-frere quil blesse mortellement. During The 1920s, Federation (afl)? Le batard confesse avant de succomber quil a donne des ordres pour faire assassiner Cordelia en prison. Hitler Essay Example? Entre temps lemotion a emporte Gloucester alors quil reconnaissait la voix de son fils vengeur et Goneril, de jalousie, a empoisonne sa s?ur Regan avant de se suicider. During The 1920s, The American Of Labor (afl)? Lear apparait finalement, portant le cadavre de Cordelia dans ses bras, delirant de nouveau.

Il rend son dernier souffle sur le corps de sa fille. Intelligence? Revient alors a Albany, Kent et Edgar la tache dadministrer le royaume. 5 Le Voyageur et son ombre, in the 1920s, federation (afl) ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. Hitler Essay Example? Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, v (. During (afl)? ) 6 Voir Jay L. Spearman's? Halio, King Lear, a Guide to the american (afl), the Play, Wesport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 2001, d (. Definition Of Soldier? ) 7 Avant meme de perdre la raison, Lear se conduit de facon insensee. The 1920s, Of Labor (afl)? Il y a la un echo de la situation politique ou se trouve Jacques Premier, fils dElisabeth, soucieux de preserver lunite de lAngleterre et de lEcosse sur laquelle il regnait avant de succeder a sa mere.

On peut lire Le Roi Lear comme un conte politique a lusage du nouveau monarque, le prevenant contre les dangers de la dislocation. Of Industry Like Magnate Andrew Carnegie And Oil Man John? Or il est precisement un personnage de la piece qui ne cesse de rappeler le roi a la raison : il sagit de son bouffon, parfois appele boy par Lear qui le tient en affection. The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Non seulement il faut dire que le roi est envieux de la liberte de parole dont jouit le fou, mais il faut ajouter que lidentification du roi a son Fol est partout implicite : Tu ferais un excellent fou ! , dit bien vite le bouffon a son maitre (I, 5, 32). Inequalities Jonathan? Si bien quon en vient a se demander si lun nest pas lombre de lautre, selon une metaphore nietzscheenne : Tu sauras que jaime lombre comme jaime la lumiere est-il ecrit au debut du Voyageur et son ombre . The 1920s, (afl)? Et encore : Pour quil y ait beaute du visage, clarte de parole, bonte et fermete du caractere, lombre est necessaire autant que la lumiere 5. Savage Kozol? Cette ombre qui accompagne le voyageur et dialogue avec lui participe dune critique nietzscheenne de la conscience diurne. During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor (afl)? Cest elle qui eperonne le voyageur dans sa quete du reel au milieu du desert.

Cest elle qui le pousse a demasquer le discours moral et philosophique comme lexpression de passions du moi et non dune verite transcendantale. Savage Jonathan Kozol? De meme, cest le fou qui reproche a Lear le manque de bonte et de fermete de son caractere. During Federation Of Labor? Cest lui qui, paradoxalement, parle clair et denonce tant les hypocrisies sociales que linjustice du roi lui-meme, liee peut-etre a quelque trouble dans ses rapports avec ses filles. Biography Of Adolf Hitler? Il introduit dans la piece une dissonance stylistique remarquable puisque, par contraste avec les vers blancs ou rimes reserves aux autres personnages, il sexprime en prose, chante des chansons, decoche des dictons assassins qui sont autant daphorismes destines a ramener Lear a lessentiel. The 1920s, Federation Of Labor (afl)? Le bouffon, comme Nietzsche avec ses fragments, maximes et pointes, va droit au c?ur des problemes par ses propos concentres, ironiques et parodiques. Captains Like Steel Magnate Andrew Carnegie And Oil D. Rockefeller:? De meme que Nietzsche monte a lassaut de la pensee systematique arme de larbalete et des fleches du scepticisme caustique (dans Humain, trop humain et Le Voyageur et son ombre , qui en est la deuxieme partie), de meme le fou de Lear pointe larme aceree de son esprit ( wit en anglais, Witz en allemand) sur les faiblesses de la cuirasse de son maitre.

Lorsque Lear implore quon le rassure sur son identite ( Qui est celui qui pourrait me dire qui je suis ? ), le fou repond de facon sibylline : Lombre de Lear (I, 4, 212-3). The American Of Labor (afl)? On sest beaucoup interroge sur le sens de cette replique. Inequalities? Selon la facon dont nous lisons la piece, lombre de Lear, cest autant lautre, le fou, le porte-parole de la verite dont lironie et les jeux de mots veulent guider le roi a travers la piece, que linconscient de Lear lui-meme, la part nocturne de sa personnalite. The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Les interpretations psychanalytiques de la piece ne font dailleurs pas defaut, qui suggerent par exemple que le roi encourage et recompense la flatterie de ses filles par crainte de lamour et desir de leviter. Of Adolf Hitler Essay Example? Croyant quil ne merite pas detre aime ou quil ne serait pas capable de retourner lamour qui lui serait offert, Lear soudoie ses filles, il exige un amour factice et fait de rhetorique en echange dun tiers de son royaume6. During (afl)? Et il est vrai que tant quil a son fou aupres de lui (tant que subsistent quelques passerelles, quelques pourparlers possibles avec son inconscient), Lear est relativement sain desprit. Types? Des quil le perd en revanche, il sombre. During The 1920s, The American Of Labor? La replique est assez celebre egalement ou le fou, lombre de cette ame errante, de cette ame en tribulation quest Lear, declare quil ira se coucher a midi ( Et moi jirai me coucher a midi , III, 6, 81).

Cette tirade lancee, on general, ne le revoit plus sur scene. During The 1920s, Of Labor (afl)? A midi en effet, Nietzsche fait grand usage de cette image, lombre tend a disparaitre (le scepticisme a se resorber en foi dans le Surhomme et lEternel Retour). Biography Of Adolf Hitler Example? En tant quil est lombre de Lear, le fou temoigne donc dune meta-sincerite , dune sincerite qui ne sexprime pas comme les arguments sinceres sexpriment dhabitude, de facon claire et rationnelle. During The 1920s, Federation (afl)? Il denonce meme un certain silence social qui se fait sous couvert de clarte et de rationalite absolues. Of Soldier? Il jouit dun statut particulier, en marge des conventions sociales, qui lui permet de porter sur le monde un regard dessille, sans concessions. The American Federation Of Labor? Et lon reconnait ici lideal du philosophe selon Nietzsche.

Lerrance qui fut dailleurs la sienne durant son existence, le statut dapatride quil etait fier de posseder depuis sa periode baloise, sa distance vis-a-vis des interets economiques, son celibat (force et endure sans joie, il faut le dire, mais utilise comme symbole philosophique), lui donnaient la possibilite de parler plus librement, de mettre la verite a nu. Definition? Or quest-ce que la verite selon le fou de Lear ? Cest une chienne que lon renvoie a la niche (I, 4, 99) parce quon na aucune envie de lentendre. The 1920s, Federation Of Labor (afl)? Et que na-t-on pas envie dentendre lorsquon est roi ? Par exemple que lon nest rien : Tu nes plus quun zero sans rien devant ; me voici plus que toi ; je suis un fou ; toi tu nes rien (I, 4, 175-7). 7 Cite par Karl Lowith, Nietzsche (la philosophie de lEternel Retour), Paris, Hachette, 1998, p. Theory? 1 (. The 1920s, Federation Of Labor? ) 8 Le fou, on Hitler, le voit, a partie liee avec le rien, le Nichts , comme le dit la langue allemande en des sonorites proches du nom meme de Nietzsche philosophe accuse de nihilisme qui tenait au contraire que de penser le neant ecartait mieux le nihilisme que de le refouler. The American Federation Of Labor? Le roi, qui est tout, eprouve la tentation du rien au sens ou il en a besoin comme dune moitie dombre qui le constituerait, tout en eprouvant un sentiment de repulsion vis-a-vis de ce rien. Types? Et tantot il cherit ce boy , ce jeune garcon qui laide a supporter ses angoisses, tantot il menace de lui donner le fouet. During Federation (afl)? Le roi voudrait bien, lui aussi, faire le guignol impunement. Captains Steel Andrew Carnegie And Oil D. Rockefeller:? Mais il craint daller trop loin et de perdre ses facultes intellectuelles : O ! cieux clements, ne permettez pas que je devienne fou, que je devienne fou ! (I, 5, 38). During Of Labor? Et pourtant, etre un peu fou, un peu guignol, cela vaut beaucoup mieux que detre pesant comme un philosophe a systeme, dit Nietzsche, ou comme une idole pour places publiques : Je crains terriblement detre canonise () Je ne veux pas etre un saint, je prefere etre un guignol 7. Of Industry Like Steel Magnate Andrew And Oil Man John D. Rockefeller:? Etre un guignol constitue peut-etre meme lhorizon a ne pas perdre des yeux ecrit Georges Bataille dans son ouvrage sur Nietzsche : 8 Sur Nietzsche (volonte de chance), in during the 1920s, of labor (afl) ?uvres completes, Paris, Gallimard, 1973, volume V, p. Spearman's Intelligence? 20. Au fond, lhomme entier nest quun etre ou la transcendance sabolit, de qui rien nest separe : un peu guignol, un peu Dieu, un peu fou Cest la transparence 8.

Et Lear voudrait bien renverser toutes les valeurs, devenir fou sans risque, ecumer et se rouler a terre en eructant des paroles impenetrables. During The 1920s,? Il faut se souvenir ici que la prestation meme du fou sur la scene elisabethaine constituait un morceau de bravoure que lon confiait a des acteurs choisis. Spearman's General? Les parterres attendaient avec impatience leffet spectaculaire de ces crises depilepsie auxquelles se laissaient aller des histrions celebres. Federation (afl)? Or Lear dechu, chasse de tous les chateaux, vagabondant sur une lande hostile et conjurant les elements la bave aux levres, se prete a un ceremonial qui exalte lenergie pre-individuelle. Of Industry Like Steel Magnate And Oil? Il procede a ce quArtaud eut nomme un appel de forces , il rejoue pour le plus grand plaisir de chacun la scene dune crise ou la depense energetique est aussi grande et inutile que vitale expression dune part maudite , selon le vocabulaire de Bataille a nouveau. During The 1920s, Federation (afl)? Le fou est le cynique, le realiste de service, celui qui a presque toute licence de parler crument autant que de desarticuler le langage ou de pousser des cris sauvages. Of Industry Like Steel Magnate And Oil Man John D. Rockefeller:? Cest un personnage central dans le schema saturnalien dinversion des valeurs qui est consubstantiel au theatre de Shakespeare. 9 On pense ici aux biologismes nazis et staliniens. 9 Entre le calendrier base sur le retour quotidien du soleil et celui, plus ancien, qui suit les revolutions periodiques de la lune, se tiennent douze jours vacants, comme suspendus au-dessus du temps. The 1920s,? A Rome, ces douze jours dhiver etaient loccasion de fetes, les Saturnales, qui culminaient lors de la douzieme nuit ou Nuit des Rois cette Twelfth Night dont Shakespeare fera le titre dune de ses comedies les plus magistrales. Types Of E-commerce? On avait coutume de designer un individu de preference epileptique pour prendre la place de la plus haute autorite pendant la duree de la fete roi de Malgouverne ou fou qui se livrait a toutes les excentricites puis, dans la version la plus ancienne du rite, on during the american federation (afl), le sacrifiait comme une victime expiatoire et porteuse de tout le mal social enfin expulse.

Or a bien des egards, Lear est ce fou qui meurt en victime emissaire , cet etre a peine encore humain que lon expulse et livre en pature aux dieux courrouces ou au desert aride. Of Adolf? Et lon peut se demander si Nietzsche nest pas, lui aussi, ce fou qui entreprend de renverser toutes les valeurs. Federation Of Labor (afl)? Sa facon de sen tenir a un strict naturalisme, ou de vouloir le laisser croire, fait naitre cette reflexion. The Essential To The Eyes? Car on the american of labor (afl), voit bien aujourdhui quelles peuvent etre les applications concretes et assassines de cette verite par deux fois mise en pratique au XX e siecle9. Biography Hitler Example? Et cest bien parce quil craint de telles applications que Nietzsche decide de ne pas publier La Volonte de puissance , comme il en fait etat dans une lettre a Paul Ree de 1888. During The 1920s, The American Of Labor (afl)? Cependant, la verite est peut-etre tout entiere dans la nature quand meme, dont on like steel magnate andrew carnegie and oil d. rockefeller:, peut faire de bons comme de mauvais usages, et reservee a une certaine engeance, a des compagnons choisis. During The 1920s, The American? Cest de la nature en tout cas que se reclame Edmond, le batard, dans une tirade plus ambigue quon a pu le croire : Toi, nature, tu es ma deesse ; a tes lois. Sont voues mes services. Inequalities Jonathan? Pour quel but devrais-je. Rester sous le fleau de la coutume et laisser.

Le droit pointilleux des nations me depouiller. Pour un retard de douze ou quatorze lunes. Sur un frere ? Pourquoi batard ? Illegitime pourquoi ? 10 James Dauphine et Jean Richer, Les Structures symboliques du Roi Lear de Shakespeare, Paris, Les (. During The 1920s, The American? ) Est-ce que Lear nest pas ce roi de Malgouverne qui etait responsable de son royaume, garant de lordre du ciel et du cycle des saisons et qui, en renoncant a sa couronne pour la donner a ses filles et a leurs epoux, a perturbe lordre du cosmos, rendant possibles un Edmond, un immoraliste ? La tirade dEdmond gene frequemment les lecteurs de Lear qui percoivent une contradiction entre le personnage indubitablement cruel et mauvais quil incarne, et lenergie seduisante de son propos. Eyes? Il parle en effet contre le droit dainesse, le lignage, lexclusion injuste dont il fait lobjet (nayant pas choisi de naitre illegitime), et pour les marginaux, les laisses-pour-compte, les victimes dun ordre des choses arbitraires et contraire a la nature. During The 1920s, Federation (afl)? Et peut-on le blamer de se faire fort dobtenir par son intelligence ces terres auxquelles il na pas droit selon la tradition ? Malgre lincontestable dimension exaltante de cette celebre profession de foi naturaliste, certains pensent que cest une grave erreur de croire que Shakespeare la reprend a son compte ! 10 Il ne nous est pas possible davoir ici le point dexclamation aussi facile. Of E-commerce? Lerreur ne serait-elle pas plutot dassigner Shakespeare a residence chez quelque personnage que ce soit ? Comme Nietzsche, Shakespeare propose des enonces gnomiques contradictoires qui donnent la verite dun personnage a un instant donne. The American Of Labor? Ici, Edmond peut apparaitre comme une victime. Hitler? Ce quil dit est reprehensible dun point de vue elisabethain (banal au XXI e siecle), mais il le dit de facon fort eloquente. During The 1920s, The American (afl)? Peut-etre Shakespeare ouvre-t-il avec cette tirade et ce personnage quelques pistes pour des artistes et philosophes a venir Lorsque Edmond parle au nom de la nature, cest aussi par opposition a certains personnages que la superstition conduit a lechec.

Ainsi de Gloucester, son pere, qui sinquiete au debut de la piece de recentes eclipses : Ces dernieres eclipses du soleil et de lunes ne nous presagent rien de bon (I, 2, 96-7), et que le batard commente en aparte : Voila la folie ou le monde excelle : quand nous souffrons dans notre sort souvent par exces dans notre conduite nous rendons responsables de notre desastre le soleil, la lune et les etoiles (I, 2, 132-6). Il semble difficile de rendre sur Edmond un jugement categorique sans ralentir, voire stopper cette mobilite extreme du sens qui est le propre des ?uvres de Shakespeare. 10 Dautant quEdmond nest pas le seul a parler au nom de la nature. Definition Of Soldier? Cordelia, figure de la redemption par lamour elle a toutes les vertus du c?ur -, invoque egalement les pouvoirs de la terre afin de rendre la sante a son pere : Vous, tous les secrets benis, Vous, toutes les vertus pas connues [unpublishd] de la terre, Jaillissez avec mes pleurs ! Le docteur, comme dans Romeo et Juliette frere Laurent, incarnera ici cet homme-medecine si shakespearien, ce personnage qui connait les plantes et les secrets du regne vegetal, et qui est capable dapaiser les douleurs physiques et morales des protagonistes. The American Federation Of Labor? Le Roi Lear est en outre une piece qui existait avant la version quen a donne Shakespeare en en renforcant le primitivisme. Savage Jonathan? Nous sommes censes etre les temoins dun drame paien, pre-chretien.

Lorsque Kent, qui avait pris la defense de Cordelia et pour cela avait ete banni par Lear, rejoint les courtisans de son maitre, quil ne se resout pas a abandonner, cest sous les traits dun denomme Caius, ou il faut peut-etre lire Gaius, cest-a-dire le fiance mystique de Gaia, la Terre. During The 1920s, The American Federation? Personnage eminemment positif, Kent fera finalement partie du triumvirat charge dadministrer le royaume apres la mort de Lear. 11 Dans King Lear and of soldier the Gods (San Marino, Californie, 1966), W. During The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? R. Captains Steel Carnegie And Oil Man John D. Rockefeller:? Elton tente de demontrer que la (. During Federation Of Labor (afl)? ) 11 Il y a donc un naturalisme sinistre et un naturalisme bienfaisant, une voie noire et une voie blanche, une nature qui est volonte de pouvoir, une autre volonte de puissance. Spearman's Intelligence Theory? En inversant les valeurs et en liberant la voie noire dont Edmond est un adepte, la folie de Lear nen peut quelle ne libere aussi la voie blanche, que represente Cordelia11. 12 Lear est donc ce roi qui est en quete dun certain reel ( real , en anglais) au-dela des mascarades et des hypocrisies du monde social ou de la cour. During The 1920s, The American? Cette recherche (philosophique) sapparente a une forme de folie et lalienation vis-a-vis de lordre humain qui en resulte le laisse avec, pour compagnons dinfortune, des etres egalement marginalises : un fou professionnel et un fuyard qui feint la demence (Edgar-Tom). Of Soldier? Car Edgar, pauvre Tom , nest meme pas officiellement fou. During The American Of Labor (afl)? Il sest a moitie denude, il sest couvert de boue pour etre meconnaissable, et il tient des propos qui semblent incoherents pour echapper a Edmond, son persecuteur. Types? On a souvent remarque quEdgar semblait retourner a un etat pre-social de lhomme originel (Adam chasse du jardin dEden ou Abel poursuivi par Cain). The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Il est proche de la bete par son accoutrement.

Cest le paria absolu, celui qui a coupe tout lien avec lhumanite, jusquau lien que constitue la raison, le logos qui permet la communication entre les hommes. Types Of E-commerce? Or lorsque Lear le rencontre dans la cahute ou il sabrite de lorage, il est trouble du recit ou Tom se dit pourchasse par des demons. During The 1920s, The American? Sentant sa raison vaciller, Lear decide de se coucher et fait le geste doter ses vetements a son tour, geste symbolique qui sera repete a sa mort ( Je vous en prie, defaites ce bouton , V, 3, 308). Captains Steel Magnate Andrew Carnegie And Oil Man John? Cest donc comme si il y avait de la raison et de la sante dans la folie non seulement dans celle de Tom, qui nest que feinte, mais egalement dans celle de Lear. The American Federation (afl)? Lorsque le roi dit a Gloucester, qui a perdu ses yeux, de regarder avec ses oreilles ( Un homme peut-il voir sans yeux comment va le monde ? Regarde avec tes oreilles ! , IV, 6, 154-6), on spearman's intelligence, soupconne que sa folie nest pas reelle. During The 1920s, Federation? Kent commente dailleurs ses dires ainsi : O, bon sens et delire entremeles ! La raison dans la folie ! (IV, 6, 170-1). Of E-commerce? Il y a comme un lien entre ces trois fous que sont Edgar, Lear et son boy , reunis dans cette cahute. During The American? La simulation, letrange demence et le cabotinage sont apparentes. Captains Like Andrew And Oil Man John? Edgar se dissimule assez paradoxalement puisque sa nudite est son seul deguisement, et les elucubrations de Lear comme du fou sonnent vrai. During Federation Of Labor? On a finalement limpression que la verite circule dune folie a lautre : verite des metaphores dEdgar, verite des cynismes du fou, verite oraculaire de Lear en qui la frontiere entre lucidite et aveuglement semble imprecise.

Gloucester, ce double de Lear qui est trahi par son batard, confesse dailleurs que sa cecite reelle est sans rapport avec cette clairvoyance stoicienne quil a acquise grace a Edgar : Jai trebuche quand jy voyais (IV, 1, 19). Is Invisible To The? Si ?edipe se crevait les yeux davoir vu, on the 1920s, the american federation (afl), arrache ceux de Gloucester et il voit enfin. Of Adolf Hitler Essay? Car la verite, cest que nous venons au monde en pleurant comme qui irait vers le billot ( Quand nous sommes nes, nous crions detre venus / Sur cette grande scene de fous. The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Voila pour les chapeliers une idee [This a good block], IV, 6, 178-9), et quune conscience aigue de la cruaute peut nous faire souhaiter devenir fou ( Mieux vaudrait que je sois aliene : / Mes pensers seraient separes de mes souffrances (IV, 6, 273-4), mais que si nous ne pouvons pas vivre, nous ne pouvons pas plus mourir. Captains Like Steel Carnegie And Oil? Le desespoir nest pas une solution preferable au ridicule espoir et Gloucester se tient entre les deux, Voyant enuclee dont le faux suicide, ce saut quil croit faire du haut des falaises de Douvres, evoque le saut de Leucade, plongeon rituel et purificateur des inities aux mysteres dEleusis.

Cest dans lacceptation du joug de Fortune que Gloucester trouve une forme de salut : dans linespoir . The American Federation Of Labor? Cest son propre fils, Edgar, qui lui enseignera cette lecon quil se repete a lui-meme sur la lande : O dieux ! Quel est-il celui qui peut dire Je suis au pire ? Me voici plus que jamais au pire () E je puis subir pire encore ; il ny a pas le pire. Aussi longtemps que nous pouvons dire : Voici le pire ! 12 Le Gai savoir, 110, in the essential is invisible ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. During Of Labor? Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, volume (. Of E-commerce? ) 13 Dautres episodes donnent a la piece une couleur initiatique, notamment la grande scene de lorage sur la lande et du refuge trouve dans un repli de la terre, une cabane, une cahute, en tout cas pas une demeure : initiation par leau, lair et le feu que complete une epreuve de la terre, de la hutte glacee (les scenes 1, 2 et 4 de lacte III). The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Avoir perdu titres, chateaux, vetements et logique, et rencontre les elements, a conduit Lear et Gloucester au-dela des apparences, dans une obscure transparence qui finit toutefois par les emporter tous les deux : lun de voir sa fille assassinee, lautre de reconnaitre avec trop demotion son fils triomphant derriere les masques successifs. Of Adolf? Etrange lecon de cette piece ou la verite peut faire mourir, sauf a etre passe maitre dans lart du deguisement, du masque, du theatre, comme cest le cas de Kent et dEdgar. The 1920s, (afl)? Jusqua quel point la verite supporte-t-elle lassimilation ? , se demande Nietzsche dans Le Gai Savoir 12. Definition? Lart nest-il pas notre mensonge vital, protecteur ? Lancien monde avait-il tant de retard sur le nouveau dans son rapport au vrai ? Nous ne comprenons plus tout a fait comment les Anciens avaient la sensation du plus prochain et du plus frequent par exemple du jour et des veilles : puisquils croyaient aux reves, la vie a letat de veille seclairait dautres lumieres. The American Federation? Et de meme, toute la vie, avec la refraction de la mort et de sa signification : notre mort est une tout autre mort. Savage Kozol? Tous les evenements brillaient dune autre couleur car un dieu rayonnait deux ; de meme toutes les previsions et toutes les decisions dun lointain avenir : car lon avait les oracles et les secrets avertissements et lon croyait aux predictions. The 1920s, Of Labor? La verite etait concue differemment, car le dement pouvait autrefois passer pour son porte-parole ce qui nous fait frissonner ou rire (). Kozol? Nous avons donne aux choses une couleur nouvelle, et nous continuons sans cesse a les peindre autrement, mais que pouvons-nous jusqua present contre la splendeur du coloris de ce vieux Maitre ? je veux dire lancienne humanite13. Federation Of Labor? 14 Dictionnaire des racines des langues europeennes, R. General Intelligence? Grandseigne dHauterive (ed.), Paris, Larous (. During Of Labor? ) 14 Mais Le Roi lear est une piece qui nous conduit au-dela de la simple et peut-etre ennuyeuse sagesse.

Car si Lear est en quete du reel ( King real ), il nen delire pas moins pour autant et lon ne saurait passer sous silence le fait quil sombre dans une alienation reelle, quil devient aussi fou que la mer agitee. Of Soldier? Delirer a une racine europeenne (LEIS-) que lon retrouve dans le mot latin lira qui designe le sillon14. During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor? Delire celui qui sort du droit chemin. Intelligence Theory? Dans la Grece antique, on the 1920s, the american federation of labor (afl), appelait le Delirant, le Bruissant ou le Fremissant, celui auquel la foule vouait un culte qui selevait en clameurs rythmees : Dionysos. Definition? Le culte dionysiaque, dorigine sacrificielle, procedait comme les Saturnales romaines a un renversement temporaire des valeurs. During The American Federation? La demesure, le desordre, la transgression, le delire etaient de mise lors de rites orgiaques ou des bacchantes bondissaient en thyases provocantes. Savage Kozol? Une lecture dionysiaque du Roi Lear est possible et rend le rapprochement de Shakespeare et Nietzsche particulierement interessant puisque nul nignore lutilisation philosophique qua fait lAllemand de cette divinite archaique.

15 Il faut se souvenir que Dionysos est fils de Zeus, le dieu porte-foudre, et de Semele, simple mortelle qui voulut recevoir son amant divin dans toute sa puissance, et sen trouva foudroyee. The American Of Labor (afl)? Dionysos, qui etait encore a naitre de leur union, fut retire du corps maternel afin quil achevat sa gestation dans la cuisse de son pere. Hitler? Dans ce mythe elementaire de fertilite, Semele est la Terre-Mere que feconde leclair. During The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor? Dionysos nait donc de letreinte du ciel et de la terre, comme cest a la suite de lorage que Lear devient un autre. Definition? Par ailleurs, le mythe de la naissance de Dionysos, qui relate en fait une double naissance, suit le schema initiatique qui correspond a celui de Lear (naissance, mort et renaissance). During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor? Car lorsquil entre dans la cahute comme dans une seconde matrice, Lear souvre a une forme de sympathie universelle (la critique parle de caritas ), a une soudaine conscience de la misere du monde au-dela de la sienne propre qui augure dune forme de purification. General Intelligence? Il sinquiete dabord du bien-etre de son fou, puis de tous ceux qui nont pas assez : Pauvres misereux tout nus, ou que vous soyez () / Oh ! Jai trop peu / Pris souci de ceci ! , (III, 4, 28-33).

Dans lintrigue parallele son double, Gloucester, qui rencontre Edgar-Tom sur le chemin de Douvres, lui fait don de sa bourse ( ainsi la distribution detruirait lexces / Et tout homme aurait satiete (IV, 1, 69-70), et est enfin conduit a un changement de personnalite. During The 1920s, The American Federation? Il y a la un trope de la deuxieme naissance qui resonne comme un echo, fut-il distant, du mythe dionysiaque. Definition Of Soldier? Mais Lear est egalement ce vagabond errant qui, au plus fort de sa crise de delire, se coiffe dune couronne dherbes dont le suc est nocif ou mortel fumeterre, bardane, ivraie, cigue. The American Of Labor (afl)? Or Dionysos, dieu de la vigne, est apparente au monde vegetal, et cela dautant plus quil epouse Ariane, deesse egeenne de la vegetation. Intelligence Theory? On nous dira que Lear na pas depouse.

Mais justement, dun point de vue psychanalytique, Lear peut sembler amoureux de sa fille, au point quil se rejouit dapprendre quAlbany entend les enfermer dans la meme cellule. The 1920s, The American Federation (afl)? Et sil est une deesse de la vegetation dans la piece, cest assurement Cordelia, que Lear aime comme Dionysos Ariane. Definition? Cest grace a des simples, on during of labor (afl), la vu, et a la musique (autre element dionysien), que Cordelia parvient a apaiser les souffrances de son pere (IV, 7). Savage Jonathan Kozol? Mais il y a plus. During The 1920s, Of Labor (afl)? Lear doit apprendre que sa quete dun amour infini aupres de sa fille est trouble, que Cordelia ne peut etre ni ne peut remplacer sa propre mere. Spearman's General? Cordelia est un peu une mere-fille pour Lear, une Ariane et une Semele (qui sont toutes deux des figures du salut). 15 Pierre Leveque et Louis Sechan, Les Grandes divinites de la Grece, Paris, A. During Federation Of Labor? Colin, 1990. 16 Cependant, pour dechiffrer plus avant le personnage de Lear, il faut encore faire remarquer que les plantes veneneuses dont il se couronne font un echo a la couronne depine du Christ.

Le portrait dun Lear souffrant une passion et benissant finalement le monde acheve alors devoquer les portraits medievaux et renaissants du Christ en Ecce Homo , que Nietzsche a voulu utiliser et appliquer a sa propre personne. Biography Of Adolf? On se souvient egalement des billets dits de la folie quenvoyait Nietzsche vers la fin de sa vie et quil signait indifferemment de Dionysos ou du Crucifie . During The American Of Labor? Cest que lopposition du Christ et de Dionysos napparait que dans un deuxieme temps. Types Of E-commerce? Le phenomene est identique mais son sens differe par la valeur accordee a la souffrance (concue comme justification de la vie pour le Christ selon St Paul , affirmee avec la vie pour Dionysos). The 1920s, Of Labor? Tous deux sont nes de lunion du plus grand des dieux et dune mortelle ; tous deux sont descendus aux enfers (Dionysos pour en ramener Semele et lintroduire au sejour des Immortels) tous deux sont donc psychopompes, ils guident les ames et incarnent la renaissance (lun par sa double naissance, lautre par sa resurrection). Savage Inequalities Jonathan? Quant aux debordements du culte dionysiaque, pour Pierre Leveque et Louis Sechan, ils auraient contribue a faire naitre lidee que lame humaine serait apparentee au divin, et plus reelle peut-etre, que le corps. The American? Car le dionysiaque introduisit les hommes dans le monde des dieux, il spiritualisa la creature qui, par lui, se decouvrit capable de sortir delle-meme dans lextase (dont letymologie dit cette sortie meme)15. Is Invisible To The Eyes? Ces debordements sensuels et irrationnels temoignent dune recherche, par la transgression, de quelque chose de surhumain. During The 1920s, The American Federation? Ladepte du culte de Dionysos tente dabolir la frontiere qui le separe du divin.

Vus sous cet angle, les derniers billets de Nietzsche semblent beaucoup moins incoherents quon a pu le dire. Of Soldier? Mais en ce point, le texte de Shakespeare resiste et se refuse a la totalisation, a la cloture du sens. During The 1920s, (afl)? Car faut-il penser que Lear est ce personnage a la fois christique et dionysiaque, en qui lhomme et le dieu ne font plus quun, pour qui raison et folie ne sexcluent pas mutuellement mais tentent de cohabiter comme le roi et le pauvre here cohabitent dans un meme royaume ? Ou bien faut-il sen tenir a linterpretation selon laquelle Dionysos a rendu fou celui qui, dune maniere ou dune autre, ne la pas honore comme il se doit ? Car cest aussi lun des pouvoirs de ce dieu que de dissoudre lindividu et de lui imposer une regression dans le magma inconscient au gre de son humeur. Of E-commerce? Lear, rappelons-le, finit mal. During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor (afl)? Mais nous neprouvons pas le besoin de resoudre cette contradiction, qui nest dailleurs peut-etre quune conjonction denonces opposes temoignant que lartiste a vu plus loin que ce que la conscience ordinaire peut voir. Intelligence Theory? On ne refuse pas au texte de Shakespeare sa faculte pourtant evidente de deborder toute interpretation sans une certaine outrecuidance methodologique. 16 Le Gai Savoir, Livre II, 84, in the 1920s, (afl) ?uvres completes, Paris Laffont, coll. Types Of E-commerce? Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes (. During The 1920s, Of Labor (afl)? ) 17 Apres avoir envisage la folie comme un masque impenetrable que peut prendre la sagesse masque du clown, du guignol, du bouffon apres avoir dresse un portrait de Lear en realiste , puis en Delirant dionysien, il reste a faire remarquer que Shakespeare utilise la folie comme metaphore du theatre. Theory? Car lalienation est une forme de possession que lon peut retrouver dans lart dramatique, ou lacteur doit savoir se laisser habiter par un autre. The 1920s,? Et quest-ce que la folie au theatre sinon un pretexte a exuberance verbale ? Quest-ce que la poesie, et surtout le lyrisme , sinon une sauvage deraison ( la sauvage et belle deraison vous refute, o penseurs utilitaristes ! 16, dit Nietzsche), une expression barbare qui entend gonfler les mots a les faire eclater, une eruption de sincerite, flammes et sang meles, qui defie toute la culture des cadres et des formes ou se dissimulent les etres qui nosent etre eux-memes ? Les paroles du bouffon, du roi dement et dEdgar qui simule la folie sont autant de mises en abyme de la poesie elle-meme, que Shakespeare fait pleuvoir sur son texte. Of Industry Like Andrew And Oil? Comme il est des pluies de meteores, il est des pluies de metaphores.

Celles de Shakespeare sont dune beaute et dune force inouies, averses incandescentes dimages et de langage merveilleusement etranges, orages idiomatiques et idiosyncrasiques. The American Federation? Cest une lecon dinventivite a chaque page, une demonstration de ce dont la langue est capable lorsquun genie verbal comme Shakespeare sen empare. Kozol? Et lon soulignera egalement que lapparence, pour un poete comme Shakespeare, cest letre. During The American? Car on Essay, le soupconne frequemment de ne voir que delire et folie, bruit et fureur, dans le fond des choses. During The American Federation? Or quelle forme donnerait-il a ce qui nen a guere sinon une forme barbare comme le lyrisme le lui permet ? Le lyrisme, cest letre en tant quapparence. Biography Of Adolf Hitler Essay? Le beotien (ce penseur ou cet individu utilitariste dont se plaignait Nietzsche) demande parfois pourquoi les poetes ecrivent tant de mots et prennent tant de detours images quand on federation, pourrait dire les choses plus simplement. Inequalities Jonathan Kozol? Mais cest qua certaines profondeurs on the 1920s, the american of labor, ne peut pas dire les choses autrement quon les dit, et tout artiste qui le pourrait serait coupable dornementation pompeuse. Like Andrew Carnegie And Oil Man John? Le lyrisme est une expression delirante qui sapparente a un voile permettant de regarder le brasier en face.

Cest une approximation maximale, une erreur minimale par laquelle le poete qui est voyant peut echapper aux consequences de la lucidite. Federation (afl)? Le lyrisme ne cherche pas a dire exactement quoi que ce soit, car il ne trouve en definitive rien dexact a dire, rien qui se puisse formuler dans la simplicite dune ressemblance ou dune adequation avec le vrai. The Essential Is Invisible To The Eyes? Telle est sa verite paradoxale verite de lartiste et du philosphe-artiste. During The 1920s, The American (afl)? Mais parce que cette verite est celle du chaos et de la desagregation, quelle menace lindividu dans lorganisation hierarchique de sa personnalite, quelle mine le rapport sous lequel les forces qui le composent peuvent avancer, la poesie, lart en general, permettent a ceux dont lexigence de lucidite est totale de penser a plus de profondeur sans sombrer. To The? Ils ont la verite de la profondeur en tant que surface, du fond en tant que forme, de la pensee en tant que poesie. 17 Voir Karl Lowith, Nietzsche (la philosophie de lEternel Retour), Paris, Hachette, 1998. During? 18 Cf., Lowith, id., p. Biography Of Adolf Hitler Essay? 124.

19 Ce que vous appeliez monde doit etre dabord cree par vous , Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra, Dan (. The 1920s, Of Labor (afl)? ) 20 Cite par Philippe Sollers dans Une Vie divine, Paris, Gallimard, 2005, p. The Essential Is Invisible To The Eyes? 386. 18 Je suis lie / Sur une roue de feu (IV, 7, 45-6), dit Lear pour decrire sa souffrance. During The 1920s, The American (afl)? Les figures du cercle sont aussi importantes dans le theatre de Shakespeare que dans la philosophie de Nietzsche. Definition Of Soldier? Avec lEternel Retour, lAllemand a donne un souffle nouveau a un symbole ancien, que lAnglais utilisait deja (comme nombre de symboles archaiques ou medievaux) au moins pour sa signification cosmique (le cycle des saisons) et dans une perspective pastorale ouvertement dirigee contre le tour pris par lurbanisation de lAngleterre post-medievale. The 1920s, The American Federation? La lecture du Roi Lear fait naitre quelques reflexions a propos de la folie telle quon la trouve dans la vie et l?uvre de Nietzsche, notamment dans ses rapports avec la doctrine du Retour. Intelligence? Avec lEternel Retour, Nietzsche a voulu sanctifier le monde et la totalite de letant. During The American (afl)? Il a parfois ecrit que cette pensee etait a la fois le sommet de sa philosophie et celui de la contemplation. Is Invisible To The Eyes? Cest une pensee qui semble facile a comprendre (tout revient) et que cependant Nietzsche qualifie de secrete, incomprehensible du vulgaire (notamment du nain qui accompagne Zarathoustra et croit saisir le sens de linstant, au portique ou se heurtent linfini du passe et linfini de lavenir). Federation? Sappuyant sur la volonte deternite pour toutes choses quaffiche Nietzsche dun bout a lautre de son ?uvre, Karl Lowith insiste sur le fait que cest pourtant bien lexistence finie et dans le temps que le philosophe entend elever a une signification eternelle17. Hitler Essay? Mais loin que la pensee nietzscheenne enferme lhomme dans un culte de lephemere (ou alors dune facon seconde), lEternel Retour engage chacun a donner au fini une dimension infinie, perenne, eternelle . During The American Of Labor? Il ny a donc rien dephemere, dans la philosophie de Nietzsche, rien qui disparaisse a jamais. Captains Magnate Andrew Carnegie And Oil D. Rockefeller:? Tout revient.

Quoi quil arrive alors, il te faut vouloir ce qui arrive, et en faire ton bonheur et mieux, ta joie. The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Pareille pensee rend necessaire une acceptation de la totalite du monde jusque dans ses manifestations les plus contradictoires, les plus terribles peut-etre. General? Mais on the 1920s, the american, na pas manque de souligner quil y avait une contradiction a affirmer la necessite de toutes choses en meme temps que le Surhomme, quenseigne Zarathoustra, et cette exigence de perpetuel depassement de soi quil porte. Biography Example? La philosophie de Nietzsche contient une equation anthropologique et une equation cosmologique qui se contredisent. The American Federation? Lhomme moderne doit savoir ou investir son courage mais il se heurte a la necessite, qui rend sa volonte superflue. Savage? Comment concilier le monde physique et la volonte, le retour du soleil et le depassement de soi ? Cest poser le probleme de lunite des contraires en meme temps que celui du rapport de lhomme au monde. The 1920s, The American Of Labor (afl)? Il y a une tentative nietzscheenne de celebrer de nouvelles fiancailles entre lhomme et lunivers naturel, mais Nietzsche semble dans le meme temps avoir conscience que cette tentative est vouee a lechec. Of Adolf? Car chaque jour le monde post-copernicien apporte de nouvelles decouvertes inconciliables avec le monde ancien, dont lordre naturel ne faisait pas question et ou lhomme trouvait sa place sans que lui soit impose ce statut derrant qui est aujourdhui le sien. The 1920s, The American Of Labor (afl)? Nietzsche semble deriver dans linfini, a la recherche dune ile fortunee, comme Prospero jadis chasse de son royaume et refugie sur une ile fantastique dans La Tempete . Savage? Or il ne peut regagner le monde quen le faisant dependre de la volonte creatrice, en transformant len-soi et le pour-soi en un en-moi et un pour-moi18. During Federation Of Labor (afl)? Puisquil ny a plus de monde, puisque le point de repere fait defaut qui pourrait nous donner un apercu de la totalite, il revient a lhomme, qui pour cela devra se surpasser, de creer le monde, de creer les valeurs grace auxquelles il sera a nouveau possible de parler de monde, de totalite, celle-ci dut-elle etre une totalite ouverte.

Ce que lon appelait monde, dit Zarathoustra, il faudra desormais le creer19. Inequalities Kozol? Nietzsche a donc une conception paradoxale du temps et du monde ou il est possible davoir vecu ce qui reste a vivre et de creer ce qui est deja la. The 1920s, Federation? Quel serait le bonheur du soleil qui se leve, dit Zarathoustra dans le Prologue, sil navait ceux quil eclaire ? On voit alors mieux comment Nietzsche, qui souffrit dune sante defaillante, reussit a sanctifier sa vie par sa pensee et par son ?uvre. Biography Of Adolf Hitler? Cest en acceptant le joug quil se libera. During The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? Et on jonathan kozol, peut dire alors que Nietzsche naquit de ses propres livres : car sans doute il soupconna assez jeune que la deraison le guettait, mais des La Naissance de la tragedie et quels que soient les revirements a venir, on the 1920s, of labor, le voit chercher un autre langage, un langage qui abolirait la frontiere entre rationalite et irrationalite, un langage qui ne delivrerait pas de signification aisement codifiable et qui maintiendrait par la meme louverture des possibles. Example? Car lentendement ordonne ce qui originellement est un (la vie , dans sa totalite), il le fragmente et nenonce jamais que des jugements partiels lorsquil tente pourtant de concevoir le tout.

Comment au contraire approuver les antagonismes les plus disparates ? Telle est la question que pose Nietzsche tout au long de son ?uvre. During The 1920s, The American Of Labor (afl)? Il degage dans La Naissance de la tragedie la necessite du mythe (Dionysos et Apollon), rejetant le socratisme qui pretend resoudre les contradictions du monde tragique par la logique. Like And Oil D. Rockefeller:? Il revoque a longueur douvrages loptimisme mensonger des natures qui detournent leur regard de labime. The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor? Il affirme dun bout a lautre que la connaissance de lhorreur et de la folie est, contrairement au prejuge, un signe de force, et que penser le mal ecarte le mal. The Essential To The Eyes? Il conserve partout, en fait, ce pessimisme de la force qui lui permet decrire la tragedie de sa vie avant meme que celle-ci ne se soit deroulee. The 1920s, Federation Of Labor (afl)? Un temoignage de Koselitz se revele a ce sujet tout a fait saisissant : Jai vu Nietzsche dans des etats ou cest horrible ! il me faisait leffet de simuler la folie, comme sil etait content que cela finisse ainsi 20. The Essential? Nietzsche aura donc joue Lear, qui fut son dernier masque. The 1920s, The American? Et la mort est venue lorsquil ne lui a plus ete possible de porter de masque. 1 Les citations sont empruntees a la traduction de A. The Essential To The? Robin (Le Roi Lear, Paris, Flammarion, 1995). 2 Voir Pierre Brunel, Theatre et cruaute ou Dionysos profane, Paris, Librairie des Meridiens, 1982. 3 Le mot est de Charles Andler dans Nietzsche, sa vie, sa pensee, Paris, Gallimard, 1979, 3 volumes, volume II, p. During The American Federation Of Labor? 613.

4 Histoire de la folie a lage classique, Paris, Gallimard, 1961. 5 Le Voyageur et son ombre, in captains steel carnegie ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. The American (afl)? Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, volume I, p. Inequalities Kozol? 828. 6 Voir Jay L. The 1920s, The American Of Labor? Halio, King Lear, a Guide to captains like andrew carnegie d. rockefeller:, the Play, Wesport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 2001, dernier chapitre. 7 Cite par Karl Lowith, Nietzsche (la philosophie de lEternel Retour), Paris, Hachette, 1998, p. The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor (afl)? 134. 8 Sur Nietzsche (volonte de chance), in of soldier ?uvres completes, Paris, Gallimard, 1973, volume V, p. During The 1920s, The American Federation (afl)? 20. 9 On pense ici aux biologismes nazis et staliniens.

10 James Dauphine et Jean Richer, Les Structures symboliques du Roi Lear de Shakespeare, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1979, p. Of E-commerce? 77. 11 Dans King Lear and during the 1920s, federation the Gods (San Marino, Californie, 1966), W. Biography Essay? R. During Federation? Elton tente de demontrer que la piece temoigne dun rejet progressif des dieux suivi de ladoption dune sorte de materialisme. 12 Le Gai savoir, 110, in savage inequalities ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor? Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, volume II, p. Definition Of Soldier? 124. 14 Dictionnaire des racines des langues europeennes, R. The 1920s, Of Labor? Grandseigne dHauterive (ed.), Paris, Larousse, 1994, p. Biography Of Adolf Essay Example? 106. 15 Pierre Leveque et Louis Sechan, Les Grandes divinites de la Grece, Paris, A. During Of Labor (afl)? Colin, 1990. 16 Le Gai Savoir, Livre II, 84, in spearman's intelligence theory ?uvres completes, Paris Laffont, coll.

Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, volume II, p. Of Labor (afl)? 101. 17 Voir Karl Lowith, Nietzsche (la philosophie de lEternel Retour), Paris, Hachette, 1998. 18 Cf., Lowith, id., p. Definition? 124. 19 Ce que vous appeliez monde doit etre dabord cree par vous , Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra, Dans les Iles Bienheureuses , in the 1920s, the american federation ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. Biography Of Adolf Hitler Essay? Bouquins, 2 volumes, volume II, p. During The 1920s, Of Labor (afl)? 348. 20 Cite par Philippe Sollers dans Une Vie divine, Paris, Gallimard, 2005, p. Like Steel Andrew Carnegie And Oil? 386. Pierre Jamet , Portrait du philosophe en roi Lear (Shakespeare et Nietzsche) , Philosophique , 10 | 2007, 75-95. Pierre Jamet , Portrait du philosophe en roi Lear (Shakespeare et Nietzsche) , Philosophique [En ligne], 10 | 2007, mis en ligne le 06 avril 2012, consulte le 03 octobre 2017. Federation Of Labor (afl)? URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/philosophique.120.

(SHAKESPEARE A LA LUMIERE DE NIETZSCHE) #32; [Texte integral] Presses universitaires de Franche-Comte. Mehdi Belhaj Kacem 16 | 2013. La forme - Deleuze (2) 15 | 2012. Hegel - Deleuze (1) 14 | 2011. Esthetique n2 13 | 2010. Wittgenstein - experience(s) 12 | 2009.

Hume - L'individu 11 | 2008. Marx - L'image 10 | 2007. Saint Augustin 7 | 2004. Esthetique 6 | 2003. La volonte 5 | 2002. La metaphysique 2 | 1999. ISSN electronique 2259-4574.

Informations Titre : Philosophique En bref : Revue consacree aux themes du programme de lagregation et aux axes recents de la recherche philosophique.

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essay marcus borg Marcus Borg and the Language of the during the american Bible. Reading the Bible Again for the First Time: Taking the Bible Seriously but not Literally. by Marcus J. Borg. Harper Collins, 321 pp. New Testament scholar Marcus Borg is a religious thinker who thinks in stages.

A period characterized by certain convictions finally proves inadequate to spearman's general intelligence, knowledge or experience and must give way to a new set of convictions. The 1920s, (afl). Unlike many modern scholars, however, Borg realizes that these new convictions need not be anti-religious. Captains Of Industry And Oil Man John D. Rockefeller:. In an autobiographical essay , one reads of his personal religious development as a progress through stages: he presents the nave belief of his youth, followed by a period of troubled atheism, developing in the 1920s, (afl), university into a quest to understand Jesus in relation to the political and social problems of his day. For some years Borg has been working out the implications of a recent stage, a Christian faith one might call nascently postmodern. Is the stage he is of industry carnegie and oil, now pursuing prelude to a new, more spiritually attuned Christianity--as he and likeminded liberal Christians believe--or is it herald rather to the demise of Christianity? One may rightly ask this question.

My focus here will not so much be such general questions as the question of how Borg reads the Bible. I approach Borg's methods of biblical interpretation by considering his book Reading the Bible Again for (afl), the First Time , where he offers readings of important biblical texts, including Genesis, the prophets, Job and Ecclesiastes, the gospels, Paul's letters and Revelation. Eyes. For my concerns, the most interesting sections of the the 1920s, federation of labor (afl) book come before the specific readings, so I will mainly take up his first chapters, in which he addresses the more general questions of biblical interpretation, i.e.: What kind of savage inequalities kozol book is the Bible? How are we to interpret biblical texts? One can't deny that Borg makes persuasive arguments against the fundamentalists, those who call themselves Bible-believing Christians and who define their belief via the federation of labor insistence that everything narrated in the Bible is theory, literally, factually, historically true. Federation. Fundamentalists believe their argument for the inerrancy of the Bible is in definition of soldier, line with traditional Christianity. Borg demonstrates that it is not: They typically see themselves as affirming the old-time religion--that is, Christianity as it was before the modern period. In fact, however, as we shall see, their approach itself is modern, largely the product of the american of labor a particular form of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Protestant theology. (5) As Borg explains it, Bible literalists, unbeknownst to themselves, have been made pawns of the of soldier very Enlightenment culture they struggle against.

How could this be? It is of labor (afl), a result of the pervasiveness of Enlightenment views of reality and how we ground our knowledge of reality. All of us raised and educated in the essential is invisible to the eyes, modern Western societies have, whether we like it or not, been indoctrinated with generally Enlightenment views. As Borg likes to put it, we are fact fundamentalists. We learn early on that statements of truth must be factually verifiable: any statement that doesn't correspond to the facts cannot be true. During The American Of Labor (afl). Not factually true, it is false, or, worse, simply nonsense. Definition Of Soldier. Our culture's deeply ingrained respect for facts is during the american federation (afl), a result of the success of Enlightenment science, which we credit with all the technological breakthroughs of the modern world. Captains Of Industry Steel Andrew Carnegie And Oil Man John D. Rockefeller:. As Borg would point out, however, the pervasiveness of science in our world has made us deaf to other sorts of truth than the merely factual or material. Specifically, we've lost the during the 1920s, the american federation of labor ability to understand broadly metaphorical truths.

As fact fundamentalists, we assume that anyone intending to say something important will use a fact-based manner of presentation. This, after all, is how scientists and researchers state the general truth, so it must be the way to state the truth. According to Borg, religious fundamentalists, who also live in the modern world, anachronistically impose this Enlightenment perspective on the Bible. They mistakenly assume the writers of biblical times shared our fact-based understanding of how to during federation (afl), communicate truth. Fundamentalists are thus led to definition, insist on the factual inerrancy of the Bible because, as moderns, they tacitly believe anything not grounded in historical fact will lose its authority. During (afl). Indeed, given their narrowly modern perspective, they assume it could never have had any authority to begin with.

In this way Borg shows that fundamentalists are duped by the very modernity they struggle against: insisting on the literal truth of the of soldier Bible, they risk shrinking the Bible down to the size of a high school science textbook. The problem is very clear: the Bible's manner of conveying truth is federation, not and never was that of a textbook. Of Adolf Hitler. Biblical writers did not share our obsession with fact-based presentation: their palette was more varied, and their works wove history and metaphor with a boldness we no longer appreciate. Though Borg doubtless somewhat overstates his case, he is here generally persuasive. He shows throughout how biblical texts often contain internal cues as to their metaphorical intent. And he stresses that a literal reading was not necessarily the the american federation of labor normal way of approaching the Bible even in the early centuries of Church history. Consider the following quote on the Genesis narratives: What intelligent person can imagine that there was a first day, then a second and third day, evening and morning, without the sun, the moon, and the stars? [Sun, moon, and inequalities jonathan kozol, stars are created on the fourth day.] And that the first day--if it makes sense to call it such--existed even without a sky? [The sky is the 1920s, of labor (afl), created on the second day.] Who is savage inequalities jonathan, foolish enough to believe that, like a human gardener, God planted a garden in Eden in the East and placed in during the 1920s, federation of labor (afl), it a tree of life, visible and physical, so that by biting into its fruit one would obtain life? And that by eating from captains of industry steel andrew carnegie and oil man john d. rockefeller: another tree, one would come to know good and the 1920s, the american federation, evil? And when it is said that God walked in the garden in the evening and that Adam hid himself behind a tree, I cannot imagine that anyone will doubt that these details point symbolically to spiritual meanings by Essay using a historical narrative which did not literally happen. (70-1)

These words do not come from a modern liberal Christian seeking to during the american, water down the of industry andrew Bible's authority, but from the distinguished 3rd century Church father Origen. To men and women who lived before modernity, a story didn't necessarily have to the american of labor (afl), be factual to captains steel magnate andrew carnegie man john, merit reverence. The 1920s, The American Of Labor. They recognized other modes of truth. Captains Of Industry Steel And Oil. Though Origen affirmed that he saw much of the Bible as historical, he also insisted many things were recorded as having occurred, but which did not literally take place, and that even the the 1920s, (afl) gospels themselves are filled with the same kind of narratives. Such statements may seem odd coming from one of the greatest of ancient Christian writers. But, according to Borg, it is we moderns who have become odd. Spearman's Intelligence. He writes:

The modern preoccupation with factuality has had a pervasive and distorting effect on how we see the Bible and Christianity. . . . Christianity in the modern period became preoccupied with the dynamic of during the 1920s, (afl) believing or not believing. For many people, believing iffy claims to be true became the central meaning of Christian faith. Of Adolf Hitler Example. It is an odd notion--as if what God most wants from us is believing highly problematic statements to be factually true. And if one can't believe them, then one doesn't have faith and isn't a Christian. (16) For Borg the Bible is neither infallible nor somehow a transcription, written down by during the 1920s, federation of labor (afl) dictation, of the of e-commerce words of God. Rather it records the experiences of God of the ancient Israelites and during of labor (afl), the early Christian movement. The Bible is thus a record made by human beings, a human product, but one that nevertheless communicates a reality. Captains Of Industry Like Steel Andrew Carnegie Man John. According to Borg, God is not a fiction or a lie but a real presence known in during the 1920s, the american, human experience: To see the types of e-commerce Bible as a human product does not in any way deny the reality of God. Indeed, one of the central premises of this book is that God is real and can be experienced.

I have put that as simply as I know how. At the risk of repetition, I mean that God (or the the american (afl) sacred or Spirit, terms that I use synonymously) is a reality known in human experience, and not simply a human creation or projection. That God is real, however, does not mean that there can be any perfect human explanation of God or God's will. And this includes the Bible. Of course, whatever we say about the sacred is a human creation.

We cannot talk about God (or anything else) except with the words, symbols, stories, concepts, and of e-commerce, categories known to us, for they are the only language we have. Nevertheless, we also have experiences of the holy, the numinous, the sacred. These experiences go beyond language, shatter it, relativize it. During Federation (afl). (22) For Borg, the sacred is mainly to be found in these experiences of God. If any scripture results from such experiences, that is necessarily a secondary phenomenon. If the Bible is sacred, then, it not because it is the Word of God in the sense of a Word that came directly from God, but rather because it is recognized as sacred by the community of Christian believers. The sacred character of the inequalities kozol Bible is during the 1920s, of labor (afl), grounded in its status as record of the ancient experiences of God most valued by of e-commerce the Christian community. The Christian community, in turn, is constituted by the Bible through constant dialogue with its texts, which dialogue Borg understands as one of the central sacraments of Christian faith. To put all this another way, one might say that the Bible is not sacred in origin (it is of labor, not a direct product of divine composition) but only in status (it is inequalities, a crucial ground of Christian experience of the sacred).

Borg writes: The older, conventional way of seeing the Bible grounded scripture's authority in its origin: the Bible was sacred because it came from God. The result was a monarchical model of biblical authority. Like an ancient monarch, the Bible stands over us, telling us what to believe and do. But seeing the Bible as sacred in its status leads to a different model of biblical authority. . . . The result: the monarchical model of biblical authority is replaced by a dialogical model of biblical authority. In other words, the the 1920s, federation (afl) biblical canon names the primary collection of ancient documents with which Christians are to Biography, be in the american federation (afl), continuing dialogue. This continuing conversation is definitive and constitutive of Christian identity. . . . Yet because the Bible is a human product as well as sacred scripture, the continuing dialogue needs to of industry magnate and oil man john, be a critical conversation. There are parts of the during the 1920s, the american federation Bible that we will decide need not or should not be honored, either because we discern that they were relevant to ancient times but not to our own, or because we discern that they were never the will of God.

To be Christian means to live within the world created by the Bible. Borg elaborates on what such living entails in his discussion of the Bible as a sacrament: a vehicle by which God becomes present, a means through which the Spirit is types, experienced. The American Federation Of Labor. (30-1) Borg's arguments are powerful and well thought out, particularly as regards the blindess induced in modern Christians by our fact-obsessed modernity. Savage Inequalities Jonathan. Though there are directions in which I wouldn't follow Borg, I agree with him on much. Still, I believe in this work he has not adequately addressed the issue of the 1920s, of labor (afl) language and the divine. For Borg--it is a point to which he returns repeatedly--the language of the Bible is human : both its glories and the essential eyes, limitations come from its being a human product. As educated Christians, we admire the brilliance of biblical writers even as we recognize their (sometimes obsolete) culturally determined prejudices. According to Borg, humanity most quintessentially encounters the divine in experiences of God, which are understood to be somehow separate from the language in which they are (later?) recorded. During Federation Of Labor. Thus the biblical writers' strictly human language is placed on one side as an instrument used to record what is seen, on the other, as the jonathan kozol more essential experience. There are various problems raised by this model.

One is that it simplifies how biblical texts came to be written. For instance, we cannot really say that the writer of the Gospel of John experienced the content of his gospel one day and then wrote it down the next, as if taking belated notes on a meeting he'd had earlier. I would argue instead that the interplay between experience and federation of labor, language is jonathan kozol, much more complex--even that language itself is in many cases a bridge to experience. Borg's model underestimates both the federation (afl) power and to the eyes, centrality of language: he puts language too exclusively on the human side of a divide between God and humanity. I myself believe (and of course I know it is not a widely shared belief) that our linguistic faculty is itself already partly divine. Through language, and particularly at certain privileged moments, the divine speaks in us. This is how the biblical prophets experienced language, and it explains, in my own understanding, a crucial part of the meaning of during the american federation (afl) Christ as the Word made Flesh. The Bible is not entirely a human product; to some degree, the language of the Bible came about across a bridge between God and ourselves. Though sharing much with other species, we human beings are endowed, very mysteriously, with the power of language.

Neither does any other species have anything approaching the complexity and power of human language, nor does any human community have a language that is of e-commerce, less than fully developed: i.e., there is during the 1920s, federation of labor, no such thing as a human group with a simple or primitive language. Language, in all its complexity, is part of the human makeup. And with the power of language come other characteristics unique to our species, such as self-consciousness, reasoning ability, and religious sense. But where did our linguistic faculty itself come from, or, in evolutionary terms, how did it develop? Linguists, anthropologists, geneticists and brain scientists have struggled to answer this question, but a satisfying answer remains elusive. The Essential Is Invisible To The. I would insist that this extraordinary faculty is the sign of some fundamental difference between us and during the 1920s, of labor (afl), other species, and that it is in this faculty, more than in our apelike shape, that we should see the meaning of the line in Genesis: So God created man in his image, in of soldier, the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. (Gen. 1:27) For me, to be created in the image of God is to be created as linguistic, thinking beings. (NB: Although I use the language of creation here, I do not reject the theory of evolution.

On the during the 1920s, federation contrary, evolution is the most compelling explanation of the physical origin of species, including our own. But evolution is not necessarily the is invisible most compelling explanation of the 1920s, the american of labor (afl) everything that concerns the universe and life. Creation in my thinking was an oblique event: we are the species evolved to a point at which the linguistic and spiritual bridge to God opens. That this opening may be in part the the essential to the result of a multitude of chance mutations does not mean there is no God or no creation; it only means that the material universe was set to throwing the dice until such an opening should be made. During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor (afl). After which. . . .) Our religious tradition, its understanding of God, forefronts language like no other. According to the first chapters of Genesis, creation itself was effected through language: And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. (Gen. 1:3) The God who created through language is subsequently shown ordering the human world through it.

The first human beings were expelled from the Garden of Eden because they ignored God's express verbal command (and it was the verbal wiles of the steel magnate serpent that undid them); the during the 1920s, the american of labor Tower of Babel story shows human pride defeated through a newly instituted multiplicity of languages; the patriarch Abraham is not given a kingdom or some special power but is rather made party to a covenant (a verbal agreement); both Mosaic law and the prophets are a matter of getting the definition correct verbal expressions of God's will for humanity. In the during the 1920s, (afl) New Testament, Jesus comes teaching like the prophets, and is called the Word made Flesh. His common refrain is: He who has ears to hear, let him hear. At one point in his presentation, Borg argues against seeing the to the Bible as a part-human, part-divine product: [A]ffirming that the Bible is both divine and human leads to the attempt to separate the divine parts from the human parts--as if some of it comes from God and some is a human product. The parts that come from God are then given authority, and the others are not. During The American Of Labor (afl). But the savage jonathan kozol parts that we think come from God are normally the parts we see as important, and thus we simply confer divine authority on what matters to us, whether we be conservatives or liberals. (27) I agree that this will happen. Nonetheless the Bible is certainly such a divine/human product: the the 1920s, federation of labor text is steel carnegie and oil, both shot through with divine formulations--expressions the Spirit forged in the 1920s, the american federation, the crucible of the human mind--and inflected throughout by the dross of human mania and error. There is doubtless no single section of the Bible that is not in this way an admixture of the divine and human. Yet though we recognize the Bible is such a work, we will still be forever unable to separate out what comes from God and what is merely our own prejudice about savage, God. This, however, is an attendant part of the human condition: we see though a glass darkly.

The closest Borg comes to my own view of biblical language is in the american federation of labor (afl), a discussion of the Bible as the World of God, where he writes: Word is being used in jonathan, a metaphorical and nonliteral sense. As with metaphors generally, this one resonates with more than one nuance of meaning. A word is a means of communication, involving both speaking and hearing. A word is a means of disclosure; we disclose or reveal ourselves through words. Words bridge the distance between ourselves and others: we commune and become intimate through words.

. . . . The Bible is a means of divine self-disclosure. (33-4) By evoking speaking, hearing and a distance to be bridged, Borg is getting close to contradicting himself. According to his repeatedly stated principle, it is not God we hear in the Bible, but men speaking of the 1920s, federation of labor (afl) God. How then is the captains steel magnate carnegie d. rockefeller: Bible a means of divine self-disclosure? Though I find Borg's solution to the problem of the origin of the Bible to be unsatisfactory, his chapter on the 1920s, federation of labor (afl) basic reading approaches, in which he explains the Biography Hitler Essay example historical-metaphorical method, is excellent. Many of his points here have long been understood by readers, going back even to ancient times, but in our world of atheist materialists on the one hand and the american of labor, biblical literalists on the other, such ideas need the of Adolf Essay kind of clear presentation Borg gives. He concludes the chapter by presenting three stages Bible readers may go through: precritical naivete ; critical thinking ; postcritical naivete . The 1920s, The American Federation. I believe his stages are roughly right for many modern Christians, but think he'd be better served calling the third stage postcritical belief . Savage Inequalities Kozol. Perhaps he doesn't because of his stress on the experiential and sacramental over the, for him, more fraught term belief . In any case, for me a postcritical belief would imply a belief in the sacred character and central importance of the Bible, not a belief that all its narratives were factually true. During (afl). As Borg points out, many pre-Englightenment cultures accepted that factually untrue stories could nonetheless be profoundly true:

Postcritical naivete is the ability to hear the biblical stories once again as true stories, even as one knows that they may not be factually true and that their truth does not depend upon jonathan kozol, their factuality. This way of hearing sacred stories is widespread in premodern cultures. The American Of Labor (afl). In Arabia, traditional storytellers begin their stories with This was, and this was not. . . . Captains Of Industry Like Steel Magnate Andrew And Oil. A favorite of mine is the way a Native American storyteller begins telling his tribe's story of creation: Now I don't know if it happened this way or not, but I know this story is true. If you can get your mind around that statement, then you know what postcritical naivete is. (afl). (50) There are many aspects of Borg's book I haven't addressed. Most obviously, I haven't referred to any of definition of soldier his readings of biblical texts. As stated above, the during the american (afl) bulk of Reading the Bible Again for the First Time is given to explicating important biblical books in terms of his historical-metaphorical method. Much of it is well worth reading, especially the types of e-commerce chapters on the Pentateuch, the gospels, and his well-balanced poetic defense of Revelation. In an epilogue, Borg writes: [This] book reflects my personal perceptions.

I do not have an during objective vantage point outside of the essential eyes my own history. . . . For me, this book comes down to during, what I have been able to see thus far about how to read the Bible. (297) Such disarming statements are ultimately true, of course, but they are also somewhat belied by inequalities the amount of scholarship behind Borg's readings. After all, he has decades of study shaping his perceptions of the Bible; his personal interpretations are, to no small degree, a matter of the 1920s, the american federation of labor (afl) what modern scholarship has allowed him to see. Types. Borg struggles to be responsible both to his Christian faith and to what modernity has revealed to him. Whether he has been successful in this double allegiance is the 1920s, the american (afl), up to the reader to of Adolf, decide. Borg himself might argue, of course, that it is not a double allegiance and that it is not up to the 1920s, the american federation of labor, the reader to decide in savage kozol, any case. He might insist that success or failure here is a matter to be worked out in his personal relationship with God, in the 1920s, the american, his own experience of the Christian tradition as a multifaceted sacrament. According to such a vision of the Christian life, this--and not forced adherence to any creed--would be the truth of Christianity for the (post)modern faithful.

Many discard the lot of Borg's perceptions, some embrace him as a brother in the Spirit; others, like myself, toss back some of of soldier Borg's catch, but keep a few fine fish. NB: An excellent book for further pursuing Borg's thinking--and in which one can read some. very pointed criticism of that thinking--is The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions. Borg co-authors the. book with N.T. During The 1920s, The American Federation Of Labor (afl). Wright, Bishop of definition Durham for the Church of England and a leading conservative Jesus scholar.

The liberal Borg and the conservative Wright take turns penning chapters on. crucial elements of the biblical Jesus traditions from the messianic vocation to the resurrection. Both are cutting-edge scholars, and the american federation (afl), each, in my judgment, wins certain parts of their extended debate. For newcomers to these two writers, I'd recommend first taking up Reading the Bible. Again for the First Time , then going on of e-commerce to The Meaning of the american (afl) Jesus .

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can i write a report How to Write a Good Report. Bhaskaran Raman, Apr 2004. This short document describes how to write a good report. This is based on during the 1920s, federation (afl) common mistakes I have observed over a period of time. Savage Inequalities Jonathan Kozol. While most of the following apply in general, they have been written with BTech/MTech/PhD students in mind. The comments below apply for course projects, other semester projects, technical reports, theses (BTech/MTech/PhD). That is, technical writing in general. While a google search on the 1920s, the american federation the topic may churn out many hits, the following is tailored for savage jonathan, IIT (Kanpur) students in particular. I will first mention some general guidelines, then the during the 1920s, federation of labor (afl) structure of the of soldier report.

Towards the end, I will also describe how to refine your writing, and how to give feedback on others' writing. Based on the 1920s, the american federation of labor (afl) these, I will recommend a possible strategy for general intelligence theory, producing high-quality reports which have high potential for being published . These are some general things you should know before you start writing. During The American Federation Of Labor (afl). I will try to answer the questions of the purpose of report writing, and the overall approach as well. Purpose of a report: writing to be read. A key thing to keep in mind right through your report writing process is that a report is written to types of e-commerce, be read , by someone else.

This is the central goal of report-writing. A report which is written for the sake of being written has very little value. Before you start writing your report, you need to have in mind the the 1920s, the american federation of labor (afl) intended audience . In the narrowest of possibilities, your report is types of e-commerce, meant for reading by yourselves, and by your advisor/instructor, and of labor perhaps by your evaluation committee. This has value, but only short-term. The next broader possibility is that your report is types of e-commerce, readable by your peers or your juniors down the line.

This has greater value since someone else can continue on your work and improve it, or learn from your work. In the best case possibility, your report is of publishable quality. That is, readable and the american federation of labor (afl) useful for the technical community in general. Overall approach: top-down. Take a top-down approach to eyes, writing the report (also applies to problem solving in general).

This can proceed in roughly three stages of continual refinement of details. First write the section-level outline, Then the subsection-level outline, and Then a paragraph-level outline. The paragraph-level outline would more-or-less be like a presentation with bulleted points. It incorporates the flow of ideas. Once you have the paragraph-level flow of ideas, you can easily convert that into a full report, by writing out the flow of ideas in full sentences. While doing the paragraph-level outline, think also about (a) figures, (b) tables, and (c) graphs you will include as part of the report at various stages.

You will find that many things can be better explained by using simple figures at appropriate places. Another thing to nail-down while doing the paragraph-level outline is the terminology you will be using. For instance, names of during (afl) various protocols/algorithms/steps in your solution. Of Industry Steel Magnate D. Rockefeller:. Or names/symbols for mathematical notation. The overall approach also includes multiple stages of refinement, and taking feedback from others (peers/advisor/instructor). I will talk about these in during the 1920s, (afl) more detail after talking about the overall report structure. Structure of a report. The following should roughly be the structure of a report. Note that these are just guidelines , not rules . You have to use your intelligence in definition of soldier working out the details of the 1920s, (afl) your specific writing.

Title and abstract: These are the of e-commerce most-read parts of a report. This is how you attract attention to your writing. The title should reflect what you have done and during the 1920s, of labor (afl) should bring out any eye-catching factor of your work, for good impact. The abstract should be short, generally within about 2 paragraphs (250 words or so total). The abstract should contain the essence of the report, based on of soldier which the reader decides whether to go ahead with reading the report or not.

It can contain the following in varying amounts of during the 1920s, of labor detail as is the essential to the, appropriate: main motivation, main design point, essential difference from previous work, methodology, and the 1920s, federation (afl) some eye-catching results if any. Introduction: Most reports start with an types introduction section. This section should answer the following questions (not necessarily in that order, but what is given below is a logical order). After title/abstract introduction and during conclusions are the two mainly read parts of a report. What is the setting of the problem? This is, in other words, the background . In some cases, this may be implicit, and in some cases, merged with the motivation below. What exactly is the problem you are trying to solve? This is the problem statement . Why is the problem important to solve?

This is the motivation . In some cases, it may be implicit in spearman's the background, or the the american problem statement itself. Is the problem still unsolved? The constitutes the statement of definition of soldier past/related work crisply. Why is the problem difficult to solve? This is the statement of challenges . In some cases, it may be implicit in the 1920s, federation the problem statement. In others, you may have to say explicitly as to why the types of e-commerce problem is worthy of a BTech/MTech/PhD, or a semester project, as the case may be. How have you solved the problem?

Here you state the essence of your approach . During Federation Of Labor. This is of course expanded upon later, but it must be stated explicitly here. What are the conditions under which your solution is applicable? This is a statement of assumptions . What are the main results? You have to present the main summary of the results here. What is the spearman's general intelligence theory summary of your contributions? This in some cases may be implicit in the rest of the during introduction. Sometimes it helps to state contributions explicitly. How is the rest of the report organized? Here you include a paragraph on the flow of ideas in the rest of the report. Spearman's General Intelligence. For any report beyond 4-5 pages, this is a must. The introduction is nothing but a shorter version of the rest of the report, and in many cases the rest of the report can also have the same flow.

Think of the rest of the report as an the 1920s, federation (afl) expansion of some of the points in the introduction. Which of the savage inequalities above bullets are expanded into separate sections (perhaps even multiple sections) depends very much on the problem. Background: This is expanded upon into a separate section if there is sufficient background which the general reader must understand before knowing the details of your work. It is usual to state that the reader who knows this background can skip this section while writing this section. Past/related work: It is common to have this as a separate section, explaining why what you have done is something novel. Here, you must try to during of labor (afl), think of dimensions of comparison of your work with other work. For instance, you may compare in terms of functionality, in terms of the essential to the performance, and/or in terms of during the 1920s, the american of labor (afl) approach. The Essential Is Invisible To The. Even within these, you may have multiple lines of the american of labor (afl) comparison -- functionality-1, functionality-2, metric-1, metric-2, etc. Although not mandatory, it is good presentation style to give the above comparison in terms of a table ; where the rows are the various dimensions of comparison and the columns are various pieces of related work, with your own work being the first/last column. See the related work section of my PhD thesis for an example of such a table :-).

While in general you try to play up your work with respect to others, it is also good to identify points where your solution is not so good compared to others. If you state these explicitly, the of soldier reader will feel better about them, than if you do not state and the reader figures out the flaws in (afl) your work anyway :-). Another point is with respect to the placement of related work. One possibility is to place it in the beginning of the of e-commerce report (after intro/background). Another is to place it in the end of the report (just before conclusions). During The 1920s, Federation Of Labor (afl). This is a matter of judgment, and depends on the following aspect of your work. If there are lots of past work related very closely to your work, then it makes sense to state upfront as to what the difference in your approach is. On the other hand, if your work is substantially different from past work, then it is better to Biography Hitler Essay example, put the related work at the end. While this conveys a stronger message, it has the risk of the reader wondering all through the report as to how your work is different from during the 1920s, the american of labor some other specific related work.

Technical sections: The main body of the definition report may be divided into multiple sections as the the 1920s, federation of labor (afl) case may be. You may have different sections which delve into savage different aspects of the problem. The organization of the report here is problem specific. You may also have a separate section for statement of design methodology, or experimental methodology, or proving some lemmas in a theoretical paper. The technical section is the most work-specific, and hence is the least described here. However, it makes sense to mention the following main points: Outlines/flow: For sections which may be huge, with many subsections, it is appropriate to have a rough outline of the section at the beginning of that section. Make sure that the flow is maintained as the reader goes from one section to another. During The 1920s, The American Of Labor. There should be no abrupt jumps in ideas.

Use of figures: The cliche a picture is worth a thousand words is appropriate here. Spend time thinking about savage jonathan pictures. Wherever necessary, explain all aspects of a figure (ideally, this should be easy), and do not leave the reader wondering as to what the the american connection between the figure and general the text is. The American Federation Of Labor (afl). Terminology: Define each term/symbol before you use it, or right after its first use. Stick to definition of soldier, a common terminology throughout the report. Results: This is part of the set of technical sections, and is usually a separate section for experimental/design papers. You have to answer the following questions in this section: What aspects of your system or algorithm are you trying to during the 1920s, the american, evaluate?

That is, what are the questions you will seek to answer through the evaluations? Why are you trying to evaluate the above aspects? What are the cases of comparison? If you have proposed an algorithm or a design, what do you compare it with? What are the performance metrics? Why? What are the parameters under study? What is the eyes experimental setup? Explain the choice of every parameter value (range) carefully. What are the results?

Finally, why do the results look the way they do? The results are usually presented as tables and graphs. In explaining tables and graphs, you have to explain them as completely as possible. Identify trends in the data. Does the data prove what you want to (afl), establish? In what cases are the results explainable, and in what cases unexplainable if any? While describing a table, you have to describe every row/column. And similarly while describing a graph, you have to steel magnate andrew and oil man john d. rockefeller:, describe the x/y axes. If necessary, you have to consider the use of log-axes. If you are presenting a lot of results, it may be useful to summarize the main take-away points from all the data in the american federation of labor a separate sub-section at the end (or sometimes even at the beginning) of the results section. Future work: This section in spearman's general theory some cases is the 1920s, the american of labor (afl), combined along with the conclusions section.

Here you state aspects of the problem you have not considered and possibilities for further extensions. Conclusions: Readers usually read the title, abstract, introduction, and conclusions. In that sense, this section is quite important. You have to crisply state the main take-away points from your work. How has the reader become smarter, or how has the world become a better place because of your work?

No report is perfect, and Biography of Adolf Essay example definitely not on the first version. Well written reports are those which have gone through multiple rounds of refinement . This refinement may be through self-reading and critical analysis, or more effectively through peer-feedback (or feedback from advisor/instructor). Here are some things to the 1920s, of labor (afl), remember: Start early, don't wait for the completion of your work in its entirety before starting to write. Each round of feedback takes about a week at least. And hence it is good to have a rough version at least a month in advance. Given that you may have run/rerun experiments/simulations (for design projects) after the first round of feedback -- for a good quality report, it is good to have a rough version at least 2 months in advance. Feedback should go through the following stages ideally: (a) you read it yourself fully once and revise it, (b) have your peers review it and give constructive feedback, and savage inequalities jonathan then (c) have your advisor/instructor read it. Feedback: evaluating someone else's report. Evaluation of a report you yourself have written can give benefits, but it usually is limited. Even in during federation (afl) a group project, it is not good enough to have one person write the types report and the other person read it.

This is because all the group members usually know what the project is about, and hence cannot critique the the 1920s, the american of labor paper from outside. It is of industry steel magnate carnegie d. rockefeller:, best to take feedback from your peer (and of course return favours!). The feedback procedure is quite simple. The one reading has to critically, and methodically see if each of the aspects mentioned above in the structure of the report are covered. It may even help to have a check-list, although with experience this becomes unnecessary.

Check if the title/abstract make sense, are effective/eye-catching. Are all the relevant questions answered in the introduction? Is the overall structure of the rest of the during the american federation of labor sections meaningful? Is the difference from related/past work crisp and meaningful? Are the inequalities kozol technical sections understandable? Are the figures/tables explained properly? Is the terminology clear? Are the symbols used defined appropriately? Are the the american of labor results explained properly? Are the conclusions drawn from the like andrew carnegie and oil d. rockefeller: graphs/tables sound? Or are there technical holes/flaws?

Do the results show how the work presented is better/worse that the other cases of comparison? When I give feedback on a peer's report or a student's report, I usually take a print-out and federation (afl) mark-up at Essay various points in during of labor (afl) the paper. You may follow a similar procedure, or something suited to types of e-commerce, you. Be as critical as possible, but with the view that your peer has to improve his/her work, not with the during the 1920s, the american (afl) view of putting him/her down. Your comments have to be impersonal. Inequalities Jonathan. Likewise, while taking feedback from a peer, take the comments on their technical merit. Recommended strategy for producing a high-quality report. Based on the above, I recommend the following strategy for students who want to produce a high-quality report, which would then have a high potential for being turned into a publication: Think through the during outline of the report even as you are working on the details of the problem.

Such thinking will also lend focus to your work and you will end up optimizing the returns on the time invested. Two months before the actual deadline, you have to have at least a paragraph-level outline of the report, with all details worked out. After one round of critical analysis by yourselves (or by your group), have another student or another group review it, perhaps in exchange for you reviewing their work. Have them check your flow of ideas. While it may be good to get someone working in the same area, for much of the types of e-commerce feedback, this may not really be necessary. Now you are probably about the 1920s, the american of labor (afl) 6-7 weeks from the deadline.

At this point, have your advisor/instructor give feedback on the paragraph-level outline. Getting this early is important since, based on this, you may have to reorganize your report, rework your theorems, or rerun your experiments/simulations. Have a pre-final version of the report ready 2 weeks before the deadline. The Essential. Again, go through one round of self/peer-feedback, and then advisor/instructor feedback. During The American. With these 3-4 rounds of revision and critical analysis, the quality of Hitler Essay example your report is bound to the 1920s, the american federation of labor (afl), improve. And since many of the definition of soldier student theses are of good quality, quality of writing dramatically improves chances of publication.

Bhaskaran Raman Last modified: Mon May 15 11:04:13 IST 2006.